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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes, and Rodolfo Novelino Benda

Background: Studies related to the motor performance of children have suggested an interaction between organisms and the environment. Although motor development seems to be similar among people, the behavior is specific to the context that people are part of. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the fundamental motor skill performance between indigenous (IN) and nonindigenous children. Methods: One hundred and thirteen children (43 IN and 70 nonindigenous children) between 8 and 10 years of age underwent the Test of Gross Motor Development—2. Results: A multivariate analysis showed a significant group main effect on both locomotor (p < .01) and object control (p < .01) performance with large and medium effect sizes (ηp2 values = .57–.40, respectively). The IN showed the highest scores for galloping, hopping, leaping, jumping, sliding, striking a stationary ball, stationary dribbling, catching a ball, kicking, and overhand throwing (p < .01) with small to large effect sizes (ηp2 values = .05–.50). Conclusion: The IN presented the highest levels of performance in fundamental motor skills compared with those of nonindigenous children. Most likely, IN have more opportunities for motor development in the environmental context (i.e., villages) where they live.

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Fraser Carson, Clara McCormack, Paula McGovern, Samara Ralston, and Julia Walsh

This best practice paper reflects on a pilot coach education program designed for women coaching Australian Rules football. Focused on enhancing self-regulation, and underpinned by a growth mindset framework, the “Coach like a Woman” program was delivered to a selected group of female coaches either working in or having been identified with the potential to coach at high-performance levels. This manuscript describes the program content and discusses the key insights identified by the delivery team. Creating a community of practice encouraged the transfer of knowledge and experience between the enrolled coaches, which increased competence and self-confidence. Providing an understanding of behavioral tendencies enhanced positive self-talk and aided self-regulation by the coaches. The delivery of the program and challenges experienced are also discussed. This reflection on the program is provided to assist future developments in coach education.

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Chungyi Chiu, Alicia R. Covello-Jones, Esteban Montenegro, Jessica M. Brooks, and Sa Shen

Background: Physical activity benefits have been extensively studied. However, the public health guidelines seem unclear about the relationships between steps and movements with healthy biomarkers for people with (PWD) and without disabilities (PWOD), respectively. While public health guidelines illustrate types of exercise (eg, running, swimming), it is equally important to provide data-driven recommended amounts of daily steps or movements to achieve health biomarkers and further promote a physically active lifestyle. Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006 were used. The authors conducted sensitivity, specificity, and receiver-operating-characteristic curve analyses regarding cut points from ActiGraph 7164 of daily steps and movements for health biomarkers (eg, body mass index, cholesterol) in PWD (2178 participants) and PWOD (4414 participants). The authors also examined the dose relationships of steps, movements, and healthy biomarkers in each group. Results: The authors found significant differences in the cut points of daily steps and movement for health biomarkers in PWD and PWOD. For daily steps, cut points of PWD were ranged from 3222 to 8311 (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve [AUC] range = 0.52–0.93) significantly lower than PWOD’s daily steps (range = 5455–14,272; AUC = 0.58–0.87). For daily movement, cut points of PWD were ranged from 115,451 to 430,324 (AUC = 0.53–0.91) significantly lower than the PWOD’s daily movements (range = 215,288–282,307; AUC = 0.60–0.88). The authors found strong but different dose relationships of many biomarkers in each group. Conclusions: PWD need fewer daily steps or movement counts to achieve health biomarkers than PWOD. The authors provided data-driven, condition-specific recommendations on promoting a physically active lifestyle.

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Annegret Schlund, Anne K. Reimers, Jens Bucksch, Catherina Brindley, Carolin Schulze, Lorri Puil, Stephanie E. Coen, Susan P. Phillips, Guido Knapp, and Yolanda Demetriou

Background: Physical inactivity is often reported in youth and differs among boys and girls. The aim of this study is to assess sex/gender considerations in intervention studies promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior in youth using a sex/gender checklist. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in August 2018 to identify all relevant controlled trials. Studies screened must have reported a quantified measure of physical activity and/or sedentary behavior, and identified participants by sex/gender at baseline. For evaluation of the sex/gender consideration, the authors used a sex/gender checklist developed by expert consensus. Results: The authors reviewed sex/gender considerations in all aspects of intervention development, implementation, and evaluation in 217 studies. Sex/gender aspects were only rudimentarily taken into account, most frequently during statistical analyses, such as stratification or interaction analysis. Conclusions: Sex/gender effects are not sufficiently reported. To develop guidelines that are more inclusive of all girls and boys, future interventions need to document sex/gender differences and similarities, and explore whether sex/gender influences different phases of intervention programs. The newly developed sex/gender checklist can hereby be used as a tool and guidance to adequately consider sex/gender in the several steps of intervention planning, implementation, and evaluation.

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Antonio Henrique Germano-Soares, Rafael M. Tassitano, Breno Quintela Farah, Aluísio Andrade-Lima, Marília de Almeida Correia, Aleš Gába, Nikola Štefelová, Pedro Puech-Leao, Nelson Wolosker, Gabriel Grizzo Cucato, and Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias

Background: To examine the associations between physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with walking capacity and the effects of reallocating time from SB to PA in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) using compositional data analysis. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 178 patients (34% females, mean age = 66 [9] y, body mass index = 27.8 [5.0] kg/m2, and ankle-brachial index = 0.60 [0.18]). Walking capacity was assessed as the total walking distance (TWD) achieved in a 6-minute walk test, while SB, light-intensity PA, and moderate to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) were measured by a triaxial accelerometer and conceptualized as a time-use composition. Associations between time reallocation among wake-time behaviors and TWD were determined using compositional isotemporal substitution models. Results: A positive association of MVPA with TWD (relative to remaining behaviors) was found in men (β ilr = 66.9, SE = 21.4, P = .003) and women (β ilr = 56.5, SE = 19.8; P = .005). Reallocating 30 minutes per week from SB to MVPA was associated with higher TWD in men (6.7 m; 95% confidence interval, 2.6–10.9 m) and women (4.5 m; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–7.5 m). Conclusions: The findings highlight, using a compositional approach, the beneficial and independent association of MVPA with walking capacity in patients with symptomatic PAD, whereas SB and light-intensity PA were not associated.

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Michael J. Shoemaker, Michaela Mattern, Hannah Scholten, Jessica Zeitler, and Shweta Gore

Background: The measurement of daily physical activity (DPA) is important for the prognosis and quantifying clinical outcomes in individuals with heart disease. The measurement of DPA is more feasible using subjective measures when compared with objective measures. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature was to identify the subjective measures of DPA that have established reliability and validity in individuals with heart disease to assist clinician and researcher instrument selection. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and ProQuest databases was performed. Methodological rigor was assessed using 3 different quality appraisal tools. Qualitative synthesis of included studies was performed. Results: Twenty-two unique studies covering 19 subjective DPA measures were ultimately included. Methodological rigor was generally fair, and validity coefficients were moderate at best. Conclusions: Only 4 subjective measures that have established test–retest reliability and that provide an estimate of energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, or minutes of DPA were compared against accelerometry or a DPA diary in patients with heart disease: SWISS Physical Activity Questionnaire, Total Activity Measure 1 and 2, and Mobile Physical Activity Logger. Depending on the clinician or researcher needs, instrument selection would depend on the recall period and the DPA construct being measured.

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Coral L. Hanson, Paul Kelly, Lis Neubeck, Jordan Bell, Holly Gibb, and Kai Jin

Background: Physical activity (PA) levels vary across specific population groups, contributing to health inequalities. Little is known about how local authority leisure centers contribute to population PA and whether this differs by age, sex, or socioeconomic group. Methods: The authors calculated weekly leisure center–based moderate/vigorous PA for 20,904 registered adult users of local authority leisure facilities in Northumberland, United Kingdom, between July 2018 and June 2019, using administrative data. The authors categorized activity levels (<30, 30–149, and ≥150 min/wk) and used ordinal regression to examine predictors for activity category achieved. Results: Registered users were mainly female (58.7%), younger (23.9% of users aged 18–29 y vs 10.1% of those aged 70+ y), and from the 2 most affluent socioeconomic quintiles (53.7%). Median weekly moderate/vigorous leisure center–based activity was 55 minutes per week (interquartile range: 30–99). Being female (odds ratio: 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.95–2.35), older (odds ratio: 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–1.16), and using a large facility (odds ratio: 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.42) were positive predictors of leisure center–based PA. Conclusion: Older adults and females were more likely to be active and achieve the recommended PA levels through usage of the centers. Widespread use of this novel measure of leisure center–based activity would improve the understanding of how local authority leisure centers can address physical inactivity and its associated inequalities.

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Danae Dinkel, Kelsey Lu, Jemima John, Kailey Snyder, and Lisette T. Jacobson

Background: Physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and sleep are interconnected, promoting optimal health. Few studies have examined these factors holistically. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to capture the 24-hour activity cycles of the US population by examining PA, sedentary behavior, and sleep based on the presence of a child within the home, as well as gender and weight. Methods: Cross-sectional health-related variables from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used for analysis. The primary variables were the total and type of PA (recreation, work, and active transportation), sedentary behavior, and sleep. Chi-square and regression models were applied to compare the outcomes across participants’ characteristics. Results: The adults with children within the home reported less recreational PA, more work activity, less sedentary activity, and less sleep, but no differences in total PA. The females with children in the home not only had the lowest levels of recreational activity and sleep, but also the lowest levels of sedentary behavior. The obese individuals with children in the home had less sedentary time than the adults without children in the home, regardless of weight status. Conclusions: Unhealthy sleep and PA behaviors are prevalent in adults with children living at home, and women are particularly impacted.

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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf