Purpose: To analyze the predictive value of parameters of submaximal and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise performance on International Ski Federation (Fédération Internationale de Ski) World Cup ranking (FIS ranking) in elite Austrian Alpine skiers. Methods: Over 7 World Cup seasons (2012–2018), exercise data (maximal oxygen uptake and maximum power output, lactate threshold 2, and ventilatory threshold 2, based on stepwise cycle spiroergometry) were analyzed to determine whether there was a correlation between world FIS ranking and exercise capacity of male and female elite Alpine skiers. Results: The data of 39 male skiers (age: 27.67 [4.20] y, body mass index: 26.03 [1.25] kg/m2) and 36 female skiers (age: 25.49 [3.18] y, body mass index: 22.97 [1.71] kg/m2) were included in this study. The maximum oxygen uptake and maximum power output ranged from 4.37 to 4.42 W/kg and 53.41 to 54.85 mL/kg/min in men and from 4.17 to 4.30 W/kg and 45.96 to 49.16 mL/kg/min in women, respectively, over the 7 seasons; the yearly mean FIS ranking ranged from 17 to 24 in men and 9 to 18 in women. In a fixed-effects model used for the subsequent panel regression analysis, no statistically significant effect on FIS ranking was found for the exercise parameters of interest. Conclusions: Neither maximal aerobic tests nor maximum power output significantly predicted competitive performance, as indexed by the FIS ranking. This reinforces the assumption that no single parameter determines competition performance in this complex sport. Therefore, identifying the optimum amount of endurance training remains a major challenge for athletes and coaches, as does identifying and improving the factors that determine performance.
Wolfgang Schobersberger, Michael Mairhofer, Simon Haslinger, Arnold Koller, Christian Raschner, Sibylle Puntscher, and Cornelia Blank
Manuel Santiago Martin, Fernando Pareja Blanco, and Eduardo Saez De Villarreal
Purpose: This study aimed to compare the effects of 5 different 18-week in-season strength training programs on strength gains and specific water polo performance. Methods: A total of 56 young male water polo players were randomly assigned to the following 5 training groups: dry-land strength training, in-water-specific strength training, combined (dry-land and in-water) strength training, ballistic training, and eccentric-overload training. Physical performance was assessed before (Pre) and after (Post) the training period using the following battery of tests: in-water boost and countermovement jump, muscle strength in bench-press and full-squat, throwing speed (ThS), in-water agility, and 20-m maximal sprint swim. Results: Significant group × time interactions were observed for countermovement jump and in-water boost. Eccentric-overload training showed significantly higher gains in ThS and bench-press and full-squat strength than the rest of the training groups. In addition, all training groups (except in-water-specific strength training) induced significant improvements (P ≤ .05) in countermovement jump, in-water boost, and bench-press and full-squat strength. All training groups significantly increased (P ≤ .001) ThS. Moreover, all training groups improved (P ≤ .05) in-water agility (except dry-land strength training) and swimming sprint performance (except in-water-specific strength training and ballistic training). Conclusion: The findings indicate that the 18-week in-season strength training programs induced improvements in strength and specific water polo skills. The eccentric-overload training resulted in greater improvements in muscle strength (in both upper and lower body) and ThS than the other training methods examined in the study.
Simon A. Feros, Kris Hinck, and Jake Dwyer
Purpose: This study investigated the acute warm-up effects of modified-implement bowling on bowling speed, accuracy, perceived rhythm and perceived sensation with a regular ball. Methods: A total of 13 male amateur pace bowlers completed 3 sessions in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each session comprised a warm-up of 21 progressive-effort deliveries with either a regular (156 g), 10% heavier (171.6 g), or 10% lighter (140.4 g) cricket ball followed by a 4-over pace-bowling assessment with a regular ball. Bowling speed was assessed with a radar gun, while accuracy was calculated via the radial error. Subjects rated their perceived exertion (0%–100%), rhythm (1–5 Likert scale), and sensation (1–5 Likert scale) after each delivery. Results: The linear mixed models revealed a significant effect for warm-up condition on perceived delivery sensation (F 2,916.404 = 24.137, P < .001), with a significant pairwise difference between the regular- and heavier-ball warm-up conditions of 0.20 ± 0.07 points (estimated marginal mean ± 95% confidence interval, P < .001). There were no statistically significant effects for warm-up condition on bowling speed, accuracy, and perceived delivery rhythm. Conclusions: These findings indicate that although the regular ball felt lighter to bowl with after using the heavier ball, there were no overall potentiating or detrimental effects of using this particular modified-implement warm-up on bowling speed, accuracy, and perceived rhythm in amateur pace bowlers. Future research is encouraged to trial other protocols for eliciting potentiation to ultimately enhance bowling speed in training or in shorter match formats (eg, Twenty20).
Alexandru Nicolae Ungureanu, Paolo Riccardo Brustio, Gennaro Boccia, Alberto Rainoldi, and Corrado Lupo
Purpose: To evaluate if the internal training load (ITL; Edwards heart rate [HR]-based and session-rating of perceived exertion [RPE] methods) is affected by the presession well-being perception, age, and position in elite (ie, Serie A2) female volleyball training. Methods: Twelve female elite volleyball players (age: 22  y, height: 1.80 [0.06] m, body mass: 74.1 [4.3] kg) were monitored using an HR monitor during 32 team training sessions (duration: 1:36:12 [0:22:24], in h:min:s). Linear mixed-effects models were applied to evaluate if well-being perception (ie, perceived sleep quality/disorders, stress level, fatigue, and delayed-onset muscle soreness) may affect ITL depending on age and tactical position. Results: Presession perceived fatigue influenced ITL according to the session-RPE (P = .032) but not according to the Edwards method. Age was inversely correlated to the Edwards method (P < .001) and directly correlated to the session-RPE (P = .027). Finally, central blockers experienced a higher training load than hitters (P < .001) and liberos (P < .001) for the Edwards method, as well as higher than hitters (P < .001), liberos (P = .003), and setters (P = .008) for session-RPE. Conclusions: Findings indicated that female volleyball players’ perceived ITL is influenced by presession well-being status, age, and position. Therefore, coaches can benefit from this information to specifically predict players’ ITL in relation to their individual characteristics.
Clayton Kuklick, Stephen Harvey, and Roch King
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the influences of a 4-year university-based coach development curriculum on coaching-students’ habitus. The occupational socialization framework and Bourdieu’s theory of practice were used to capture the socialization factors that influence how coaching habitus remain continuous or are modified across the temporal phases of coaching-students’ socialization (i.e., acculturation and preservice professionalization). Data were collected through interviews, interview reflections, and coaching philosophies, which were analyzed and compared across entering (ENCS; n = 23) and exiting (XCS; n = 10) cohorts. Habitus formation, enacting coaching habitus, and influences on coaching habitus were the main themes. XCS differed from ENCS by utilizing individualized instructional coaching, planning and programming, various methods of coaching, and reflection and lifelong learning as key strategies to enact their habitus, which showed the influence of preservice professionalization on gaining cultural capital in the coaching field. The findings provide support for how practicum cites, course content, and coach developers within the curriculum influenced coaching-students’ habitus. This research offers novel insights in regard to the approaches used in the curriculum, the integration of occupational socialization and Bourdieu’s theory of practice frameworks, and the cross-comparative design for analyzing programmatic effectiveness.
Simon J. de Waal, Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Rachel E. Venter, and Robert P. Lamberts
Purpose: To provide a systematic overview of physiological parameters used to determine the training status of a trail runner and how well these parameters correlate with real-world trail running performance. Method: An electronic literature search of the PubMed and Scopus digital databases was performed. Combinations of the terms “trail run” or “trail runner” or “trail running” and “performance” were used as search terms. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Trail running performance most commonly correlated (mean [SD]) with maximal aerobic capacity (71%; r = −.50 [.32]), lactate threshold (57%; r = −.48 [.28]), velocity at maximal aerobic capacity (43%; r = −.68 [.08]), running economy (43%; r = −.31 [.22]), body fat percentage (43%; r = .55 [.21]), and age (43%; r = .52 [.14]). Regression analyses in 2 studies were based on a single variable predicting 48% to 60% of performance variation, whereas 5 studies included multiple variable regression analyses predicting 48% to 99% of performance variation. Conclusions: Trail running performance is multifaceted. The classic endurance model shows a weaker association with performance in trail running than in road running. Certain variables associated with trail running research (such as testing procedures, race profiles, and study participants) hinder the execution of comparative studies. Future research should employ trail-specific testing protocols and clear, objective descriptions of both the race profile and participants’ training status.
Dale R. Wagner and James D. Cotter
Ultrasound is an appealing tool to assess body composition, combining the portability of a field method with the accuracy of a laboratory method. However, unlike other body composition methods, the effect of hydration status on validity is unknown. This study evaluated the impact of acute hydration changes on ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat thickness and estimates of body fat percentage. In a crossover design, 11 adults (27.1 ± 10.5 years) completed dehydration and hyperhydration trials to alter body mass by approximately ±2%. Dehydration was achieved via humid heat (40 °C, 60% relative humidity) with exercise, whereas hyperhydration was via ingestion of lightly salted water. Ultrasound measurements were taken at 11 body sites before and after each treatment. Participants lost 1.56 ± 0.58 kg (−2.0 ± 0.6%) during the dehydration trial and gained 0.90 ± 0.21 kg (1.2 ± 0.2%) during the hyperhydration trial even after urination. The sum of fat thicknesses as measured by ultrasound differed by <0.90 mm across trials (p = .588), and ultrasound estimates of body fat percentage differed by <0.5% body fat. Ultrasound measures of subcutaneous adipose tissue were unaffected by acute changes in hydration status by extents beyond which are rare and overtly self-correcting, suggesting that this method provides reliable and robust body composition results even when subjects are not euhydrated.
Marco Beato, Sergio Maroto-Izquierdo, Anthony N. Turner, and Chris Bishop
Due to the negative effects that injuries have on performance, club finances, and long-term player health (permanent disability after a severe injury), prevention strategies are an essential part of both sports medicine and performance. Purpose: To summarize the current evidence regarding strength training for injury prevention in soccer and to inform its evidence-based implementation in research and applied settings. Conclusions: The contemporary literature suggests that strength training, proposed as traditional resistance, eccentric, and flywheel training, may be a valid method to reduce injury risk in soccer players. Training strategies involving multiple components (eg, a combination of strength, balance, plyometrics) that include strength exercises are effective at reducing noncontact injuries in female soccer players. In addition, the body of research currently published supports the use of eccentric training in sports, which offers unique physiological responses compared with other resistance exercise modalities. It seems that the Nordic hamstring exercise, in particular, is a viable option for the reduction of hamstring injuries in soccer players. Moreover, flywheel training has specific training peculiarities and advantages that are related to the combination of both concentric and eccentric contraction, which may play an important role in injury prevention. It is the authors’ opinion that strength and conditioning coaches should integrate the strength training methods proposed here in their weekly training routine to reduce the likelihood of injuries in their players; however, further research is needed to verify the advantages and disadvantages of these training methods to injury prevention using specific cohorts of soccer players.
Pierre Trudel, Kyle Paquette, and Dan Lewis
Although high-performance (HP) coaches’ learning journeys are idiosyncratic and winding, most of these coaches share the characteristic of having rich experiences as athletes. Studies on the career transition of HP athletes to sports coaches reveal a sharp disagreement between these incoming coaches with their practice field experience and national governing bodies responsible for coach education programs about what is needed to be certified. This article presents a tailored initiative to support an HP athlete (Dan) in his process of “becoming” a certified HP coach in the Canadian context. This unique project took shape from a collaborative effort to combine elements of two opposing views on learning: off-the-job versus workplace learning. The article provides details on (a) the coaching context, (b) the main supportive others, and (c) the tools used to document the coaching topics that emerged from Dan’s coaching practice, as well as the learning material used, discussed, and created. When all the above content and materials were carefully organized and placed into folders, a unique “emerging curriculum” was formed and presented to the members of an evaluation committee who agreed that Dan met the HP coach certification criteria.
Christoph Szedlak, Jo Batey, Matthew J. Smith, and Matthew Church
This study aimed to examine elite, experienced strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches’ reflections on the effectiveness of psychosocial behaviors in S&C coaching. In particular, this study aimed to explore which psychosocial behaviors are essential, the process of how these might influence coaching practice, and how the development of psychosocial behaviors should be encouraged. Eight elite, experienced S&C coaches were recruited and partook in a semistructured interview. Using a reflexive thematic analysis, six themes were identified: understanding athlete’s needs, communicating effectively, caring and connecting with the athlete, practicing what you preach, the importance of reflective practice, and the contribution of formal training. The findings of this study enhance the literature by highlighting that elite, experienced S&C coaches perceive psychosocial behaviors to be essential in effective S&C coaching practice. In particular, the findings describe the processes of how identified psychosocial behaviors might positively influence athlete development by enhancing motivation, buy-in, and autonomy. In addition, the authors’ results suggest that current S&C coach development programs are limited in facilitating the learning of psychosocial behaviors. Thus, their findings strengthen the call for S&C coach educators to utilize constructivist learning strategies including facilitated reflection to encourage the development of essential psychosocial behaviors that contribute to the holistic development of the athlete.