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Lambros Lazuras, Vassilis Barkoukis, Dmitriy Bondarev, Yannis Ntovolis, Konstantin Bochaver, Nikolaos Theodorou, and Kevin Bingham

Whistleblowing against doping misconduct represents an effective deterrent of doping use in elite competitive sport. The present study assessed the effects of social cognitive variables on competitive athletes’ intentions to report doping misconduct. A second objective was to assess whether the effects of social norms on whistleblowing intentions were mediated by actor prototype evaluations and group identification and orientation. In total, 1,163 competitive athletes from Greece, Russia, and the United Kingdom completed a questionnaire on demographics, past behavior, social cognitive variables, and intentions toward whistleblowing. Regression analyses showed that whistleblowing intentions were associated with different social cognitive variables in each country. Multiple mediation modeling showed that attitudes and subjective norms were associated with whistleblowing intentions indirectly, via the effects of anticipated negative affect and group identification and orientation, respectively. The findings of this study are novel and have important implications about the social, cognitive, and normative processes underlying decision making toward reporting doping misconduct.

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Lenore Dedeyne, Jorgen A. Wullems, Jolan Dupont, Jos Tournoy, Evelien Gielen, and Sabine Verschueren

Tools for objective monitoring of home-based training and physical behavior (PB) in (pre)sarcopenic older adults are needed. The present study explored two approaches with machine learning models, including accelerometer data either with or without additional gyroscope data (in an inertial measurement unit). Twenty-five community-dwelling (pre)sarcopenic adults mean 80.7 [5.5] years) performed the Otago exercise protocol (OEP) and PB modules (e.g., sitting or walking) while wearing an inertial measurement unit on the lower back (Dynaport MoveMonitor; McRoberts, The Hague, The Netherlands). Machine learning (ML) models for classification were developed by two approaches (top-down and bottom-up approaches) and with two levels of classification: general (no wear, OEP, and PB) and detailed (all subclassifications). Classification output was compared with video recordings. For the bottom-up approach, one ML model was developed. For the top-down approach, data were first classified as no wear, OEP, or PB. Thereafter, OEP and PB were subclassified by one ML model each into subclassification. Only classification of the general classification no wear and the subclassification sitting/lying reached the acceptable performance threshold of 80%. This result was independent of the approach used. Moreover, a gyroscope did not improve performance. Despite the progress in ML techniques and monitors, objective compliance registrations remain challenging.

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Stijn V. Mentzel, Bjoern Krenn, Dennis Dreiskaemper, and Bernd Strauss

This study examines the influence of wearing and perceiving colors in a cycling setting while also examining cortisol, heart rate, estimated maximum oxygen consumption, and subjective performance ratings. A total of 99 individuals completed the study, consisting of cortisol measurements, which compared baseline values to those after changing into a red or blue outfit, and a maximum cycling task performed wearing the same outfit while competing against a video opponent in red or blue. Each participant completed the protocol twice on separate days. Wearing a colored outfit showed no influence on cortisol levels. Regarding the cycling task, the participants wearing red had higher maximum heart rate values than when wearing blue. In addition, the results revealed increased maximum heart rate and maximum oxygen consumption values when perceiving an opponent in blue, especially when the participant also wore blue. No differences were found for the median heart rate or performance ratings.

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Karen Milton, Nick Cavill, Anna Chalkley, Charlie Foster, Sjaan Gomersall, Maria Hagstromer, Paul Kelly, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Jacqueline Mair, Matthew McLaughlin, James Nobles, Lindsey Reece, Trevor Shilton, Ben J. Smith, and Jasper Schipperijn

Background: The International Society for Physical Activity and Health (ISPAH) is a leading global organization working to advance research, policy, and practice to promote physical activity. Given the expanding evidence base on interventions to promote physical activity, it was timely to review and update a major ISPAH advocacy document—Investments that Work for Physical Activity (2011). Methods: Eight investment areas were agreed upon through consensus. Literature reviews were conducted to identify key evidence relevant to policymakers in each sector or setting. Results: The 8 investment areas were as follows: whole-of-school programs; active transport; active urban design; health care; public education; sport and recreation; workplaces; and community-wide programs. Evidence suggests that the largest population health benefit will be achieved by combining these investments and implementing a systems-based approach. Conclusions: Establishing consensus on ‘what works’ to change physical activity behavior is a cornerstone of successful advocacy, as is having appropriate resources to communicate key messages to a wide range of stakeholders. ISPAH has created a range of resources related to the new investments described in this paper. These resources are available in the ‘advocacy toolkit’ on the ISPAH website (

Open access

Sebastien F.M. Chastin, Duncan E. McGregor, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Greet Cardon, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Philippa M. Dall, Paddy C. Dempsey, Loretta DiPietro, Ulf Ekelund, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Michael Leitzmann, Emmanuel Stamatakis, and Hidde P. Van der Ploeg

Background: Crucial evidence gaps regarding: (1) the joint association of physical activity and sedentary time with health outcomes and (2) the benefits of light-intensity physical activity were identified during the development of recommendations for the World Health Organization Guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB). The authors present alternative ways to evidence the relationship between health outcomes and time spent in physical activity and SB and examine how this could be translated into a combined recommendation in future guidelines. Methods: We used compositional data analysis to quantify the dose–response associations between the balance of time spent in physical activity and SB with all-cause mortality. The authors applied this approach using 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey accelerometer data. Results: Different combinations of time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, light-intensity physical activity, and SB are associated with similar all-cause mortality risk level. A balance of more than 2.5 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per hour of daily sedentary time is associated with the same magnitude of risk reduction for all-cause mortality as obtained by being physically active according to the current recommendations. Conclusion: This method could be applied to provide evidence for more flexible recommendations in the future with options to act on different behaviors depending on individuals’ circumstances and capacity.

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Simone J.J.M. Verswijveren, Cormac Powell, Stephanie E. Chappel, Nicola D. Ridgers, Brian P. Carson, Kieran P. Dowd, Ivan J. Perry, Patricia M. Kearney, Janas M. Harrington, and Alan E. Donnelly

Aside from total time spent in physical activity behaviors, how time is accumulated is important for health. This study examined associations between sitting, standing, and stepping bouts, with cardiometabolic health markers in older adults. Participants from the Mitchelstown Cohort Rescreen Study (N = 221) provided cross-sectional data on activity behaviors (assessed via an activPAL3 Micro) and cardiometabolic health. Bouts of ≥10-, ≥30-, and ≥60-min sitting, standing, and stepping were calculated. Linear regression models were fitted to examine the associations between bouts and cardiometabolic health markers. Sitting (≥10, ≥30, and ≥60 min) and standing (≥10 and ≥30 min) bouts were detrimentally associated with body composition measures, lipid markers, and fasting glucose. The effect for time spent in ≥60-min sitting and ≥30-min standing bouts was larger than shorter bouts. Fragmenting sitting with bouts of stepping may be targeted to benefit cardiometabolic health. Further insights for the role of standing need to be elicited.

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J.D. DeFreese, Samuel R. Walton, Avinash Chandran, and Zachary Y. Kerr

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes to the structure of sport and the experiences of athletes. In this commentary, we consider how these changes, including schedule disruptions and the early termination of careers, have contributed to a reconsideration of how athlete transition should be defined, examined, and intervened upon. We outline our rationale for this proposed reconfiguration, including implications for researchers and practitioners working with athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. For researchers, we recommend updating the transition definition, reconsidering the measurement of salient transition-related variables, and utilizing study designs/methods that best facilitate this work. For practitioners, we recommend considering the dynamic nature of transition within holistic athlete care, building momentum on mental health destigmatization achieved during the pandemic, athlete transition education, and clinician advocacy for transition-related resources for athletes. Ultimately, we hope this work will spark continued innovations in athlete transition research and practice moving forward.

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Claudio R. Nigg, Xanna Burg, Barbara Lohse, and Leslie Cunningham-Sabo

Purpose: This study used different analytic approaches to compare physical activity (PA) metrics from accelerometers (ACC) and a self-report questionnaire in upper elementary youth participating in the Fuel for Fun intervention. Methods: The PA questionnaire and ACC were assessed at baseline/preintervention (fall fourth grade), Follow-up 1/postintervention (spring fourth grade), and Follow-up 2 (fall fifth grade) of 564 fourth grade students from three elementary schools (50% females, 78% White, and 28% overweight or obese). Different analytic approaches identified similarities and differences between the two methods. Results: On average, self-report was higher than ACC for vigorous PA (range = 9–15 min/day), but lower than ACC for moderate PA (range = 24–30 min/day), light PA (range = 30–36 min/day), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; range = 9–21 min/day). Spearman’s correlations for vigorous PA (.30, .26, and .32); moderate PA (.12, .13, and .14); and MVPA (.25, .25, and .24) were significant at each time point (all ps ≤ .01), whereas correlations for light PA were not significant (.06, .04, and .07; all ps > .05). In repeated-measures analyses, ACC and questionnaire measures were significantly different from each other across the three time points; however, change difference of the two measures over time was only 5.5 MVPA min/day. Conclusions: The PA questionnaire and ACC validated each other and can be used to assess MVPA in upper elementary school children in a similar population to the current study. However, each assessment method captures unique information, especially for light-intensity PA. Multiple PA measurement methods are recommended to be used in research and application to provide a more comprehensive understanding of children’s activity.

Open access

Jason P. Brandenburg, Iris A. Lesser, Cynthia J. Thomson, and Luisa V. Giles

Background: Regular physical activity and higher cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness enhance immune function, possibly reducing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection severity. The aim was to assess the association between physical activity and self-reported CR fitness on COVID-19 infection characteristics. Methods: Participants formerly testing positive for COVID-19 completed an online questionnaire measuring COVID-19 infection characteristics and complications, self-reported CR fitness level, physical activity, and sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Self-reported CR fitness was determined as the pace to cover 4.8 km without becoming overly fatigued (with slow walking, brisk walking, jogging, and running corresponding to low, moderate, good, and excellent levels of fitness, respectively). Results: A total of 263 individuals completed the survey. Compared with the lowest level of self-reported CR fitness, the odds of hospitalization significantly decreased by 64% (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.98; P = .04) in individuals reporting the ability to maintain a brisk walk. In individuals reporting the ability to maintain a jogging pace, the further reduction in hospitalization was not significant (odds ratio = 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.05–1.04; P = .05). For COVID-19 symptom severity and number, there were no significant associations with self-reported CR fitness or physical activity levels. Conclusions: For individuals with low self-reported CR fitness, improving CR fitness represents a strategy to reduce the risk of hospitalization from COVID-19.

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Sylvia E. Badon, Esti Iturralde, Linda Nkemere, Nerissa Nance, and Lyndsay A. Avalos

Background: Physical activity (PA) can help reduce depression symptom severity in women with perinatal depression. However, PA is low, and barriers and motivators for PA among women with perinatal depression are not well understood. Methods: An ethnically diverse sample of women with perinatal depression was identified using a universal perinatal depression screening program. The authors conducted 8 focus groups (4 in pregnant women [n = 15] and 4 in postpartum women [n = 20]). Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 at recruitment. Focus groups were analyzed using an inductive approach. Results: Pregnant participants were 27 weeks gestation, and postpartum participants were 11.5 months postpartum, on average. Depression symptoms were moderately severe (mean Patient Health Questionnaire-8 score: 16). Women identified practical barriers and motivators for PA common to perinatal women (physical health, parental responsibilities, PA tracking tools, and environmental factors) and described emotional and social factors influencing PA. Motivators included using PA to improve mood, relieve stress, boost self-image, and spend time with others. Bad mood, fear of social judgment, and feeling discouraged made it difficult to be active. Conclusion: PA interventions in women with perinatal depression should include components addressing emotional and social barriers to PA in addition to addressing additional common practical barriers to PA.