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Jackson M. Howard, Bonnie C. Nicholson, Michael B. Madson, Richard S. Mohn, and Emily Bullock-Yowell

Due to demand for high performance inside and outside of the classroom, student-athletes are a unique subsection of college students. Researchers have focused on investigating protective factors, which may enhance student-athlete well-being and academic success in higher education and reduce athlete burnout. The current study examined grit as a mediator between parenting behaviors and academic success, mental health outcomes, and burnout in higher education among National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and Division II student-athletes (N = 202). Overparenting behaviors were negatively associated with psychological autonomy granting, mental health outcomes, and athlete burnout. Psychological autonomy granting behaviors were positively associated with grit and negatively associated with mental health outcomes and athlete burnout. Student-athlete grit mediated the relationship between overparenting behaviors and mental health outcomes. Clinical implications include improving student-athlete parent onboarding protocol; student-athlete psychoeducation; and preventative outreach and health promotion among athletes, athletic staff, and university practitioners. In summary, these findings suggest that parenting behaviors and grit are factors that require more attention in fostering student-athlete success.

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Elina Engberg, Marja H. Leppänen, Catharina Sarkkola, and Heli Viljakainen

Background: This study aimed to examine whether sedentary digital media use in preadolescence increases the risk of being overweight 3 years later, and whether this association differs based on preadolescents’ leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) levels. Methods: The authors conducted a 3-year follow-up study among 4661 participants with a mean (SD) age of 11 (1) years at baseline and 14 (1) years at follow-up. A web-based questionnaire assessed sedentary digital media use and LTPA. The authors categorized baseline LTPA duration into 3 levels: 0 to 5 (low), 6 to 8 (moderate), and ≥9 (high) hours per week. In addition, the authors categorized adolescents as normal weight or overweight/obese at follow-up. Results: Greater amounts of sedentary digital media use at baseline associated with an increased risk of being overweight 3 years later even after adjusting for confounders. This only held for preadolescents with low baseline LTPA (OR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.24), but not among those with moderate (OR = 1.02; 0.91–1.15) or high (OR = 0.96; 0.85–1.08) LTPA. Conclusions: Preadolescent LTPA modified the long-term association between sedentary digital media use and being overweight; specifically, 6 hours per week or more of LTPA mitigated the increased risk of being overweight associated with higher amounts of digital media use.

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Charline Madelaine, Nicolas Benguigui, and Michèle Molina

This review addresses the question of a possible specificity of motor development of preterm children with no diagnosis of neurological impairment or major cerebral lesion. With that goal, we proceed with a narrative review on the basis of nine studies. All the studies used standardized assessments of motor abilities with a comparison methodology of preterm and full-term groups aged between 3 and 8 years. The review stresses three major findings in the preterm groups as compared with the full-term groups: (a) inferior fine motor abilities; (b) heterogeneity in motor skills; and (c) differences in efficiency of cognitive, perceptual, and mobilization of perceptual motor processes, which do not necessarily result in lower scores in global performances. These findings suggest the need of long-term medical follow-up for all preterm children whether or not they are at risk for neurodevelopmental disorder. Focusing attention on the use of sensory information for motor control in preterm children could also lead to more precise evaluations of motor abilities, which will then provide more detailed parameters for improved learning and rehabilitation programs.

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Becky Breau, Berit Brandes, Marvin N. Wright, Christoph Buck, Lori Ann Vallis, and Mirko Brandes

This study explored the relationship between motor abilities and accelerometer-derived measures of physical activity (PA) within preschool-aged children. A total of 193 children (101 girls, 4.2 ± 0.7 years) completed five tests to assess motor abilities, shuttle run (SR), standing long jump, lateral jumping, one-leg stand, and sit and reach. Four PA variables derived from 7-day wrist-worn GENEActiv accelerometers were analyzed including moderate to vigorous PA (in minutes), total PA (in minutes), percentage of total PA time in moderate to vigorous PA, and whether or not children met World Health Organization guidelines for PA. Linear regressions were conducted to explore associations between each PA variable (predictor) and motor ability (outcome). Models were adjusted for age, sex, height, parental education, time spent at sports clubs, and wear time. Models with percentage of total PA time in moderate to vigorous PA were adjusted for percentage of total PA time. Regression analyses indicated that no PA variables were associated with any of the motor abilities, but demographic factors such as age (e.g., SR: ß = −0.45; 95% confidence interval [−1.64, −0.66]), parental education (e.g., SR: ß = 0.25; 95% confidence interval [0.11, 1.87]), or sports club time (e.g., SR: ß = −0.08; 95% confidence interval [−0.98, 0.26]) showed substantial associations with motor abilities. Model strength varied depending on the PA variable and motor ability entered. Results demonstrate that total PA and meeting current PA guidelines may be of importance for motor ability development and should be investigated further. Other covariates showed stronger associations with motor abilities such as time spent at sports clubs and should be investigated in longitudinal settings to assess the associations with individual motor abilities.

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Chih-Chia Chen, Yonjoong Ryuh, Tony Luczak, and John Lamberth

The purpose of this study was to examine the distance of varying focus of attention for experienced and novice golfers on a golf putting task. Forty-eight experienced and 48 novice golfers were randomized into four attentional focus conditions: control (no instruction), internal (i.e., focus on the arm movement), external proximal (i.e., focus on the golf club), and external distal (i.e., focus on the target) conditions. Performance outcomes (the perceived level of confidence and number of golf putts made) were recorded. Experienced golfers had better performance outcomes than novice golfers. The external proximal focus was specifically beneficial for novice golfers, while experienced golfers had an advantage in both external focus instructions. The external proximal focus might enable a perception-action process for novice golfers to compare the relationship between action planning and the surrounding environment. In addition, the transition to expertise might result in no difference between both external focus instructions for experienced golfers.

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Lauren Q. Higgins, Jeffrey D. Labban, Ruth D. Stout, Jeffrey T. Fairbrother, Christopher K. Rhea, and Louisa D. Raisbeck

Adults (N = 54, 80.78 ± 6.08 years) who reported falling during the previous 12 months participated in a 12-week wobble board training program with internal focus or external focus (EF) instructions. Verbal manipulation checks were performed after training sessions as a self-report of the attentional foci used. The percentage of sessions in which participants reported using an EF (EFSR) was subsequently calculated. Mean velocity and mean power frequency in the anterior–posterior (MVELOAP and MPFAP) and medial–lateral (MVELOML and MPFML) direction were assessed during a 35-s wobble board task at Weeks 0, 6, 12, 13, 16, and 20, with the latter three as retention tests. Piecewise linear growth models estimated treatment effects on individual growth trajectories of MVELOAP and ML and MPFAP and ML during intervention and retention periods. Regardless of condition, MVELOML significantly decreased (π = −.0019, p = .005) and MPFML increased (π = .025, p < .02) during the intervention period. In analyses including interaction terms, participants in the EF group who reported greater EFSR had superior progression of MPFAP during the intervention (π = .0013, p = .025). Verbal manipulation checks suggest a preference for and advantage of EF for facilitating postural control performance and automaticity.

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Dong Ha Kim, Heewon Kang, and Seunghyun Yoo

Walking promotes active aging; however, walking prevalence changes among older adults by age and environmental conditions remain unclear. Age-period-cohort (APC) differences in walking trends among Korean older adults were examined. Data included adults aged ≥ 65 years (n = 592,235) from the nationally representative Korean Community Health Survey. Regional units examined were metropolitan cities, small- and medium-sized cities, and rural areas. Environment-stratified APC modeling was applied for walking prevalence (walking days/time during the past week). From 2008 to 2017, the walking prevalence gap between regional units widened. Decreasing trends were most apparent in rural areas, including by birth year. In all areas, walking decreased with increased age. No distinct period effects were found. Each effect’s magnitude was larger in rural areas than cities. Differential APC effects by environmental conditions likely influence walking prevalence changes among older adults. Walking promotion for older adults should consider APC effects and environmental conditions.