The purpose of this study was to describe the reflections of adults with visual impairments about learning to run during K–12 physical education. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used, and eight adults (age 22–35 years) with visual impairments served as participants. Primary data sources were semistructured, audiotaped telephone interviews and reflective interview notes. Based on a thematic data analysis process, two themes were developed: (a) “I wouldn’t expect anything better from you”: running instruction in physical education and (b) “You look like the guy in the crosswalk signal”: making up for the shortcomings of physical education. The narratives portraying these themes highlight the lack of instruction that took place in physical education, and the fact that no running instruction occurred at all. These findings indicate that professionals working with individuals with visual impairments should use instructional strategies that will allow for maximum access to learning fundamental movement skills such as running.
Katherine Holland, Justin A. Haegele, and Xihe Zhu
Samantha J.D. Jeske, Lawrence R. Brawley, and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos
Videoconferencing is a novel method for overcoming time and transportation barriers to leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) interventions. This study examined the feasibility of a group videoconference intervention on LTPA self-regulatory skills training in a sample of nine adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Session implementation checklists and self-report surveys were administered during four weekly sessions to assess intervention management, group processes, intervention resources, and initial efficacy. Attendance rate was high (91.7%), and the average weekly session duration was 79.6 min. Participants reported high ratings of group cohesion, facilitator collaboration, session content comprehension, and ease in operating the videoconference platform. Knowledge sharing among the group ranged from 18 to 58 exchanges per session, demonstrating learning and group cohesion. LTPA frequency increased among 44% of participants, and 22% of participants achieved the SCI-specific aerobic guidelines. Overall, group videoconferencing holds promise for LTPA support among adults with SCI. Long-term research is warranted to test LTPA self-regulatory and behavioral effects.
Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele
The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning that first-year adapted physical education teachers with a master’s degree ascribed to their occupational socialization experiences. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used, and occupational socialization theory was adopted as the theoretical framework. Five teachers participated in this study. The sources of data were a semistructured focus group interview, semistructured one-to-one interviews, and reflective interview notes. Thematic development involved a three-step analysis process informed by the research approach. Three themes were constructed: (a) interactions with individuals with disabilities and activity experiences, (b) recruitment of adapted physical education teacher education students, and (c) graduate training and initial workplace experiences. The constructed themes provide unique insight into how teachers are socialized into adapted physical education and the meaning they ascribe to various socialization experiences, such as the limited impact that interactions with individuals with disabilities had on the decision to pursue this career.
Rebecca L. Krupenevich, William H. Clark, Gregory S. Sawicki, and Jason R. Franz
Ankle joint quasi-stiffness is an aggregate measure of the interaction between triceps surae muscle stiffness and Achilles tendon stiffness. This interaction may be altered due to age-related changes in the structural properties and functional behavior of the Achilles tendon and triceps surae muscles. The authors hypothesized that, due to a more compliant of Achilles’ tendon, older adults would exhibit lower ankle joint quasi-stiffness than young adults during walking and during isolated contractions at matched triceps surae muscle activations. The authors also hypothesized that, independent of age, triceps surae muscle stiffness and ankle joint quasi-stiffness would increase with triceps surae muscle activation. The authors used conventional gait analysis in one experiment and, in another, electromyographic biofeedback and in vivo ultrasound imaging applied during isolated contractions. The authors found no difference in ankle joint quasi-stiffness between young and older adults during walking. Conversely, this study found that (1) young and older adults modulated ankle joint quasi-stiffness via activation-dependent changes in triceps surae muscle length–tension behavior and (2) at matched activation, older adults exhibited lower ankle joint quasi-stiffness than young adults. Despite age-related reductions during isolated contractions, ankle joint quasi-stiffness was maintained in older adults during walking, which may be governed via activation-mediated increases in muscle stiffness.
Raimey Olthuis, John van der Kamp, Koen Lemmink, and Simone Caljouw
By assessing the precision of gestural interactions with touchscreen targets, the authors investigate how the type of gesture, target location, and scene visibility impact movement endpoints. Participants made visually and memory-guided pointing and swiping gestures with a stylus to targets located in a semicircle. Specific differences in aiming errors were identified between swiping and pointing. In particular, participants overshot the target more when swiping than when pointing and swiping endpoints showed a stronger bias toward the oblique than pointing gestures. As expected, the authors also found specific differences between conditions with and without delays. Overall, the authors observed an influence on movement execution from each of the three parameters studied and uncovered that the information used to guide movement appears to be gesture specific.
Shuaijie Wang, Yiru Wang, Yi-Chung (Clive) Pai, Edward Wang, and Tanvi Bhatt
Slip outcomes are categorized as either a backward loss of balance (LOB) or a no loss of balance (no-LOB) in which an individual does not take a backward step to regain their stability. LOB includes falls and nonfalls, while no-LOB includes skate overs and walkovers. Researchers are uncertain about which factors determine slip outcomes and at which critical instants they do so. The purpose of the study was to investigate factors affecting slip outcomes in proactive and early reactive phases by analyzing 136 slip trials from 68 participants (age: 72.2 [5.3] y, female: 22). Segment angles and average joint moments in the sagittal plane of the slipping limb were compared for different slip outcomes. The results showed that knee flexor, hip extensor, and plantar flexor moments were significantly larger for no-LOB than for LOB in the midproactive phase, leading to smaller shank-ground and foot-ground angles at the slip onset, based on forward dynamics. In the early reactive phase, the hip extensor and plantar flexor moments were larger for no-LOB than for LOB, and all segment angles were smaller for no-LOB. Our findings indicate that the shank angle and knee moment were the major determinants of slip outcomes in both proactive and reactive phases.
By bridging the literature on shared mental models and the individual zones of optimal functioning, the author advances a new framework called the shared zones of optimal functioning. The shared zones of optimal functioning is a probabilistic methodology designed to (a) capture optimal and suboptimal performance experiences in teams, (b) track team momentum through the analysis of within-team performance fluctuations, and (c) estimate within-team psycho–bio–social synchrony and leader–follower dynamics (i.e., leader–follower dichotomy, shared leadership). To test the shared zones of optimal functioning framework, three dyadic juggling teams were asked to juggle for 60 trials, while having their performance, arousal, pleasantness, and attentional levels recorded. Ordinal logistic regression, frequency counts, and cross-correlation analyses revealed that each team showed idiosyncratic affective and attentional levels linked to optimal performance, team momentum patterns, and leader–follower dynamics. The implications of these findings for the development of high-performing teams and specific avenues of future research are discussed throughout.
Tyler L. Malone, Adam Kern, Emily Klueh, and Daniel Eisenberg
This study sought to determine the efficacy of particular strategies for delivering information about coping skills for stress to college student-athletes. This study analyzed 166 undergraduate varsity student-athletes. Among these participants, 60.8% were female (n = 101). The authors used a randomized controlled trial to compare video-based and text-based interventions designed to deliver coping skills information. Five weeks after the intervention, the participants completed a follow-up survey containing simple self-report questions regarding the memorability, use, and helpfulness of the coping skills information. In general, both strategies led to the use of coping skills by a sizeable proportion of the sample. The participants in the video-based deep breathing intervention were more than twice as likely to use coping skills compared with participants in the text-based intervention (risk ratio = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [1.02, 4.71], p = .03). Overall, the results suggest that both video- and text-based interventions have the potential to promote coping skills.