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Laura Hottenrott, Sascha Ketelhut, Christoph Schneider, Thimo Wiewelhove, and Alexander Ferrauti

Postexercise recovery is a fundamental component for continuous performance enhancement. Due to physiological and morphological changes in aging and alterations in performance capacity, athletes of different ages may recover at different rates from physical exercise. Differences in body composition, physiological function, and exercise performance between men and women may also have a direct influence on restoration processes. Purpose: This brief review examines current research to indicate possible differences in recovery processes between male and female athletes of different age groups. The paper focuses on postexercise recovery following sprint and endurance tests and tries to identify determinants that modulate possible differences in recovery between male and female subjects of different age groups. Results: The literature analysis indicates age- and sex-dependent differences in short- and long-term recovery. Short-term recovery differs among children, adults, and masters. Children have shorter lactate half-life and a faster cardiac and respiratory recovery compared to adults. Additionally, children and masters require shorter recovery periods during interval bouts than trained adults. Trained women show a slower cardiac and respiratory recovery compared to trained men. Long-term recovery is strongly determined by the extent of muscle damage. Trained adults tend to have more extensive muscle damage compared to masters and children. Conclusion: The influence of age and sex on the recovery process varies among the different functional systems and depends on the time of the recovery processes. Irrespective of age and sex, the performance capacity of the individual determines the recovery process after high-intensity and endurance exercise.

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Daniel Weimar, Brian P. Soebbing, and Pamela Wicker

The identification of relevant effects is challenging in Big Data because larger samples are more likely to yield statistically significant effects. Professional sport teams attempting to identify the core drivers behind their follower numbers on social media also face this challenge. The purposes of this study are to examine the effects of game outcomes on the change rate of followers using big social media data and to assess the relative impact of determinants using dominance analysis. The authors collected data of 644 first division football clubs from Facebook (n = 297,042), Twitter (n = 292,186), and Instagram (n = 312,710) over a 19-month period. Our fixed-effects regressions returned significant findings for game outcomes. Therefore, the authors extracted the relative importance of wins, draws, and losses through dominance analysis, indicating that a victory yielded the highest increase in followers. For practitioners, the findings present opportunities to develop fan engagement, increase the number of followers, and enter new markets.

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Erika Zemková, Alena Cepková, and José M. Muyor

This study investigates postural responses to unexpected perturbations induced by a load release of different weights. Groups of 26 men (age 22.6 ± 2.4 years, height 178.0 ± 9.1 cm, and body mass 86.9 ± 11.5 kg) and 21 women (age 21.9 ± 2.7 years, height 168.8 ± 6.8 cm, and body mass 65.3 ± 8.7 kg) underwent load-triggered postural perturbations by 1 and 2 kg while standing on a force plate with either eyes open or eyes closed. Postural perturbations induced by a heavier load, representing about 2% and 3% of body weight in men and women, respectively, led to significantly higher peak anterior and peak posterior center of pressure displacements when compared with a lighter load (29.6% and 45.4%, respectively) both with eyes open (36.9%) and closed (42.1%). Their values were significantly lower in men than women only when a higher load was used (∼25%). However, there were no significant differences in time to peak anterior and posterior center of pressure displacements. These findings indicate that heavier load-induced postural perturbations are greater in women than men regardless of visual conditions. This underlines the importance of loading dose in the magnitude of postural responses to externally induced perturbations.

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Jonpaul Nevin and Paul Smith

Purpose: The aim of the following case study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 30-week concurrent strength and endurance training program designed to prepare a trained H4 male handcyclist (aged 28 y, bilateral, above knee amputee, and body mass 65.6 kg) for a 1407-km ultra-endurance handcycling challenge. Methods: This observational case study tracked selected physiological measures, training intensity distribution, and total training load over the course of a 30-week concurrent training protocol. Furthermore, the athlete’s performance profile during the ultra-endurance challenge was monitored with power output, cadence, speed, and heart rate recorded throughout. Results: Findings revealed considerable improvements in power output at a fixed blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L−1 (+25.7%), peak aerobic power output (+18.9%), power-to-mass ratio (+18.3%), relative peak oxygen uptake (+13.9%), gross mechanical efficiency (+4.6%), bench press 1-repetition maximum (+4.3%), and prone bench pull 1-repetition maximum (+14.9%). The athlete completed the 1407-km route in a new handcycling world record time of 89:55 hours. Average speed was 18.7 (2.1) km·h−1; cadence averaged 70.0 (2.6) rpm, while average power output was 67 (12) W. In terms of internal load, the athlete’s average heart rate was 111 (11) beats per minute. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate how a long-term concurrent strength and endurance training program can be used to optimize handcycling performance capabilities in preparation for an ultra-endurance cycling event. Knowledge emerging from this case study provides valuable information that can guide best practices with respect to handcycling training for ultra-endurance events.

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Anna Witkowska, Małgorzata Grabara, Dorota Kopeć, and Zbigniew Nowak

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Nordic Walking compared to conventional walking on aerobic capacity, the lipid profile, left ventricular ejection fraction, body mass, and body mass index in women over 55 years old. Methods: The study was comprised of 74 women over 55 years of age. Participants were randomized to the Nordic Walking (n = 38) or conventional walking (n = 36) training groups. The echocardiogram, treadmill exercise stress test, lipid profile, and body mass were assessed at baseline (pretest) and after 12 weeks (posttest). Results: The authors found a significant main effect over time in duration (effect size [ES] = 0.59, P < .0001), distance covered (ES = 0.56, P < .0001), peak oxygen consumption (ES = 0.43, P < .0001), metabolic equivalent (ES = 0.29, P < .0001), peak heart rate (ES = 0.2, P < .0001), peak diastolic blood pressure (ES = 0.11, P = .0045), total cholesterol (ES = 0.26, P < .0001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ES = 0.16, P = .0005). The authors did not observe a time versus group interaction or the effect between groups. Post hoc tests revealed significant pretraining to posttraining differences in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after the Nordic Walking training program and in peak diastolic blood pressure after the conventional walking training program. The heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure at rest, peak diastolic blood pressure, somatic parameters (body mass and body mass index), and left ventricular ejection fraction did not change in either group. Conclusions: Both training programs resulted in increases in aerobic capacity and decreases in total cholesterol.

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Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Olga López-Torres, Álvaro Martos-Bermúdez, Lorena Rodriguez-Garcia, Marcela González-Gross, and Amelia Guadalupe-Grau

Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent supervised and unsupervised training program focused on muscle power to counteract the potential changes in sedentary behavior, disability, physical activity (PA), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic domiciliary confinement in prefrail older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Thirty-five older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were assigned to 2 groups according to their frailty status: exercise training group (prefrail or frail; n = 21; 74.7 [4.5] y; 33.3% male) and control group (robust; n = 14; 73.1 [3.9] y; 42.9% male). The exercise training group followed a multicomponent training program focusing on muscle power: supervised (5 wk) and unsupervised (6 wk). The primary outcomes, including PA and sitting time, perceived disability, and HRQoL, were assessed at the baseline and after 11 weeks. Results: At the end of confinement, there were significant decreases in PA in both groups (P < .05). Thus, sitting time increased more in the control group than in the exercise training group (P < .05). The HRQoL measures remained unchanged. Conclusions: Muscle power training before and during mandatory COVID-19 self-isolation in type 2 diabetes mellitus older adults (1) attenuates the COVID-19 domiciliary confinement-related increase in sitting time and (2) slightly decreases the self-reported levels of disability and maintains HRQoL.

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Moe Machida-Kosuga

Mentoring has been identified as an important antecedent for coaches’ professional and leadership development. I examined how the gender composition of head coach and assistant coach mentorship moderates the relationship between the quality of mentorship and assistant coaches’ leadership skills. The participants were 239 pairs of assistant and head coaches in U.S. college sports. The assistant coaches assessed the quality of mentorship with their head coaches, while the head coaches assessed their assistant coaches’ leadership skills. Mentorship quality was generally related to assistant coaches’ leadership skills, yet the relationships were positive and significant for dyads that involve female head coaches and not significant for dyads that involve male head coaches. The results indicate that gender composition may need to be considered in increasing the effectiveness of coaches’ mentorship. The findings inform the current practices in the implementation of mentoring for coaches’ leader development.