The current study examined how a perceived neighborhood environment was associated with older adults’ walking activity and the experience of positive affect. Study sample comprised 10,700 older adults, aged 65+, sampled from the Health and Retirement Study 2014–2015 in the United States. Results indicated that neighborhood social cohesion was significantly predicting older adults’ walking and positive affect. It was also revealed that walking engagement significantly contributed to the measure of positive affect. However, perceived neighborhood physical disorder did not account for additional variance in walking and positive affect. Final structural model involved three latent factors—neighborhood social cohesion, walking, and positive affect—and the goodness-of-fit indices of the model indicated an acceptable fit to the sample data. Public health and physical activity intervention in the context of neighborhood environment should facilitate social integration and informal social support that the neighborhood creates.
Sophie E. Claudel, Kosuke Tamura, James Troendle, Marcus R. Andrews, Joniqua N. Ceasar, Valerie M. Mitchell, Nithya Vijayakumar, and Tiffany M. Powell-Wiley
There is no established method for processing data from commercially available physical activity trackers. This study aims to develop a standardized approach to defining valid wear time for use in future interventions and analyses. Sixteen African American women (mean age = 62.1 years and mean body mass index = 35.5 kg/m2) wore the Fitbit Charge 2 for 20 days. Method 1 defined a valid day as ≥10-hr wear time with heart rate data. Method 2 removed minutes without heart rate data, minutes with heart rate ≤ mean − 2 SDs below mean and ≤2 steps, and nighttime. Linear regression modeled steps per day per week change. Using Method 1 (n = 292 person-days), participants had 20.5 (SD = 4.3) hr wear time per day compared with 16.3 (SD = 2.2) hr using Method 2 (n = 282) (p < .0001). With Method 1, participants took 7,436 (SD = 3,543) steps per day compared with 7,298 (SD = 3,501) steps per day with Method 2 (p = .64). The proposed algorithm represents a novel approach to standardizing data generated by physical activity trackers. Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of physical activity data sets.
David Cassilo and Danielle Sarver Coombs
The Pakistan Super League launched in 2016 with massive enthusiasm in its “cricket-mad” nation. However, safety concerns stemming from a 2009 terrorist attack in Lahore, Pakistan, meant all matches were played in the United Arab Emirates until the tournament’s final game in 2017—the ultimate test in seeing if top-level cricket could return to Pakistan. In this study, the authors examine framing of the creation in 2013 and first 2 years of the Pakistan Super League from news sources in Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. This study offers an opportunity to understand how Middle Eastern sport and the sport’s connection to national identity are framed in the media across multiple countries during a pivotal time for cricket in Pakistan.
Rasmus T. Larsen, Christoffer B. Korfitsen, Carsten B. Juhl, Henning Boje Andersen, Henning Langberg, and Jan Christensen
Aim: To investigate the concurrent validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) and the Nordic Physical Activity Questionnaire-short (NPAQ-short) when compared with objectively measured daily steps among older adults. Methods: Spearman’s ρ between IPAQ-SF and NPAQ-short and objectively measured steps using Garmin Vivofit 3 physical activity monitors. Results: A total of 54 participants were included. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ moderate physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time showed little or no correlation with daily steps. The NPAQ-short subscales’ vigorous PA, moderate PA, and MVPA showed little or no correlation. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ vigorous PA and walking showed fair correlation. Only the IPAQ-SF metabolic equivalent of task minutes showed moderate to good correlation with daily steps. The IPAQ-SF categories and NPAQ-short categorization of World Health Organization compliance were significantly different, but the magnitudes were small and distributions indicated problems with the categorization. Conclusion: The concurrent validity is low, as the scores did not reflect objectively measured daily steps.
Richard J. Paulsen
This paper uses Major League Baseball data to examine the relationship between years remaining on player contracts and player performance. There is a potential for moral hazard to arise in this principal–agent relationship as the player may choose a less than optimal level of effort from the perspective of team management when the player has many guaranteed years remaining. A player fixed-effects estimation strategy, which finds a significant negative relationship between years remaining and performance, is employed. The primary contribution of this work is to show that this relationship is due to shirking. Alternative explanations for this relationship, such as teams signing improving players to multiyear contracts or players facing an adjustment process when joining a new team, are addressed. Additional evidence which is consistent with shirking behavior shows that shirking occurs on offense, not defense, and for position players, not pitchers.
Yoke Leng Ng, Keith D. Hill, Pazit Levinger, and Elissa Burton
The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of outdoor exercise park equipment on physical activity levels, physical function, psychosocial outcomes, and quality of life of older adults living in the community and to evaluate the evidence of older adults’ use of outdoor exercise park equipment. A search strategy was conducted from seven databases. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria. The study quality results were varied. Meta-analyses were undertaken for two physical performance tests: 30-s chair stand test and single-leg stance. The meta-analysis results were not statistically significant. It was not possible to conclude whether exercise parks were effective at improving levels of physical activity. The review shows that older adults value the benefits of health and social interaction from the use of exercise parks. Findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample sizes and the limited number of studies.
Angela T. Burge, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Anne E. Holland, Michael J. Abramson, Christine F. McDonald, Ajay Mahal, Catherine J. Hill, Annemarie L. Lee, Narelle S. Cox, Aroub Lahham, Rosemary Moore, Caroline Nicolson, Paul O’Halloran, Rebecca Gillies, and Sebastien F.M. Chastin
Background: Physical activity levels are low in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and there is limited knowledge about how pulmonary rehabilitation transforms movement behaviors. This study analyzed data from a pulmonary rehabilitation trial and identified determinants of movement behaviors. Methods: Objectively assessed time in daily movement behaviors (sleep, sedentary, light-intensity physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity) from a randomized controlled trial (n = 73 participants) comparing home- and center-based pulmonary rehabilitation was analyzed using conventional and compositional analytical approaches. Regression analysis was used to assess relationships between movement behaviors, participant features, and response to the interventions. Results: Compositional analysis revealed no significant differences in movement profiles between the home- and center-based groups. At end rehabilitation, conventional analyses identified positive relationships between exercise capacity (6-min walk distance), light-intensity physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity time. Compositional analyses identified positive relationships between a 6-minute walk distance and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity time, accompanied by negative relationships with sleep and sedentary time (relative to other time components) and novel relationships between body mass index and light-intensity physical activity/sedentary time. Conclusion: Compositional analyses following pulmonary rehabilitation identified unique associations between movement behaviors that were not evident in conventional analyses.
Leila Hedayatrad, Tom Stewart, and Scott Duncan
Introduction: Accelerometers are commonly used to assess time-use behaviors related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep; however, as new accelerometer technologies emerge, it is important to ensure consistency with previous devices. This study aimed to evaluate the concurrent validity of the commonly used accelerometer, ActiGraph GT3X+, and the relatively new Axivity AX3 (fastened to the lower back) for detecting physical activity intensity and body postures when using direct observation as the criterion measure. Methods: A total of 41 children (aged 6–16 years) and 33 adults (aged 28–59 years) wore both monitors concurrently while performing 10 prescribed activities under laboratory conditions. The GT3X+ data were categorized into different physical activity intensity and posture categories using intensity-based cut points and ActiGraph proprietary inclinometer algorithms, respectively. The AX3 data were first converted to ActiGraph counts before being categorized into different physical activity intensity categories, while activity recognition models were used to detect the target postures. Sensitivity, specificity, and the balanced accuracy for intensity and posture category classification were calculated for each accelerometer. Differences in balanced accuracy between the devices and between children and adults were also calculated. Results: Both accelerometers obtained 74–96% balanced accuracy, with the AX3 performing slightly better (∼4% higher, p < .01) for detecting postures and physical activity intensity. Error in both devices was greatest when contrasting sitting/standing, sedentary/light intensity, and moderate/light intensity. Conclusion: In comparison with the GT3X+ accelerometer, AX3 was able to detect various postures and activity intensities with slightly higher balanced accuracy in children and adults.
John F.T. Fernandes, Kevin L. Lamb, Jonathan P. Norris, Jason Moran, Benjamin Drury, Nattai R. Borges, and Craig Twist
Aging is anecdotally associated with a prolonged recovery from resistance training, though current literature remains equivocal. This brief review considers the effects of resistance training on indirect markers of muscle damage and recovery (i.e., muscle soreness, blood markers, and muscle strength) in older males. With no date restrictions, four databases were searched for articles relating to aging, muscle damage, and recovery. Data from 11 studies were extracted for review. Of these, four reported worse symptoms in older compared with younger populations, while two have observed the opposite, and the remaining studies (n = 6) proposed no differences between age groups. It appears that resistance training can be practiced in older populations without concern for impaired recovery. To improve current knowledge, researchers are urged to utilize more ecologically valid muscle-damaging bouts and investigate the mechanisms which underpin the recovery of muscle soreness and strength after exercise in older populations.
Anna M.J. Iveson, Malcolm H. Granat, Brian M. Ellis, and Philippa M. Dall
Objective: Global positioning system (GPS) data can add context to physical activity data and have previously been integrated with epoch-based physical activity data. The current study aimed to develop a framework for integrating GPS data and event-based physical activity data (suitable for assessing patterns of behavior). Methods: A convenience data set of concurrent GPS (AMOD) and physical activity (activPAL) data were collected from 69 adults. The GPS data were (semi)regularly sampled every 5 s. The physical activity data output was presented as walking events, which are continuous periods of walking with a time-stamped start time and duration (to nearest 0.1 s). The GPS outcome measures and the potential correspondence of their timing with walking events were identified and a framework was developed describing data integration for each combination of GPS outcome and walking event correspondence. Results: The GPS outcome measures were categorized as those deriving from a single GPS point (e.g., location) or from the difference between successive GPS points (e.g., distance), and could be categorical, scale, or rate outcomes. Walking events were categorized as having zero (13% of walking events, 3% of walking duration), or one or more (52% of walking events, 75% of walking duration) GPS points occurring during the event. Additionally, some walking events did not have GPS points suitably close to allow calculation of outcome measures (31% of walking events, 22% of walking duration). The framework required different integration approaches for each GPS outcome type, and walking events containing zero or more than one GPS points.