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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes, and Rodolfo Novelino Benda

Background: Studies related to the motor performance of children have suggested an interaction between organisms and the environment. Although motor development seems to be similar among people, the behavior is specific to the context that people are part of. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the fundamental motor skill performance between indigenous (IN) and nonindigenous children. Methods: One hundred and thirteen children (43 IN and 70 nonindigenous children) between 8 and 10 years of age underwent the Test of Gross Motor Development—2. Results: A multivariate analysis showed a significant group main effect on both locomotor (p < .01) and object control (p < .01) performance with large and medium effect sizes (ηp2 values = .57–.40, respectively). The IN showed the highest scores for galloping, hopping, leaping, jumping, sliding, striking a stationary ball, stationary dribbling, catching a ball, kicking, and overhand throwing (p < .01) with small to large effect sizes (ηp2 values = .05–.50). Conclusion: The IN presented the highest levels of performance in fundamental motor skills compared with those of nonindigenous children. Most likely, IN have more opportunities for motor development in the environmental context (i.e., villages) where they live.

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Arthur Alves Dos Santos, James Sorce, Alexandra Schonning, and Grant Bevill

This study evaluated the performance of 6 commercially available hard hat designs—differentiated by shell design, number of suspension points, and suspension tightening system—in regard to their ability to attenuate accelerations during vertical impacts to the head. Tests were conducted with impactor materials of steel, wood, and lead shot (resembling commonly seen materials in a construction site), weighing 1.8 and 3.6 kg and dropped from 1.83 m onto a Hybrid III head/neck assembly. All hard hats appreciably reduced head acceleration to the unprotected condition. However, neither the addition of extra suspension points nor variations in suspension tightening mechanism appreciably influenced performance. Therefore, these results indicate that additional features available in current hard hat designs do not improve protective capacity as related to head acceleration metrics.

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Mary E. Medysky, Kelcey A. Bland, Sarah E. Neil-Sztramko, Kristin L. Campbell, Donald R. Sullivan, and Kerri M. Winters-Stone

The authors systematically reviewed and summarized exercise trials in persons with lung cancer on (a) attention to the principles of exercise training (specificity, progression, overload, initial values, reversibility, and diminishing returns); (b) methodological reporting of FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) components; and (c) reporting on participant adherence to prescribed FITT. Randomized controlled trials of exercise that reported on ≥1 physical fitness, physical function, or body composition outcome in persons with lung cancer were included. Of 20 trial arms, none incorporated all principles of exercise training. Specificity was included by 95%, progression by 45%, overload by 75%, and initial values by 80%, while one trial arm applied reversibility and diminishing returns. Fourteen interventions reported all FITT components; however, none reported adherence to each component. Including the principles of training and reporting FITT components will contribute to better understanding of the efficacy of exercise for persons with lung cancer and inform evidence-based exercise prescriptions.

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Nathálya Gardênia de Holanda Marinho Nogueira, Bárbara de Paula Ferreira, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Juliana Otoni Parma, Sara Edith Souza de Assis Leão, Guilherme Menezes Lage, and Lidiane Aparecida Fernandes

This study investigated the influence of chronotype on motor behavior in a manual dexterity task performed at different times of the day. Sixteen healthy adults of each chronotype (morning, evening, and neither), as measured by the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire, practiced both conditions of the Grooved Pegboard Test either in the morning or in the afternoon to early evening. The “neither” chronotype (65.12 ± 7.46) was outperformed (ps ≤ .03) by both the morning (56.09 ± 7.21) and evening (58.94 ± 7.53) chronotypes when the task had higher cognitive and motor demand but was not outperformed in the task with lower demand (morning = 18.46 ± 2.11; evening = 19.34 ± 2.79; neither = 21.47 ± 2.54; p > .05). No difference between the morning and evening chronotypes was found at the different times of the day (ps > .05), suggesting that a manual dexterity task is not sufficiently demanding to be influenced by chronotype.

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Victoria Sanborn, Lauren Todd, Hanna Schmetzer, Nasha Manitkul-Davis, John Updegraff, and John Gunstad

Anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent in athletes. The pandemic of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) may increase risk for symptoms due to fear of exposure during competition or uncertainty regarding participation. The current study examined the prevalence of COVID-19 anxiety in 437 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes and its association with psychological symptoms. Only 0.2% of participants endorsed COVID-19 anxiety symptoms above cutoff. COVID-19 anxiety did not change after postponement of fall sports or differ between persons competing in different seasons. However, higher levels of COVID-19 anxiety were significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Though student-athletes generally reported low levels of psychological symptoms, females endorsed significantly higher levels than males. Low levels of COVID-19 anxiety in student-athletes may reflect protective factors (e.g., health knowledge, emotion regulation) or the tendency for this population to minimize psychological symptoms. Further investigations on the psychological impact of COVID-19 in athletes is needed.

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Sangsoo Park, Richard Van Emmerik, and Graham E. Caldwell

The aim of this study was to describe how major leg muscle activities are altered after learning a novel one-legged pedaling task. Fifteen recreational cyclists practiced one-legged pedaling trials during which they were instructed to match their applied pedal force to a target direction perpendicular to the crank arm. Activity in 10 major leg muscles was measured with surface electromyography electrodes. Improved upstroke task performance was obtained by greater activity in the hip and ankle flexor muscles, counteracting the negative effects of gravity. Greater quadriceps activities explained improved targeting near top dead center. Reduced uniarticular knee and ankle extensor downstroke activities were necessary to prevent freewheeling. Greater hamstring and tibialis anterior activities improved targeting performance near the bottom of the pedal stroke. The activity patterns of the biarticular plantarflexors changed little, likely due to their contributions as knee flexors for smooth upstroke pedaling motion. These results add to our understanding of how the degrees of freedom at the muscle level are altered in a cooperative manner to overcome gravitational effects in order to achieve the learning goal of the motor task while satisfying multiple constraints—in this case, the production of smooth one-legged pedaling motion at the designated mechanical task demands.

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Marco Meucci, Vibhav Nandagiri, Venkata S. Kavirayuni, Alexander Whang, and Scott R. Collier

Purpose: To investigate the association between the heart rate (HR) at maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the HR at the aerobic threshold (AerT) in adolescent boys and girls, and to identify sex differences in the intensity that elicits MFO (Fatmax) as a percentage of HR peak (HRpeak). Methods: Fifty-eight healthy adolescents participated in this study (29 boys and 29 girls). Participants performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer. MFO was calculated using a stoichiometric equation, and the AerT was identified using gas exchange parameters. Results: A strong correlation between HR at Fatmax and HR at AerT was found in both boys and girls (r = .96 and .94, respectively). Fatmax as a percentage of HRpeak occurred at 61.0% (4.9%) of HRpeak and 66.8% (6.9%) of HRpeak in adolescent boys and girls (P = .001, F = 13.6), respectively. MFO was higher in boys compared with girls (324 [150] and 240 [95] mg/min, respectively), and no sex differences were observed in the relative contribution of fat to energy expenditure at Fatmax. Conclusions: HR at Fatmax and HR at AerT were highly correlated in adolescent boys and girls. Girls obtained Fatmax at a higher percentage of HRpeak than boys.

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Shira Fanti-Oren, Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli, Alon Eliakim, Michal Pantanowitz, Dana Schujovitzky, and Dan Nemet

Purpose: To assess the effect of 1 week of consuming a placebo “energy drink” compared with a week of drinking regular water on daily physical activity in obese children participating in a weight reduction multidisciplinary program. Methods: Seventeen prepubertal (age = 128.7 [26.6] m) overweight and obese children (7 females and 10 males) participated in the study. Participants received 7 bottles of mineral water per week for 2 weeks. Different types of information were randomly provided regarding the drink consumed in each week: standard (water) versus deliberate positive information (presumed energy drink and placebo). Daily step count was measured using pedometers and compared using paired t test. Results: After consuming the placebo drink, children demonstrated a significantly higher average daily step number (10,452 [4107]) compared with the days they drank water (8168 [2928], P < .005). This difference was attributed mainly to male participants. Conclusion: The use of placebo in the form of deliberate positive information was associated with a significant increase in real-life physical activity in overweight and obese children, especially in boys. Positive information may be used to encourage children with obesity to enhance daily physical activity and energy expenditure.

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Jerica M. Berge, Octavia Cheatom, Angela R. Fertig, Allan Tate, Amanda Trofholz, Junia N. Brito, and Nathan Shippee

Given the high prevalence of overweight/obesity and the low prevalence of engaging in physical activity in children, it is important to identify barriers that impede child physical activity. One potential barrier is parental stress. The current study examined the association between parental stress levels and girls’ and boys’ moderate to vigorous physical activity. Children aged 5–7 years and their families (n = 150) from 6 racial/ethnic groups (n = 25 each Black, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, and White families) were recruited for the Family Matters mixed-methods study in 2015 through primary care clinics in Minneapolis and St Paul, MN. Two in-home visits were carried out with families 10 days apart for data collection, with an 8-day observational period in between when children wore accelerometers. Higher parental stress levels were associated with fewer minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls (P < .05) compared with boys. On average, girls with a parent reporting a stress rating of 10 engaged in 24 minutes less of physical activity per day than girls with a parent with a stress rating of 1. The results suggest that parental stress may reduce girls’ engagement in physical activity. The implications of these results include targeting parental stress and coping skills in future physical activity interventions. In addition, when addressing child physical activity in health care visits with parents and daughters, providers may want to focus their anticipatory guidance on parental stress and coping skills in addition to providing resources to help parents manage stress.