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Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Clarice Martins, Michael Duncan, Maria João Lagoa, Susana Vale, and Jorge Mota

Background: To examine the associations between motor competence (MC), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and body mass index (BMI) changes over 1 year in preschoolers. Methods: Fifty-four preschoolers (24 girls; 42.4%) aged 4–5 years old from the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal comprised the sample. Height, body mass, and BMI were calculated. MC was assessed according to the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. MVPA was measured by accelerometry. For each participant, changes in MVPA, MC, and BMI over a year were computed. Different levels of MC were calculated; and then data were analyzed. Results: The MVPA increased over time in all levels of MC in the follow-up. The BMI decreased over time for all levels in follow-up (P = .001). The preschoolers classified as at a high level of MC were more likely to spend more time in MVPA (in minutes) than their counterparts with low MC in follow-up. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted by sex and age, were fit to predict Δ% MC by Δ% MVPA and Δ% BMI. The Δ% MC was positively associated with Δ% MVPA. Conclusion: Increases in MC were positively associated with MVPA. Higher performance in MC increases due to time spent in MVPA. Improvement of MC in young children has potentially relevant policy implications related to MVPA and public health.

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Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Benjamin Larras, Jeremy Vanhelst, Maxime Luiggi, Salome Aubert, Charlotte Verdot, Olivier Rey, Lena Lhuisset, Julien Bois, Nicole Fearnbach, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel

Background: There is an alarming and constant worldwide progression of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents. The present paper summarizes findings from France’s 2020 Report Card on physical activity for children and youth, comparing its results to its 2 previous editions (2016 and 2018). Methods: France’s 2020 Report Card follows the standardized methodology established by the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix, grading 10 common physical activity indicators using the best available evidence. The grades were informed by national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, government and nongovernment reports, and online information. Results: The expert panel awarded the following grades: Overall Physical Activity: D; Organized Sport Participation and Physical Activity: C−; Active Play: INC; Active Transportation: C−; Sedentary Behaviors: D−; Family and Peers: D−; Physical Fitness: D; School: B−; Community and the Built Environment: F; Government: C. Conclusions: This 2020 edition of France’s Report Card again highlights the alarming levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among French children and adolescents, calling for the development of effective national action. It also draws attention to the particular deleterious effects of the COVID-19 confinement on youth’s movement behaviors, which significantly worsened the situation.

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Nicole Cramer, Miriam J. Haviland, Chuan Zhou, and Jason A. Mendoza

Background: A walking school bus (WSB) consists of students and adults walking to and from school and promotes active commuting to school. Self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectations (OE) are behavioral constructs associated with active commuting to school. The authors sought to assess the impact of a WSB program on child SE, and parent SE, and OE. Methods: The authors conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of a WSB intervention from 2012 to 2016 among 22 elementary schools serving racially diverse, low-income populations in Houston, TX and Seattle, WA. Surveys collected data from third- to fifth-grade students and their parents, (n = 418) child-parent dyads, before school randomization and at the school year’s end. Child surveys included 16 SE items, while parent surveys included 15 SE items and 14 OE items. Scores were averaged from responses ranging from 1 to 3. The authors compared changes in SE and OE between groups over time and accounted for clustering using linear mixed-effects models. Results: The intervention group had increases in child SE of 0.12 points (P = .03), parent SE of 0.11 points (P = .048), and parent OE of 0.09 points (P = .02) compared to controls over time. Conclusions: As hypothesized, the WSB improved child SE, parent SE, and parent OE related to active commuting to school.

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Katie R. Hosteng, Jacob E. Simmering, Linnea A. Polgreen, James F. Cremer, Alberto M. Segre, Shelby L. Francis, Kara M. Whitaker, Philip M. Polgreen, and Lucas J. Carr

Background: Regular physical activity is crucial for healthy aging, but older adults are the least active age group. This study explored the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a multilevel mHealth intervention for increasing physical activity of older adults living in a retirement community. Methods: Participants included 54 older adults (mean age = 81.2 y, 77.8% female, 98.1% white) living in a retirement community. Participants received a Fitbit Zip and access to a multilevel mHealth physical activity intervention (MapTrek Residential) for 8 weeks. Physical activity (in steps per day) and intervention compliance (days worn) were measured objectively with the Fitbit for 12 weeks (8-wk intervention plus 4-wk follow-up). Psychosocial outcomes (social support, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations) were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Acceptability outcomes were assessed with an open-ended process evaluation survey and focus groups. Descriptive statistics and linear mixed models were used to examine intervention effects. Results: Participants increased daily steps from 5438 steps per day at baseline (95% CI, 4620 to 6256) to 6201 steps per day (95% CI, 5359 to 7042) at week 8 (P < .0001) but this was not maintained at 12 weeks (P = .92). Conclusions: Our multilevel mHealth physical activity intervention was effective for increasing physical activity older adults over 8 weeks. Additional research focused on maintaining physical activity gains with this approach is warranted.

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I Putu Adiartha Griadhi, I Putu Gede Adiatmika, and I Ketut Tirtayasa

Background: Légong dance is a famous Balinese dance with a dynamic movement. It potentially becomes an exercise of choice to improve young girls’ physical fitness. This study aimed to evaluate légong dance training’s effect on physical fitness compared with aerobic training. Methods: Forty young girls were randomly assigned to the aerobic training (AG) and lègong dance (DG) group and trained with jogging and lègong dancing at moderate-intensity aerobic training. Each was carried out for 30 minutes, 3 times a week, for 6 weeks. Result: Aerobic capacity (estimated maximal oxygen consumption) improved significantly in AG and DG, with a mean difference and Cohen d effect size of 0.36 mL/kg/min and 0.68. The back- and leg-muscle strength increased significantly in DG and AG, with a mean difference of 5.55 kg and 6.67 kg, and an effect size of 0.69 and 0.77. Balance improved significantly in DG and AG, with a mean difference of 21.26 seconds and an effect size of 1.05. All significant values are reported at P < .05. There were no significant improvements in arm muscle strength, body fat percentage, and flexibility in either group (P > .05). Conclusion: Lègong dance training results in significant physical fitness improvement and better results than aerobic training.

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Fatemeh Abbasi, Zeinab Khademi, Rasoul Eslami, and Alireza Milajerdi

Background: Despite several studies on the effects of exercise training on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with breast cancer, no earlier study has systematically summarized their findings. Current systematic review and meta-analysis have been done on earlier clinical trials in this topic. Methods: Relevant studies published up to May 2020 were searched through PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar using predefined keywords. Studies that examined the effect of exercise training on serum glucose and lipid profiles in adult women with breast cancer were included. Results: A total of 16 studies were included. Combining 10 effect sizes, exercise training had no significant influence on serum fasting plasma glucose concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 4.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], −4.65 to 14.29). However, it resulted in significant reduction of serum insulin (WMD = −2.37; 95% CI, −3.57 to −1.16) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (WMD = −0.71; 95% CI, −1.27 to −0.15) in 14 and 8 studies, respectively. Pooling 6 effect sizes, exercise training did not change serum total cholesterol (WMD = −11.99; 95% CI, −32.42 to 8.45), low-density lipoprotein (WMD = −3.21; 95% CI, −10.45 to 4.04), high-density lipoprotein (WMD = 4.13; 95% CI, −6.20 to 14.46), and triglyceride (WMD = −23.34; 95% CI, −66.96 to 20.29) concentrations. Subgroup analyses showed beneficial effects of exercise training on outcomes of interest among studies with higher methodological quality. Conclusion: Current meta-analysis demonstrated significant reductions in serum levels of insulin and insulin resistance following exercise training. However, exercise training had no significant effect on serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Further high-quality studies are needed to shed light on this issue.

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Thaynã Alves Bezerra, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Anastácio Neco de Souza Filho, Cain Craig Truman Clark, Jorge Augusto Pinto Silva Mota, Michael Joseph Duncan, and Clarice Maria de Lucena Martins

Background: The relationship between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and fundamental motor skill (FMS) is inconsistent in early childhood, due to its complex and nonlinear characteristics. This study aimed to analyze the nonlinear relationships between MVPA, FMS, body mass index (BMI), sex, and age in preschoolers. Methods: This cross-sectional study with preschoolers (n = 204; 4.0 [0.8] y old; 99 boys), provided objective physical activity data, FMS assessments, and BMI. The associations between MVPA, FMS, BMI, sex, and age were explored using the network analysis (RStudio and qgraph). Results: Boys were more motor competent than girls in all FMS skills, while girls were more active than boys during the weekend. Older children were less active than their younger peers during these days. MVPA is weak and differently related to each FMS, and the leap skill emerged with the highest betweenness and strength values in the network. Conclusions: For the assessed preschoolers, when considering BMI, age, and sex, the relationships between MVPA and FMS are inconsistent, and leap emerged as the main variable. During early childhood, these variables are connected as part of a complex system in which each skill has a dynamic role within the emerging pattern.

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Oliver Vogel, Daniel Niederer, Jan Wilke, Maike Steinmann, and Lutz Vogt

This study investigates methods of data gathering and management, along with the relationship of lifespan and older adults’ activity. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 47, 81.7 ± 3.6 years) completed the Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire. Current activity was assessed by use of accelerometers. The data were converted to the metabolic equivalent of task hours. Correlations between the main outcomes (metabolic equivalent of task/hour, Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire), as well as individual estimation errors for data adjustments, were computed. The accelerometer and Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire data for the last 12 months’ activity were associated (r = .31, p = .033). The average overestimation in the self-reported data was 176%. The adapted data on lifetime physical activity reveals correlations between older adults’ activity and the activity levels of three 15-year episodes (r = .354; r = .336; r = .323; each p < .05), as well as compliance with guidelines throughout life (Hotelling’s T 2 = 45–164; p ≤ .002). Our findings indicate a relationship between lifetime and older adults’ activity and provide further support for lifelong engagement in physical activity.

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Luciana L.S. Barboza, Heike Schmitz, Julian Tejada, Ellen Caroline M. Silva, Advanusia S.S. Oliveira, Luís B. Sardinha, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: To evaluate the effects of the introduction of physically active lessons on movement behaviors, cognitive, and academic performance in schoolchildren. Methods: This was a cluster-controlled trial. A total of 61 students from the second year of elementary school in a public school in Brazil made up 2 intervention classes (n = 34) with the introduction of physically active lessons and 2 control classes (n = 27). Sedentary behavior, physical activity, cognitive, and academic performance were evaluated in 3 moments, which were compared using models of generalized estimating equations. Results: The intervention was effective for reducing the standing time between the baseline and 3 months while increasing the walking time between baseline and 3 months and baseline and 9 months. There was a reduction in time in stationary activities and increased time in light physical activities between all moments. The intervention group increased their performance in the go/no go test, showing a smaller number of errors between the baseline and 3 months and baseline and 9 months, and a reduction in the test time between baseline and 3 months. No impact on students’ academic performance was observed. Conclusion: Physically active lessons improve movement behaviors and cognitive functions among elementary schoolchildren.

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Roseane de Fátima Guimarães, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Ryan E.R. Reid, Mélanie Henderson, and Tracie Ann Barnett

Background: Behavioral trajectories from childhood to adolescence may differ and are poorly understood. The authors estimated the trajectories of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), screen time, and sleep duration during this period, by sex and initial weight status. Methods: Data from Quebec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth, an ongoing cohort study in Canada on the natural history of obesity, were used. Participants predisposed to obesity attended baseline (8–10 y old, n = 630) and follow-up visits 2 years (n = 564) and 7 years (n = 359) after baseline. Participants with completed self-reported and accelerometer-based data were included in the analyses (n = 191, 353, and 240 for MVPA, screen time, and sleep, respectively). The authors performed group-based trajectory analyses and multinomial logistic regression models. Results: Two MVPA, 3 screen time, and 2 sleep trajectories were identified. Girls were more likely than boys to belong to trajectory with lower MVPA means (odds ratio [OR] = 6.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.08 to 13.49), yet less likely to belong to the trajectory with higher screen time (OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.97) and lower sleep duration (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.78). Overweight or obesity at baseline was associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to the trajectory with lower MVPA (OR = 10.99; 95% CI, 1.31 to 91.14) and higher screen time (OR = 2.01; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.06), respectively. Conclusions: It appears to be gender- and weight-based determinants of behavioral trajectories in this sample. These results may provide guidance for interventions in similar populations.