Browse

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 16,731 items for :

  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
  • All content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Hyeonho Yu, Pamela H. Kulinna, and Shannon C. Mulhearn

Background: Environmental provisions can boost students’ discretionary participation in physical activity (PA) during lunchtime at school. This study investigated the effectiveness of providing PA equipment as an environmental intervention on middle school students’ PA levels and stakeholders’ perceptions of the effectiveness of equipment provisions during school lunch recess. Methods: A baseline–intervention research design was used in this study with a first baseline phase followed by an intervention phase (ie, equipment provision phase). A total of 514 students at 2 middle schools (school 1 and school 2) in a rural area of the western United States were observed directly using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth instrument. Interviews were conducted with stakeholders. Paired-sample t tests and visual analysis were conducted to explore differences in PA levels by gender, and common comparison (with trustworthiness measures) was used with the interview data. Results: The overall percentage of moderate to vigorous PA levels was increased in both schools (ranging from 8.0% to 24.0%). In school 2, there was a significant difference in seventh- and eighth-grade students’ moderate to vigorous PA levels from the baseline. Three major themes were identified: (1) unmotivated, (2) unequipped, and (3) unquestionable changes (with students becoming more active). Conclusions: Environmental supports (access, equipment, and supervision) significantly and positively influenced middle school students’ lunchtime PA levels.

Restricted access
Restricted access

Danilo Fernandes da Silva, Shuhiba Mohammad, Taniya Singh Nagpal, Sara Carolina Scremin Souza, Rachel C. Colley, and Kristi Bree Adamo

Background: The authors examined whether or not ≤3 days wearing Actical® accelerometers provided acceptable results in comparison with the recommendation of ≥4 days in women across gestation. Methods: A total of 26, 76, and 57 participants at early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively, were assessed. Participants were instructed to wear the device for 7 days and women who wore it for ≥4 days were included. For each participant, 3, 2, and 1 day(s) were randomly selected. Paired comparisons, intraclass correlations coefficients, and kappa statistics were performed for ≥4 days (criterion) versus 3, 2, and 1 day(s). Averages (in minutes per day) of sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) and steps per day were examined. Results: When 3 valid days were compared with the criterion, no significant differences were found for any gestational period. The intraclass correlations coefficients were “high” for all PA-related variables. The k values varied from .819 to .838 across pregnancy (“strong”). Two and 1 valid day(s) versus the criterion showed significant differences in some PA intensities, reduced intraclass correlations coefficients, “moderate” k values for 2 valid days (.638–.788) and “minimal-to-moderate” k values for 1 valid day (.367–.755). Conclusion: In pregnant women during early, mid, and late pregnancy, PA data obtained from 3 valid days of wear was equivalent and agreed with ≥4 valid days.

Restricted access

Laura Prieto, Michael L. Norris, and Luis Columna

The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of people with Parkinson’s (PwP) and their care partners (CPs) who participated in a Parkinson’s-focused community dance class in a northeastern state of the United States. In this qualitative inquiry, participants included five PwP and their respective CPs (n = 5). Three major, recurrent, and interrelated themes emerged from the data. These themes were (a) keep moving, (b) compassion in action, and (c) acceptance and freedom in dance. These themes captured personal and environmental factors that influenced the participation of PwP and their CPs in a dance class and how they perceived that dance influenced their quality of life. The themes described the obstacles, motives, and perceived outcomes of participating in dance. The findings emphasize the need for future dance interventions and programs that consider the CPs’ role in promoting participation for PwP in dance classes.

Restricted access

Elnaz Emadirad, Brad W.N. Temple, Stephanie C. Field, Patti-Jean Naylor, and Viviene A. Temple

Background: Beyond the often examined perceptions of competence and motor skill proficiency, perceived value and children’s expectations for success are thought to affect engagement in physical activities. We used parallel mediation models to examine the direct effect of motor skill proficiency on participation in physical activities, as well as whether children’s beliefs and value for physical activities mediated this relationship. Methods: The participants in this cross-sectional study were a total of 398 grade 3 children (201 girls) from 8 schools. Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the Value Expectancy Questionnaire measured the psychological variables, and the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment measured physical activities. Results: Motor skill proficiency predicted all 3 psychological constructs for the boys and the girls, and boys’ participation in physical activities. However, the psychological variables did not mediate the relationship between motor skills and participation among the boys. For the girls, task value mediated the relationship between motor skills and physical activity participation. Conclusion: It is possible that the girls are further along in their ability to reflect on their competence, successes, and failures; it is also possible that the lower motor skill levels of girls had a deleterious effect on their feelings about participating.

Restricted access

Luca Cavaggioni, Athos Trecroci, Damiano Formenti, Luke Hogarth, Massimiliano Tosin, and Giampietro Alberti

The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in breathing pattern, trunk muscle stabilization, and upper-body muscular power in Paralympic swimmers throughout a competitive season over three time points: October (T1), March (T2), and August (T3). Six top-level Paralympic swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. The Friedman test, the Bonferroni–Dunn multiple comparison post hoc analysis, and Kendall’s W concordance coefficient for the measure of effect were used. A significant difference was found in the breathing pattern, trunk stability, and upper-body power variables from the T1 to T3 season (p < .05). However, no significant changes were found in the T2 season. A long-term assessment of these fitness parameters may be of practical importance for better tailoring the training programs of top-level Paralympic swimmers.

Open access

Guan-Bo Chen, Che-Wei Lin, Hung-Ya Huang, Yi-Jhen Wu, Hung-Tzu Su, Shu-Fen Sun, and Sheng-Hui Tuan

Because of a shortage of health care providers, providing rehabilitation in health care facilities is difficult. Virtual reality–based rehabilitation is effective in older populations. There are only a few studies among patients with sarcopenia. This is a quasi-experimental, single-group, pretest–posttest design evaluating the clinical effectiveness of virtual reality–based progressive resistance training among residents aged over 60 years with sarcopenia in rural care facilities. The authors used Oculus Rift with headsets to provide the virtual reality–based progressive resistance training. The authors administered the program twice per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were dominant handgrip strength, walking speed, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index. Data from 30 participants were analyzed. Significant improvements in handgrip strength and walking speed were observed. Although an increasing trend in appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was observed, it did not reach statistical significance. The authors concluded that the virtual reality–based progressive resistance training is partially effective in older sarcopenic adults in health care facilities.

Restricted access

Yuri de Almeida Costa Campos, Jeferson M. Vianna, Miller P. Guimarães, Hiago L.R. Souza, Raúl Domínguez, Jefferson S. Novaes, Luis F.M. Leitão, Sandro F. Silva, and Victor M. Reis

Purpose: To identify the anaerobic threshold through the lactate threshold determined by Dmax and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) threshold by Dmax and to evaluate the agreement and correlation between lactate threshold determined by Dmax and RPE threshold by Dmax during an incremental test performed on the treadmill in long-distance runners. Methods: A total of 16 long-distance runners volunteered to participate in the study. Participants performed 2 treadmill incremental tests for the collection of blood lactate concentrations and RPE separated by a 48-hour interval. The incremental test started at 8 km·h−1, increasing by 1.2 km·h−1 every third minute until exhaustion. During each stage of the incremental test, there were pauses of 30 seconds for the collection of blood lactate concentration and RPE. Results: No significant difference was found between methods lactate threshold determined by Dmax and RPE threshold by Dmax methods (P = .664). In addition, a strong correlation (r = .91) and agreement through Bland–Altman plot analysis were found. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that it is possible to predict anaerobic threshold from the OMNI-walk/run scale curve through a single incremental test on the treadmill. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility and objectivity of the OMNI-walk/run scale for anaerobic threshold determination.

Restricted access

Lore Metz, Laurie Isacco, Kristine Beaulieu, S. Nicole Fearnbach, Bruno Pereira, David Thivel, and Martine Duclos

Background: While the popularity of aquatic physical activities continues to grow among women, the effects on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite control remain unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of water temperature during aqua-cycling session on EE, rate of perceived exertion, energy intake, appetite sensations, and food reward in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: Participants completed three experimental sessions, in the postprandial condition, in a randomized order: a land control session (CON), an aqua-cycling session in 18 °C (EXO18), and an aqua-cycling session in 27 °C (EXO27). The EE, food intake, appetite sensations, and food reward were investigated for each condition. Results: EXO18 induced a significant increase in EE (p < .001) and oxygen consumption (p < .01) compared with EXO27. The carbohydrate oxidation was higher in EXO18 session compared with EXO27 and CON (p < .05 and p < .001, respectively). While fat oxidation was higher in exercise sessions compared with CONT (p < .01), no difference was observed between EXO18 and EXO27. Exercise sessions did not alter absolute energy intake session but induced a decrease in relative energy intake (p < .001) and in hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption compared with CON (p < .001). The authors also show here that cold-water exposure can increase EE while rate of perceived exertion is lower at the end of exercise session compared with same exercise at 27 °C (p < .05).Conclusion: An exposure to a moderately cold-water during aqua-cycling is an efficient strategy to promote increased EE and decreased hunger, which may be effective for energy balance management in healthy premenopausal women.