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Olayinka Akinrolie, Sandra C. Webber, Nancy M. Salbach, and Ruth Barclay

The aim of this study was to examine the construct and known-groups validity of the total score of five items adapted from the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire to measure outdoor walking (CHAMPS-OUTDOORS) in older adults. Data from the baseline assessment of the Getting Older Adult OUTdoors (GO-OUT) trial were used. Construct validity of the CHAMPS-OUTDOORS used objective measures of outdoor walking (accelerometry–GPS), Ambulatory Self-Confidence Questionnaire, RAND-36, 6-min walk test, 10-m walk test, and Mini-Balance Evaluation System Test. For known-groups validity, we compared the CHAMPS-OUTDOORS of those who walked < or ≥1.2 m/s. Sixty-five participants had an average age of 76.5 ± 7.8 years. The CHAMPS-OUTDOORS was moderately correlated with total outdoor walking time (r = .33) and outdoor steps (r = .33) per week measured by accelerometry-GPS, and weakly correlated with Mini-Balance Evaluation System Test score (r = .27). The CHAMPS-OUTDOORS did not distinguish known groups based on crosswalk speed (p = .33). The CHAMPS-OUTDOORS may be used to assess outdoor walking in the absence of accelerometry GPS. Further research examining reliability is needed.

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Jeffrey Martin

The goal of this study was to determine if emotional expressions at the end of swimmers’ 2016 Paralympic races varied according to medal won and if their race wins and losses were close or not close. Using FaceReader software, videos of 46 races of medal-winning Paralympic (M age = 24.6; SD = 5.4) swimmers’ faces (78 males and 60 females) from 22 countries were analyzed. Silver medalists were angrier and sadder than gold medalists and angrier and more disgusted than bronze medalists. Swimmers who swam slower than their 2015 best time were angrier than Paralympians who swam faster. Paralympians who finished lower than their 2015 world ranking had more neutral emotions and were less happy than Paralympians who finished higher. Gold medalists who narrowly defeated silver medalists were less happy and more fearful than gold medalists who won easily. Bronze medalists with close wins had fewer neutral emotions and were happier, less angry, and more surprised than bronze medalists with not-close wins. All medalists with close wins were more surprised than medalists with easier wins. Bronze medalists with close losses to silver medalists were happier and less angry than bronze medalists who lost more easily. Effect sizes ranged from d = 0.27 to 1.01. These results provide theoretical support to basic emotion theory and confirm the anecdotal observations that Paralympic competition generates wide-ranging and diverse emotions.

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Madison Taylor, Nicki Almquist, Bent Rønnestad, Arnt Erik Tjønna, Morten Kristoffersen, Matt Spencer, Øyvind Sandbakk, and Knut Skovereng

Purpose: To investigate the effects of including repeated sprints in a weekly low-intensity (LIT) session during a 3-week transition period on cycling performance 6 weeks into the subsequent preparatory period (PREP) in elite cyclists. Methods: Eleven elite male cyclists (age = 22.0 [3.8] y, body mass = 73.0 [5.8] kg, height = 186 [7] cm, maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 5469 [384] mL·min−1) reduced their training load by 64% and performed only LIT sessions (CON, n = 6) or included 3 sets of 3 × 30-second maximal sprints in a weekly LIT session (SPR, n = 5) during a 3-week transition period. There was no difference in the reduction in training load during the transition period between groups. Physiological and performance measures were compared between the end of the competitive period and 6 weeks into the PREP. Results: SPR demonstrated a 7.3% (7.2%) improvement in mean power output during a 20-minute all-out test at PREP, which was greater than CON (−1.3% [4.6%]) (P = .048). SPR had a corresponding 7.0% (3.6%) improvement in average VO2 during the 20-minute all-out test, which was larger than the 0.7% (6.0%) change in CON (P = .042). No change in VO2max, gross efficiency, or power output at blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L−1 from competitive period to PREP occurred in either group. Conclusion: Including sprints in a weekly LIT session during the transition period of elite cyclists provided a performance advantage 6 weeks into the subsequent PREP, which coincided with a higher performance VO2.

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Brad R. Julius, Amy M.J. O’Shea, Shelby L. Francis, Kathleen F. Janz, and Helena Laroche

Purpose: The authors examined the relationship between mother and child activity. Methods: The authors compared moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time of low-income mothers with obesity and their 6- to 12-year-old children on week (WD) and weekend (WE) days. A total of 196 mother–child pairs wore accelerometers simultaneously for a week. Mothers completed questionnaires. Spearman correlation and multivariate regression were used. Results: WE MVPA (accelerometry) was significantly correlated between mothers with children aged 6–7 (r s = .35) and daughters (r s = .27). Self-reported maternal PA time spent with one of their children was significantly correlated with the WE MVPA of all children (r s = .21) and children aged 8–10 (r s = .22) and with the WD MVPA of all children (r s = .15), children aged 8–10 (r s = .23), aged 11–12 (r s = .52), and daughters (r s = .37), and inversely correlated to the WD sedentary time of all children (r s = −.21), children aged 8–10 (r s = −.30), aged 11–12 (r s = −.34), daughters (r s = −.26), and sons (r s = −.22). In multivariate regression, significant associations were identified between reported child–mother PA time together and child MVPA and sedentary time (accelerometry). Conclusions: Mothers may influence the PA levels of their children with the strongest associations found in children aged 6–7 and daughters. Mother–child coparticipation in PA may lead to increased child MVPA and decreased sedentary behavior.

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Timo B. van den Bogaard, Jabik-Jan Bastiaans, and Mathijs J. Hofmijster

Purpose: To investigate how resistance training (RT) in a regular training program affects neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) and gross efficiency (EGROSS) in elite rowers. Methods: Twenty-six elite male rowers performed 4 RT sessions within 10 days. At baseline and after the first and fourth RT, EGROSS and NMF were established. From breathing gas, EGROSS was determined during submaximal rowing tests. Using a countermovement jump test, NMF was assessed by jump height, flight time, flight-to-contraction-time ratio, peak power, and time to peak power. Muscle soreness was assessed using a 10-cm-long visual analog scale. Results: No significant differences were found for EGROSS (P = .565, ω 2 = .032). Muscle soreness (P = .00, ω 2 = .500) and time to peak power (P = .08, ω2 = 0.238) were higher compared with baseline at all test moments. Flight-to-contraction-time ratio, jump height, and peak power after the fourth RT differed from baseline (P < .05, ω 2 = .36, ω 2 = .38, and ω 2 = .31) and from results obtained after the first RT (P < .05, ω 2 = .36, ω 2 = .47, and ω 2 = .22). Conclusions: RT in general does not influence EGROSS, but large individual differences (4.1%–14.8%) were observed. NMF is affected by RT, particularly after multiple sessions. During periods of intensified RT, imposed external load for low-intensity endurance training need not be altered, but rowers are recommended to abstain from intensive endurance training. Individual monitoring is strongly recommended.

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Kati S. Karinharju, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Kelly M. Clanchy, Stewart G. Trost, Li T. Yeo, and Sean M. Tweedy

This study evaluated the validity of two wheelchair-mounted devices—the Cateye® and Wheeler—for monitoring wheelchair speed and distance traveled. Speed estimates were validated against a calibrated treadmill at speeds from 1.5 to 10 km/hr. Twenty-five wheelchair users completed a course of known distance comprising a sequence of everyday wheelchair activities. Speed estimate validity was very good (mean absolute percentage error ≤ 5%) for the Wheeleri at all speeds and for the Cateye at speeds >3 km/hr but not speeds <3 km/hr (mean absolute percentage error > 20%). Wheeleri distance estimates were good (mean absolute percentage error < 10%) for linear pushing activities and general maneuvering but poor for confined-space maneuvering. Cateye estimates were good for continuous linear propulsion but poor for discontinuous pushing and maneuvering (both general and confined space). Both devices provided valid estimates of speed and distance for typical wheelchair-based exercise activities. However, the Wheeleri provided more accurate estimates of speed and distance during typical everyday wheelchair activities.

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Luciana L.S. Barboza, Larissa Gandarela, Josefa Graziele S. Santana, Ellen Caroline M. Silva, Elondark S. Machado, Roberto Jerônimo S. Silva, Thayse N. Gomes, and Danilo R. Silva

Introduction: The authors’ objective was to identify the minimum number of days required to measure sedentary behavior and physical activity in children during school hours. Methods: Fifty-three children from four classes of the second year of elementary school in a public school in Brazil were selected. Sedentary behavior and physical activity were evaluated using activPAL in the thigh and ActiGraph GT3X on the hip. The devices were used for 4 days during the 4 hr of school. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland–Altman plots were used for statistical analysis (p < .05). Results: For sedentary/stationary behavior indicators, 1 day showed good agreement with 4 days (sitting time, ICC = .89; bias [limits of agreement 95%, LA95%] = 1.6 [45.1 to −41.9], standing time, ICC = .93; bias [LA95%] 1.1 [30.2 to −28.0], and stationary behavior, ICC = .56; bias [LA95%] = 0.2 [37.2 to −36.7]). However, 2 days were necessary for good agreement, with 4 days for physical activity indicators (walking time, ICC = .91; bias [LA95%] = 1.1 [12.0 to −9.7], light physical activity, ICC = .97; bias [LA95%] = 0.3 [7.6 to −7.0], moderate physical activity, ICC = .93; bias [LA95%] = 0.3 [2.3 to −1.6], and vigorous physical activity, ICC = .93; bias [LA95%] = 0.3 [3.1 to −2.5]). Conclusion: Therefore, 1 evaluation day seems enough to obtain representative data of school sedentary/stationary behavior, while 2 days are necessary for the evaluation of physical activity indicators during school hours.

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Petra Haas, Chih-Hsiang Yang, and Genevieve F. Dunton

Physical activity declines from childhood to adolescence. Affective factors may partially account for this decline. The present study investigated whether within-person changes in children’s enjoyment of physical activity are associated with the age-related decline in physical activity. Children (N = 169, 54% female, 56% Hispanic; 8–12 years old at enrollment) took part in a longitudinal study with six assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, enjoyment of physical activity was reported, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured with an accelerometer across seven consecutive days. MVPA and enjoyment of physical activity both declined across waves. Multilevel analyses revealed that within-person changes in enjoyment moderated the effects of age on within-person changes in MVPA. Enjoyment appeared to be a dynamic factor that buffered against the age-related decline in physical activity in youth. These findings call for health promotion interventions that encourage enjoyable physical activities.