The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of specific symptoms of depression in athletes and to test differences in the likelihood of athletes exhibiting these symptoms across age, sex, type of team sport, and level of competition. A sample of Icelandic male and female team sport athletes (N = 894, 18–42 years) was included in the study. Of the athletes exhibiting clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, 37.5% did not exhibit core symptoms of depression. Compared with males, females were significantly more likely to exhibit depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness/guilt, and problems with sleep, fatigue, appetite, and concentration. Within males, differences were mostly related to neurovegetative aspects of depression (sleep and appetite), whereas in females, differences were related to cognitive/emotional aspects (e.g., depressed mood, guilt/worthlessness). The findings underline the importance of exploring specific symptoms of depression to provide a richer understanding of depressive symptomology in athletes.
Richard Tahtinen, Hafrun Kristjansdottir, Daniel T. Olason, and Robert Morris
Changwook Kim, Jinwon Kim, and Brijesh Thapa
Background: The examination of the longitudinal effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on mental well-being is important, but previous studies have typically been limited by their use of a cross-sectional approach. This study empirically examined how LTPA intensity was associated with changes in distinct functions of mental well-being (eg, emotional, psychological, social) over time, and vice versa. Methods: Parallel latent growth curve modeling in combination with propensity score matching analysis was conducted. Data were derived from a sample of adults from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study. Results: The results showed that the initial level of moderate LTPA at the baseline was associated with growth in psychological and social functioning over time, and vice versa. However, vigorous LTPA at the baseline was related only to growth in emotional functioning over time. Conclusion: The longitudinal association between LTPA and mental well-being had different matching mechanisms for LTPA intensities and their relation to distinct functioning for mental well-being. The findings contribute to an enhanced understanding of LTPA’s longitudinal effect on mental well-being.
John H. Challis
The results of the 2020 review and ranking of U.S. doctoral programs in kinesiology conducted by the National Academy of Kinesiology (NAK) are presented. These results represent data collected for the 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 calendar years for 43 programs. The rankings reflect data collected on program faculty (productivity, funding, and visibility) and program students (admissions, support, publications, and employment). The data for each assessment index were first transformed into z scores, and then the z scores converted into T-scores. Weights were applied to the T-scores of the indices and then summed to obtain a total T-score. Programs were ranked in two ways: one based on the total T-scores from the data not normalized (unadjusted) and the other with total T-scores from the data normalized with respect to the number of faculty members in each program (adjusted). In addition to program rankings, descriptive data are presented on faculty and student data.
Rachel K. Barnett, Cory Greever, Karen Yagi, Brendan Rhoan, and Sarah Kozey Keadle
Background: This study reexamines the energy cost of lower intensity activities compared to the 2011 Adult Compendium of Physical Activities. Methods: Participants (n = 32, age = 35 [13.8] y, 16 females) wore a portable metabolic system (COSMED), during 5 different conditions: sitting quietly, watching TV, sitting while working, driving, and walking at 2.0 mph. The metabolic equivalent (MET) values (VO2 mL·kg−1·min−1/3.5 mL·kg−1·min−1) were calculated. Results: The mean (SD) MET value for driving (1.46 [0.24]) was significantly lower than the Adult Compendium value of 2.5 (P < .001). Driving and slow walking have similar Adult Compendium values, but driving METs were significantly lower than slow walking (P < .001). Driving was similar to sitting while working (1.32 [0.25] METs, P > .05) and yielded significantly higher MET values than quiet sitting (1.08 [0.23] METs, P < .001) and watching TV (1.12 [0.22] METs, P < .001), both of which were lower than their respective Adult Compendium MET values. Conclusion: Existing Adult Compendium METs are significantly higher than measured METs for driving, which more closely correspond to sedentary behaviors than slow walking. The TV and quiet sitting also differed from their Adult Compendium values, which should be updated to reflect these findings, given that researchers and practitioners rely on Adult Compendium MET values to estimate energy cost.
Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Aya Kadota, Akihiko Shiino, Akira Fujiyoshi, Takahiro Ito, Ali Haidar Syaifullah, Naoko Miyagawa, Keiko Kondo, Takashi Hisamatsu, Hiroyoshi Segawa, Ikuo Tooyama, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Katsuyuki Miura, and for the SESSA Research Group
Background: To investigate the association between step counts and brain volumes (BVs)—global and 6 a priori selected cognition-related regions of interest—in Japanese men aged 40–79 years. Methods: The authors analyzed data from 680 cognitively intact participants of the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis—a population-based observational study. Using multivariable linear regression, the authors assessed cross-sectional associations between 7-day step counts at baseline (2006–2008) and BVs at follow-up (2012–2015) for age-stratified groups (<60 y and ≥60 y). Results: In the older adults ≥60 years, step counts at baseline (per 1000 steps) were associated with total BV at follow-up (β = 1.42, P = .022) while adjusted for potential covariates. Regions of interest-based analyses yielded an association of step counts with both prefrontal cortexes (P < .05) in older adults, while the left entorhinal cortex showed marginally significant association (P = .05). No association was observed with hippocampus, parahippocampal, cingulum, and cerebellum. No association was observed in younger adults (<60 y). Conclusions: The authors found a positive association between 7-day step counts and BVs, including prefrontal cortexes, and left entorhinal cortex in apparently healthy Japanese men.
Chiaki Tanaka, Akira Kyan, Minoru Takakura, Tim Olds, Natasha Schranz, and Shigeho Tanaka
Background: An international physical activity (PA) questionnaire is beneficial to make cross-country comparisons among children and adolescents. This study assesses the validity of the PA questions in the World Health Organization Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (WHO HBSC) survey in Japanese children and adolescents. Methods: Participants were fifth- to sixth-grade Japanese primary school students (67 students aged 10.8 [0.5] y) and first- to third-grade junior high school students (108 students aged 13.0 [0.7] y). The Japanese version of the PA questions in the WHO HBSC (WHO HBSC-J) was used. To assess the validity of the PA questions, the authors used a partial correlation adjusted for sex, age, and relative weight between the answers to the survey questions and objectively measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) by an accelerometer. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between accelerometer-measured MVPA and the number of reported days with at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA in primary school students (r = .39, P = .002) and junior high school students (r = .32, P < .001). Conclusion: The HBSC-J has moderate validity for evaluating MVPA in Japanese primary school and junior high school students.
Jerry Öhlin, Yngve Gustafson, Håkan Littbrand, Birgitta Olofsson, and Annika Toots
Improving dementia screening procedures beyond simple assessment of current cognitive performance is timely given the ongoing phenomenon of population aging. A slow or declining gait speed (GS) is a potential early indicator of cognitive decline scarcely investigated in very old people. Here, we investigated the 5-year associations of baseline GS, change in GS, and cognitive function with subsequent dementia development in people aged 85 years and older (n = 296) without dementia at baseline. Declining and a slow baseline GS were associated with higher odds of dementia development after adjusting for confounders (e.g., age, sex, and dependency in activities of daily living) and missing GS values at follow-up. The GS decline was associated with cognitive decline in participants who developed dementia. The results support the potential of GS tests to predict future cognitive decline among community- and nursing home-dwelling very old people.
Nobuaki Moriyama, Hajime Iwasa, and Seiji Yasumura
The aim of this study was to examine the association between perceived environment and physical activity among older adults in Fukushima Prefecture after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the impact of evacuation. Questionnaires were distributed to individuals aged 65 years and older from October to November 2018. Perceived environment was assessed using a five-item questionnaire on home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, and frequency of observing others exercising. Physical activity, assessed via the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Elderly Japanese, was segregated into levels based on the median score. Data from 249 participants (74.2 ± 6.9 years) were analyzed. A logistic regression analysis found that the unenjoyable Scenery × Residing in restoration public housing interaction (odds ratio = 3.87, 95% confidence interval = [1.20, 12.46]) was significant. The association between enjoyable scenery and physical activity varied according to whether the participants had experienced evacuation or not.
Marcel Ballin, Peter Nordström, and Anna Nordström
In this cross-sectional study, the authors investigated the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in older adults. Accelerometer-derived light-intensity PA, moderate to vigorous PA, and steps per day were measured in (N = 4,652) 70-year-olds in Umeå, Sweden, during May 2012–November 2019. The MetS was assessed according to the American Heart Association/ National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The prevalence of MetS was 49.3%. Compared with the reference, the odds ratios for MetS in increasing quartiles of light-intensity PA were 0.91 (0.77–1.09), 0.75 (0.62–0.89), and 0.66 (0.54–0.80). For moderate to vigorous PA, the corresponding odds ratios were 0.79 (0.66–0.94), 0.67 (0.56–0.80), and 0.56 (0.46–0.67). For steps per day, the odds ratios were 0.65 (0.55–0.78), 0.55 (0.46–0.65), and 0.45 (0.36–0.55). In summary, this study shows that greater amounts of PA, regardless of intensity, are associated with lower odds of MetS. With the limitation of being an observational study, these findings may have implications for the prevention of MetS in older adults.
Elaine M. Ori, Tanya R. Berry, and Lira Yun
It is unknown how lifelong digital media users such as young adult women perceive exercise information found online. A total of 141 women aged 18–30 years and residing in Canada were randomized to read either a factually incorrect or a factually correct blog article. Participants completed Go/No-Go tasks to measure automatically activated believability and evaluations and questionnaires to explicitly measure believability, affective evaluations, and intentions to exercise. Participants did not show evidence of automatically activated believability of the content found in either blog article. However, participants reading the factually correct article reported significantly greater explicit disbelief than those reading the factually incorrect article, though this did not predict intentions. Being factually correct may not be an important component of message believability. Exercise professionals need to remain aware of the content of popular online sources of information in an effort to curb misinformation.