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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes, and Rodolfo Novelino Benda

Background: Studies related to the motor performance of children have suggested an interaction between organisms and the environment. Although motor development seems to be similar among people, the behavior is specific to the context that people are part of. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the fundamental motor skill performance between indigenous (IN) and nonindigenous children. Methods: One hundred and thirteen children (43 IN and 70 nonindigenous children) between 8 and 10 years of age underwent the Test of Gross Motor Development—2. Results: A multivariate analysis showed a significant group main effect on both locomotor (p < .01) and object control (p < .01) performance with large and medium effect sizes (ηp2 values = .57–.40, respectively). The IN showed the highest scores for galloping, hopping, leaping, jumping, sliding, striking a stationary ball, stationary dribbling, catching a ball, kicking, and overhand throwing (p < .01) with small to large effect sizes (ηp2 values = .05–.50). Conclusion: The IN presented the highest levels of performance in fundamental motor skills compared with those of nonindigenous children. Most likely, IN have more opportunities for motor development in the environmental context (i.e., villages) where they live.

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Arthur Alves Dos Santos, James Sorce, Alexandra Schonning, and Grant Bevill

This study evaluated the performance of 6 commercially available hard hat designs—differentiated by shell design, number of suspension points, and suspension tightening system—in regard to their ability to attenuate accelerations during vertical impacts to the head. Tests were conducted with impactor materials of steel, wood, and lead shot (resembling commonly seen materials in a construction site), weighing 1.8 and 3.6 kg and dropped from 1.83 m onto a Hybrid III head/neck assembly. All hard hats appreciably reduced head acceleration to the unprotected condition. However, neither the addition of extra suspension points nor variations in suspension tightening mechanism appreciably influenced performance. Therefore, these results indicate that additional features available in current hard hat designs do not improve protective capacity as related to head acceleration metrics.

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ZáNean McClain, Jill Pawlowski, and Daniel W. Tindall

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Katie L. Kowalski, Ali Boolani, and Anita D. Christie

Compromised attentional resources during perceived fatigue has been suggested to alter motor control. The authors determined if measures of postural control and gait are predicted by state and trait physical and mental fatigue and energy, and how these relationships are modified by sex, sleep quality, and physical activity. Young adults (n = 119) completed the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration, overground walking, and questionnaires to quantify fatigue and energy, sleep quality, and physical activity. Regression models indicated that trait fatigue, trait energy, and sleep quality were predictors of postural control (p ≤ .02, R 2 ≥ .04). State fatigue, state energy, and sex were predictors of gait (p ≤ .05, R 2 ≥ .03). While the variance explained was low (3–13%), the results demonstrate perceptions of fatigue and energy may influence posture and gait.

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Jingjing Xue, Shuo Li, Rou Wen, and Ping Hong

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the published prediction equations for determining level overground walking energy cost in young adults. Methods: In total, 148 healthy young adults volunteered to participate in this study. Resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure variables at speeds of 4, 5, and 6 km/h were measured by indirect calorimetry, walking energy expenditure was estimated by 3 published equations. Results: The gross and net metabolic rate per mile of level overground walking increased with increased speed (all P < .01). Females were less economical than males. The present findings revealed that the American College of Sports Medicine and Pandolf et al equations significantly underestimated the energy cost of overground walking at all speeds (all P < .01) in young adults. The percentage mean bias for American College of Sports Medicine, Pandolf et al, and Weyand et al was 12.4%, 16.8%, 1.4% (4 km/h); 21.6%, 15.8%, 7.1% (5 km/h); and 27.6%, 12%, 6.6% (6 km/h). Bland–Altman plots and prediction error analysis showed that the Weyand et al was the most accurate in 3 existing equations. Conclusions: The Weyand et al equation appears to be the most suitable for the prediction of overground walking energy expenditure in young adults.

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Jessica Murphy, Karen A. Patte, Philip Sullivan, and Scott T. Leatherdale

The mental health benefits of physical activity may relate more to the context of the behavior, rather than the behavior of being active itself. The association between varsity sport (VS) participation, depression, and anxiety symptoms was explored using data from 70,449 high school students from the Cannabis use, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, and Sedentary behavior study. The model adjusted for potential covariates; interactions by sex and participation in outside of school sport (OSS) were explored. Overall, 70% and 24% of respondents met or exceeded cutoff values for depression and anxiety, respectively. Students participating in VS had lower symptoms of anxiety and depression compared with nonparticipants. Results were consistent regardless of OSS participation; associations were strongest among students who participated in both VS and OSS and males. Participation in VS may prove beneficial for the prevention and/or management of depression or anxiety symptoms, particularly among males. An additive beneficial effect of OSS on depression and anxiety scores may exist.

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Hugo Parent-Roberge, Thomas A. Deshayes, Catherine Fortier, Karine Marquis, Christiane Lacharité-Lemieux, Chantale Rodrigue, Isabelle J. Dionne, Mohsen Agharazii, Mélanie Godin, and Eléonor Riesco

Intradialytic exercise is feasible and yields substantial clinical benefits in middle-aged patients. However, evidence is scarce in older hemodialysis patients. Objective: To assess the feasibility and clinical benefits of supervised, intradialytic exercise in older patients. Methods: Multicenter one-arm feasibility study. The main outcome was feasibility (ease of recruitment, dropout rate, adherence, affective valence, and adverse events). The secondary outcomes were physical capacity (five-repetition sit-to-stand, 60-s sit-to-stand tests, and grip strength), quality of life (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), and dialysis efficacy (Kt/V and urea reduction ratio). Results: About 79% of the screened patients agreed to participate (n = 25, 73 [66–77] years). The dropout rate was high (32%), but adherence remained high among the participants who completed the study (94%). Improvements were found in the five-repetition sit-to-stand (p < .001), 60-s sit-to-stand tests (p = .028), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey mental component score (p = .008), depressive symptoms (p = .006), and quality of sleep (p = .035). Conclusion: Supervised intradialytic exercise seems safe and beneficial in older patients.

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Thiago R.T. Santos, Sergio T. Fonseca, Vanessa L. Araújo, Sangjun Lee, Fabricio Saucedo, Stephen Allen, Christopher Siviy, Thales R. Souza, Conor Walsh, and Kenneth G. Holt

The addition of a load during walking requires changes in the movement pattern. The investigation of the dynamic joint stiffness behavior may help to understand the lower limb joints’ contribution to these changes. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic stiffness of lower limb joints in response to the increased load carried while walking. Thirteen participants walked in two conditions: unloaded (an empty backpack) and loaded (the same backpack plus added mass corresponding to 30% of body mass). Dynamic stiffness was calculated as the linear slope of the regression line on the moment–angle curve during the power absorption phases of the ankle, knee, and hip in the sagittal plane. The results showed that ankle (P = .002) and knee (P < .001) increased their dynamic stiffness during loaded walking compared with unloaded, but no difference was observed at the hip (P = .332). The dynamic stiffness changes were different among joints (P < .001): ankle and knee changes were not different (P < .992), but they had a greater change than hip (P < .001). The nonuniform increases in lower limb joint dynamic stiffness suggest that the ankle and knee are critical joints to deal with the extra loading.

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Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Rodrigo Flores Sartori, Maike Tietjens, and Nadia Cristina Valentini

This study aimed to translate the Pictorial Scale of Physical Self-Concept for Brazilian Children (PSPPS-BR) into the Brazilian-Portuguese language, conduct a transcultural adaptation of it, and investigate its validity. Method: The authors adopted the reverse translation procedures to obtain the PSPPS-BR’s Brazilian-Portuguese version. Three motor behavior experts assessed the scale items’ clarity and pertinence. Ten professionals participated in the face validity study. Children (N = 300; 150 girls and 150 boys; 8–10 years old; M age = 9.0, SD = 0.81) were randomly selected from six schools in Brazil and assessed using the PSPPS-BR, the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence, and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The children (N = 100) were reassessed for test–retest reliability. Results: High clarity and pertinence agreement among experts (content validity coefficient from 98.4% to 100%; Gwet’s agreement coefficient from .85 to 1.00, p < .001) and among professionals (content validity coefficient clarity: 83–100%, relevance: 90–100%) were obtained. The confirmatory factorial analysis showed adequate model fits (root mean square error of approximation = .067; comparative fit index = .968; Tukey–Lewis index = .949). Polychoric correlations showed an adequate internal consistency for total scale (α = .78) and items (alpha from .73 to .78). The intraclass coefficient correlation shown strong test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient > .95). Conclusion: The PSPPS-BR showed adequate validity and reliability for Brazilian children.