This study aimed to translate the Pictorial Scale of Physical Self-Concept for Brazilian Children (PSPPS-BR) into the Brazilian-Portuguese language, conduct a transcultural adaptation of it, and investigate its validity. Method: The authors adopted the reverse translation procedures to obtain the PSPPS-BR’s Brazilian-Portuguese version. Three motor behavior experts assessed the scale items’ clarity and pertinence. Ten professionals participated in the face validity study. Children (N = 300; 150 girls and 150 boys; 8–10 years old; M age = 9.0, SD = 0.81) were randomly selected from six schools in Brazil and assessed using the PSPPS-BR, the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence, and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The children (N = 100) were reassessed for test–retest reliability. Results: High clarity and pertinence agreement among experts (content validity coefficient from 98.4% to 100%; Gwet’s agreement coefficient from .85 to 1.00, p < .001) and among professionals (content validity coefficient clarity: 83–100%, relevance: 90–100%) were obtained. The confirmatory factorial analysis showed adequate model fits (root mean square error of approximation = .067; comparative fit index = .968; Tukey–Lewis index = .949). Polychoric correlations showed an adequate internal consistency for total scale (α = .78) and items (alpha from .73 to .78). The intraclass coefficient correlation shown strong test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient > .95). Conclusion: The PSPPS-BR showed adequate validity and reliability for Brazilian children.
Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Rodrigo Flores Sartori, Maike Tietjens, and Nadia Cristina Valentini
Andressa Crystine da Silva Sobrinho, Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva, Guilherme da Silva Rodrigues, Karine Pereira Rodrigues, Camila de Paula Monteiro, and Carlos Roberto Bueno Júnior
The relationship between the quality of movement, considering different global and universal basic patterns of movement and cognition domains in older adults remain unclear. The current study explored this association in physically inactive older women. In total, 187 participants, aged 60–70 years (mean = 64.9, SD = 6.9 years), were recruited from a physical education program in a public university. The older adults performed the following tests: Functional Movement Screen, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Modified Baecke Questionnaire for the Older Adults. The regression analysis showed an association between age (β = −0.11, 95% confidence interval, CI, [−0.10, 0.30], p = .03); visuospatial abilities (β = 0.36, 95% CI [0.24, 1.23], p < .001); language (β = 0.23, 95% CI [0.20, 1.08], p < .001); and orientation domains (β = 0.13, 95% CI [0.11, 1.22], p = .016) of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Functional Movement Screen. The quality of movement was related to both age and cognitive performance, such as the visuospatial abilities, language, and orientation domains, in physically inactive older women.
The development of performance, such as learning a new motor skill, can be represented in a performance curve. The shape of the performance curve is both of theoretical and practical relevance. Here, the author studied the interday performance of juggling over a period of 17 days in 112 college students. The results showed that 60% of participants followed an S-shaped performance curve with the inflection date on the 11th day, followed by a decelerated (20%), accelerated (14%), and linear curve (6%). As expected, except on Day 1, male participants performed at least 33% better than female participants on each practice day. Also as expected, learning performance was found to depend on the type of performance curve with the best learning performance exhibited by the linear group. The results further revealed that pooling all participants’ performance together without considering the percentage of each underlying type of performance curve would lead to biased, nonrepresentative results. Given the variety of the observed performance curves and the dominance of the S-shaped performance curve among them, coaches should continuously monitor the shape of an individual’s performance curve.
Wesley O’Brien, Tara Coppinger, Irene Hogan, Sarahjane Belton, Marie H. Murphy, Cormac Powell, and Catherine Woods
Background: The current study was the largest physical activity (PA) surveillance assessment of youth undertaken in Ireland in recent years. The purpose of this research was to assess the impact of social support, while controlling for age and screen time, on PA and sport participation, across a representative sample of Irish female youth. Methods: A total of 3503 children (mean age: 13.54 [2.05] y) across the island of Ireland participated. Participants completed a previously validated electronic questionnaire while supervised in a classroom setting, which investigated their (1) levels of PA; (2) screen time; (3) community sport participation; and (4) social support (friend, family, and teacher) to be physically active/partake in sport. Results: There were significant differences, with medium and large effect sizes, for social support from friends and family across types of sports participation. Specifically, girls who participated in the most popular team sports, when compared with the most popular individual sports, reported higher social support scores for friends and family structures. Conclusions: Findings from this study confirm the contributing influence of friends and family as sport and PA support networks for girls. Interventions should consider the importance of culturally relevant team sports for PA engagement in female youth.
Brianne A. Bruijns, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Brian W. Timmons, and Patricia Tucker
Background: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) offers many health benefits for preschoolers (2.5–5 y). In childcare, MVPA is predominantly accumulated outdoors, with higher rates purported among children within the first few minutes outside. The Supporting Physical Activity in the Childcare Environment intervention included shorter, more frequent outdoor play sessions; this study sought to explore children’s activity levels during various outdoor play schedules. Methods: During the final week of the Supporting Physical Activity in the Childcare Environment intervention, preschoolers wore an Actical™ accelerometer for 5 days during childcare and staff logged outdoor times. Separate linear mixed effects models were run to explore the effect of the intervention on preschoolers’ physical activity (total and MVPA) and sedentary time during outdoor play. Sex was entered as an interaction effect. Results: Preschoolers (n = 292) were significantly more active in the first 10 minutes outdoors compared with remaining time (P < .0083). For total outdoor time, children in the experimental group engaged in significantly less sedentary time than those in the control group (P < .017), and experimental group boys and girls engaged in higher MVPA than boys and girls in the control group (P < .017). Conclusions: Findings support scheduling more frequent outdoor play sessions in childcare to increase physical activity participation among young children.
Noah Wexler, Yingling Fan, Kirti V. Das, and Simone French
Background: Neighborhood parks are important locations to encourage and stimulate physical activity (PA) among the urban population. This study aims to evaluate the impact of an informational intervention on adult park use and PA behaviors in 3 low-income, racially diverse urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis, MN. Method: The study employed a household-level randomized controlled trial and collected baseline and follow-up data from 171 participants. Within each neighborhood, participants were randomized to an informational intervention or to a no-intervention comparison. Intervention households received monthly, neighborhood-specific newsletters about park-based PA opportunities, park program brochures, trail maps, and activity guides. Results: The average treatment effect of the newsletter intervention was positive yet moderated by respondent age. For a 20-year-old resident, treatment was associated with 0.97 (P < .05) additional park visits and 31.24 (P < .05) additional minutes of park-based PA over a 3-day recall period. For 40-year-old respondents, these positive effects are smaller at 0.36 (P < .05) additional visits and 4.66 (P < .05) additional minutes, respectively. Conclusions: An intervention to increase awareness about park-based PA opportunities and benefits increased self-reported park visits and in-park PA among adults who lived in low-income, racially diverse neighborhoods.