Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the power profile of U23 professional cyclists during a competitive season based on maximal mean power output (MMP) and derived critical power (CP) and work capacity above CP (W′) obtained during training and racing. Methods: A total of 13 highly trained U23 professional cyclists (age = 21.1 [1.2] y, maximum oxygen consumption = 73.8 [1.9] mL·kg–1·min–1) participated in this study. The cycling season was split into pre-season and in-season. In-season was divided into early-, mid-, and late-season periods. During pre-season, a CP test was completed to derive CPtest and W′test. In addition, 2-, 5-, and 12-minute MMP during in-season were used to derive CPfield and W′field. Results: There were no significant differences in absolute 2-, 5-, and 12-minute MMP, CPfield, and W′field between in-season periods. Due to changes in body mass, relative 12-minute MMP was higher in late-season compared with early-season (P = .025), whereas relative CPfield was higher in mid- and late-season (P = .031 and P = .038, respectively) compared with early-season. There was a strong correlation (r = .77–.83) between CPtest and CPfield in early- and mid-season but not late-season. Bland–Altman plots and standard error of estimates showed good agreement between CPtest and in-season CPfield but not between W′test and W′field. Conclusion: These findings reveal that the power profile remains unchanged throughout the in-season, except for relative 12-minute MMP and CPfield in late-season. One pre-season and one in-season CP test are recommended to evaluate in-season CPfield and W′field.
Peter Leo, James Spragg, Iñigo Mujika, Verena Menz, and Justin S. Lawley
Patrick C. Maughan, Niall G. MacFarlane, and Paul A. Swinton
Purpose: To quantify and describe relationships between subjective and external measures of training load in professional youth soccer players. Methods: Data from differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) and 7 measures of external training load were collected from 20 professional youth soccer players over a 46-week season. Relationships were described by repeated-measures correlation, principal component analysis, and factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Significant positive (.44 ≤ r ≤ .99; P < .001) within-individual correlations were obtained across dRPE and all external training load measures. Correlation magnitudes were found to decrease when training load variables were expressed per minute. Principal component analysis provided 2 components, which described 83.3% of variance. The first component, which described 72.9% of variance, was heavily loaded by all measures of training load, while the second component, which described 10.4% of the variance, appeared to have a split between objective and subjective measures of volume and intensity. Exploratory factor analysis identified 4 theoretical factors, with correlations between factors ranging from .5 to .8. These factors could be theoretically described as objective volume, subjective volume, objective running, and objective high-intensity measures. Removing dRPE measures from the analysis altered the structure of the model, providing a 3-factor solution. Conclusions: The dRPE measures are significantly correlated with a range of external training load measures and with each other. More in-depth analysis showed that dRPE measures were highly related to each other, suggesting that, in this population, they would provide practitioners with similar information. Further analysis provided characteristic groupings of variables.
Thimo Wiewelhove, Constantin Thase, Marcel Glahn, Anthony Hessel, Christoph Schneider, Laura Hottenrott, Tim Meyer, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, and Alexander Ferrauti
Purpose: To identify whether the use of active recovery (ACT) the day after high-intensity interval training (HIIT) benefits recovery and to assess whether individual responses to ACT are repeatable. Methods: Eleven well-trained, male intermittent-sport athletes (age: 25.5 ± 1.8 y) completed 4 HIIT sessions, each separated by a 2-week washout period. Of the 4 sessions, 2 were followed by passive recovery (PAS) and 2 by 60 minutes of moderate biking (ACT) 24 hours postexercise in the following sequences: ACT→PAS→ACT→PAS or PAS→ACT→PAS→ACT. Before and after HIIT and after 24 and 48 hours of recovery, maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC), countermovement jump height (CMJ), tensiomyographic markers of muscle fatigue (TMG), serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness (MS), and perceived stress state (PS) were determined. Results: A 3-way repeated-measure analysis of variance with a triple-nested random effects model revealed a significant (P < .05) fatigue-related time effect of HIIT on markers of fatigue (MVIC↓; CMJ↓; TMG↑; CK↑; MS↑; PS↑). No significant (P > .05) main effect of recovery strategy was detected. In 9 subjects, the individual results revealed inconsistent and nonrepeatable responses to ACT, while a consistent and repeatable positive or negative response to ACT was found in 2 individuals. Conclusions: The repeated failure of ACT to limit the severity of fatigue was found both at the group level and with most individuals. However, a small percentage of athletes may be more likely to benefit repeatedly from either ACT or PAS. Therefore, the use of ACT should be individualized.
Brandon J. Shad, Janice L. Thompson, James Mckendry, Andrew M. Holwerda, Yasir S. Elhassan, Leigh Breen, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Gareth A. Wallis
The impact of resistance exercise frequency on muscle protein synthesis rates remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates over a 7-day period of low-frequency (LF) versus high-frequency (HF) resistance exercise training. Nine young men (21 ± 2 years) completed a 7-day period of habitual physical activity (BASAL). This was followed by a 7-day exercise period of volume-matched, LF (10 × 10 repetitions at 70% one-repetition maximum, once per week) or HF (2 × 10 repetitions at ∼70% one-repetition maximum, five times per week) resistance exercise training. The participants had one leg randomly allocated to LF and the other to HF. Skeletal muscle biopsies and daily saliva samples were collected to determine myofibrillar protein synthesis rates using 2H2O, with intracellular signaling determined using Western blotting. The myofibrillar protein synthesis rates did not differ between the LF (1.46 ± 0.26%/day) and HF (1.48 ± 0.33%/day) conditions over the 7-day exercise training period (p > .05). There were no significant differences between the LF and HF conditions over the first 2 days (1.45 ± 0.41%/day vs. 1.25 ± 0.46%/day) or last 5 days (1.47 ± 0.30%/day vs. 1.50 ± 0.41%/day) of the exercise training period (p > .05). Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were not different from BASAL at any time point during LF or HF (p > .05). The phosphorylation status and total protein content of selected proteins implicated in skeletal muscle ribosomal biogenesis were not different between conditions (p > .05). Under the conditions of the present study, resistance exercise training frequency did not modulate daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in young men.
Matías Henríquez, Aitor Iturricastillo, Arturo González-Olguín, Felipe Herrera, Sonny Riquelme, and Raul Reina
This study compared physical performance in a group of international cerebral palsy football players during two formats of small-sided games (SSGs) and performance in a simulated game (SG) according to players’ sport classes (FT1, FT2, and FT3). Internal load (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) and external load (total distance, distance covered at different velocities, maximum speed reached, acceleration, and deceleration) were obtained with global positioning system devices during two formats of SSGs (2-a-side/SSG2 and 4-a-side/SSG4) and an SG (7-a-side). SSG2 demands faster actions compared with SSG4/SG, and significant differences and large effect sizes were found in the distance covered in Speed Zones 5 (16.0−17.9 km/hr) and 6 (>18.0 km/hr; p < .05;
Gabriella Whitcomb-Khan, Nick Wadsworth, Kristin McGinty-Minister, Stewart Bicker, Laura Swettenham, and David Tod
This study explored the experiences of elite athletes during the initial stages of lockdown as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The eight recruited participants (three females, five males) were asked to tell a story of their lockdown experience. Narrative analysis was used to explore the athletes’ stories. The athletes’ narrative is best represented in four distinct sections: (a) threat to goals, (b) ongoing consequences, (c) overcoming COVID-19, and (d) adapting to COVID-19. Four narrative themes were also coconstructed from the athletes’ stories: (a) factors athletes found challenging, (b) loss, (c) strategies that benefitted athletes psychologically, and (d) silver linings. Combined, these findings suggest that the initial stages of lockdown are best described as a critical pause. The authors present applied implications for athletes and sport psychology practitioners. The authors also recommend that future research investigate the longitudinal effect of prolonged lockdown on athletes’ lives and a potential return to sport.
Laura Prieto, Michael L. Norris, and Luis Columna
The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of people with Parkinson’s (PwP) and their care partners (CPs) who participated in a Parkinson’s-focused community dance class in a northeastern state of the United States. In this qualitative inquiry, participants included five PwP and their respective CPs (n = 5). Three major, recurrent, and interrelated themes emerged from the data. These themes were (a) keep moving, (b) compassion in action, and (c) acceptance and freedom in dance. These themes captured personal and environmental factors that influenced the participation of PwP and their CPs in a dance class and how they perceived that dance influenced their quality of life. The themes described the obstacles, motives, and perceived outcomes of participating in dance. The findings emphasize the need for future dance interventions and programs that consider the CPs’ role in promoting participation for PwP in dance classes.
Luca Cavaggioni, Athos Trecroci, Damiano Formenti, Luke Hogarth, Massimiliano Tosin, and Giampietro Alberti
The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in breathing pattern, trunk muscle stabilization, and upper-body muscular power in Paralympic swimmers throughout a competitive season over three time points: October (T1), March (T2), and August (T3). Six top-level Paralympic swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. The Friedman test, the Bonferroni–Dunn multiple comparison post hoc analysis, and Kendall’s W concordance coefficient for the measure of effect were used. A significant difference was found in the breathing pattern, trunk stability, and upper-body power variables from the T1 to T3 season (p < .05). However, no significant changes were found in the T2 season. A long-term assessment of these fitness parameters may be of practical importance for better tailoring the training programs of top-level Paralympic swimmers.
K. Andrew R. Richards, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Shelby E. Ison, and Chad M. Killian
Purpose: To examine the workplace experience of physical education teacher educators while accounting for gender and institution type. Method: Participants included 286 U.S. faculty members (151 females and 135 males). Data were collected using an online survey that included measures of negative (i.e., marginalization, isolation, role stress, emotional exhaustion) and positive (i.e., perceived mattering, perceived organizational support) workplace experiences. Primary analyses began with a multivariate analysis of covariance followed up by univariate analyses of covariance to examine the differences in study variables based on gender and institution type. Results: Doctoral institution faculty members reported higher marginalization and lower perceived mattering and organizational support. Female faculty members reported higher role overload and emotional exhaustion. Discussion: Results highlight differences in the faculty experience across institution types as well as gender disparities. Recommendations are provided for improving the faculty experience as well as for future research in the area.