Gabriele Gallo, Luca Filipas, Michele Tornaghi, Mattia Garbin, Roberto Codella, Nicola Lovecchio, and Daniele Zaccaria
Purpose: To analyze the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of competitive 15- to 16-year-old young male road cyclists and scale them according to a dichotomous category of successful/unsuccessful riders. Methods: A total of 103 15- to 16-year-old male road cyclists competing in the Italian national under 17 category performed a laboratory incremental exercise test during the in-season period. Age, height, body mass, body mass index, peak height velocity, and absolute and relative power output at 2 mmol/L and 4 mmol/L of blood lactate concentration were compared between 2 subgroups, including those scoring at least 1 point (successful, n = 70) and those that did not score points (unsuccessful, n = 61) in the general season ranking. Results: Successful and unsuccessful riders did not differ anthropometrically. Successful riders recorded significantly higher absolute and relative power output at 2 mmol/L and 4 mmol/L of blood lactate concentration compared with unsuccessful riders. Successful riders were also significantly older and had advanced biological maturation compared with their unsuccessful counterparts. Conclusion: Power associated with blood lactate profiles, together with chronological age and peak height velocity, plays an important role in determining race results in under 17 road cycling. Physiological tests could be helpful for coaches to measure these performance predictors.
Roberto A. González-Fimbres, German Hernández-Cruz, and Andrew A. Flatt
Purpose: To assess heart rate (HR) variability responses to various markers of training load, quantify associations between HR variability and fitness, and compare responses and associations between 1-minute ultrashort and 5-minute criterion measures among a girls’ field hockey team. Methods: A total of 11 players (16.8 [1.1] y) recorded the logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (LnRMSSD) daily throughout a 4-week training camp. The weekly mean (LnRMSSDM) and coefficient of variation (LnRMSSDCV) were analyzed. The internal training load (ITL) and external training load (ETL) were acquired with session HR and accelerometry, respectively. Speed, agility, repeated sprint ability, and intermittent fitness were assessed precamp and postcamp. Results: Similar increases in the ultrashort and criterion LnRMSSDM were observed in week 3 versus week 1 (P < .05–.06, effect size [ES] = 0.28 to 0.36). The ultrashort and criterion LnRMSSDCV showed small ES reductions in week 2 (ES = −0.40 to −0.50), moderate reductions in week 3 (ES = −0.61 to −0.72), and small reductions in week 4 (ES = −0.42 to −0.51) versus week 1 (P > .05). Strong agreement was observed between the ultrashort and criterion values (intraclass correlation coefficient = .979). The ITL:ETL ratio peaked in week 1 (P < .05 vs weeks 2–4), displaying a weekly pattern similar to LnRMSSDCV, and inversely similar to LnRMSSDM. Changes in the ultrashort and criterion LnRMSSDCV from week 1 to 4 were associated with ITL (P < .01). The ultrashort and criterion LnRMSSDCV in week 4 were associated (P < .05) with postcamp fitness. Conclusions: The ultrashort HR variability parameters paralleled the criterion responses, and the associations with ITL and fitness were similar in magnitude.
Øyvind Sandbakk, Thomas Haugen, and Gertjan Ettema
Purpose: To provide novel insight regarding the influence of exercise modality on training load management by (1) providing a theoretical framework for the impact of physiological and biomechanical mechanisms associated with different exercise modalities on training load management in endurance exercise and (2) comparing effort-matched low-intensity training sessions performed by top-level athletes in endurance sports with similar energy demands. Practical Applications and Conclusions: The ability to perform endurance training with manageable muscular loads and low injury risks in different exercise modalities is influenced both by mechanical factors and by muscular state and coordination, which interrelate in optimizing power production while reducing friction and/or drag. Consequently, the choice of exercise modality in endurance training influences effort beyond commonly used external and internal load measurements and should be considered alongside duration, frequency, and intensity when managing training load. By comparing effort-matched low- to moderate-intensity sessions performed by top-level athletes in endurance sports, this study exemplifies how endurance exercise with varying modalities leads to different tolerable volumes. For example, the weight-bearing exercise and high-impact forces in long-distance running put high loads on muscles and tendons, leading to relatively low training volume tolerance. In speed skating, the flexed knee and hip position required for effective speed skating leads to occlusion of thighs and low volume tolerance. In contrast, the non-weight-bearing, low-contraction exercises in cycling or swimming allow for large volumes in the specific exercise modalities. Overall, these differences have major implications on training load management in sports.
Arnaud Hays, Caroline Nicol, Denis Bertin, Romain Hardouin, and Jeanick Brisswalter
Objectives: To identify relevant physiological, mechanical, and strength indices to improve the evaluation of elite mountain bike riders competing in the current Cross-Country Olympic (XCO) format. Methods: Considering the evolution of the XCO race format over the last decade, the present testing protocol adopted a battery of complementary laboratory cycling tests: a maximal aerobic consumption, a force–velocity test, and a multi-short-sprint test. A group of 33 elite-level XCO riders completed the entire testing protocol and at least 5 international competitions. Results: Very large correlations were found between the XCO performance and maximal aerobic power output (r = .78; P < .05), power at the second ventilation threshold (r = .83; P < .05), maximal pedaling force (r = .77; P < .05), and maximum power in the sixth sprint (r = .87; P < .05) of the multi-short-sprint test. A multiple regression model revealed that the normalized XCO performance was predicted at 89.2% (F 3,29 = 89.507; r = .95; P < .001) by maximum power in the sixth sprint (β = 0.602; P < .001), maximal pedaling rate (β = 0.309; P < .001), and relative maximal aerobic power output (β = 0.329; P < .001). Discussion: Confirming our expectations, the current XCO performance was highly correlated with a series of physiological and mechanical parameters reflecting the high level of acyclic and intermittent solicitation of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways and the required qualities of maximal force and velocity. Conclusion: The combination of physiological, mechanical, and strength characteristics may thus improve the prediction of elite XCO cyclists’ performance. It seems of interest to evaluate the ability to repeatedly produce brief intensive efforts with short active recovery periods.
Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, and G. Gregory Haff
Purpose: To analyze the differences in the force–velocity (F–v) profile assessed under unconstrained (ie, using free weights) and constrained (ie, on a Smith machine) vertical jumps, as well as to determine the between-day reliability. Methods: A total of 23 trained participants (18  y) performed an incremental load squat jump test (with ∼35%, 45%, 60%, and 70% of the subjects’ body mass) on 2 different days using free weights and a Smith machine. Nine of these participants repeated the tests on 2 other days for an exploratory analysis of between-day reliability. F–v variables (ie, maximum theoretical force [F 0], velocity [v 0], and power, and the imbalance between the actual and the theoretically optimal F–v profile) were computed from jump height. Results: A poor agreement was observed between the F–v variables assessed under constrained and unconstrained conditions (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] < .50 for all). The height attained during each single jump performed under both constrained and unconstrained conditions showed an acceptable reliability (coefficient of variation < 10%, ICC > .70). The F–v variables computed under constrained conditions showed an overall good agreement (ICC = .75–.95 for all variables) and no significant differences between days (P > .05), but a high variability for v 0, the imbalance between the actual and the theoretically optimal F–v profile, and maximal theoretical power (coefficient of variation = 17.0%–27.4%). No between-day differences were observed for any F–v variable assessed under unconstrained conditions (P > .05), but all of the variables presented a low between-day reliability (coefficient of variation > 10% and ICC < .70 for all). Conclusions: F–v variables differed meaningfully when obtained from constrained and unconstrained loaded jumps, and most importantly seemed to present a low between-day reliability.
Jim McKay, Keith Davids, Sam Robertson, and Carl T. Woods
This is an exciting era for applied research in high-performance sporting environments. Specifically, there are growing calls for researchers to work with coaches to produce “real-world” case examples that offer first-hand experiences into the application of theory. While ecological dynamics has emerged as a guiding theoretical framework for learning and performance in sport, there is a caveat to its use in the field. Namely, there is a general paucity of applied research that details how expert coaches have brought life to its theoretical contentions in practice. In light of this, the current paper offers a unique insight into how a professional Rugby union organization set out to ground their preparation for competitive performance within an ecological dynamics framework. More directly, this paper details how the Queensland Reds designed and integrated a set of attacking game principles that afforded players with opportunities in practice to search, discover, and exploit their actions. While this paper offers insight specific to Rugby union, its learnings are transferrable to coaches in other sports looking to situate their practice design within an ecological dynamics framework.