Sweden has adopted a somewhat different approach to handle the corona pandemic, which has been widely debated both on national and international levels. The Swedish model involves more individual responsibility and reliance on voluntary civic liability than law enforcement, while common measures in other countries are based on more controlling strategies, such as restrictive lockdowns, quarantines, closed borders, and mandatory behavior constraints. This commentary aims to give a brief overview of the foundations of the Swedish model as well as a discussion on how and why it has been adopted in the Swedish society based on Swedish legislations, culture, and traditions. Finally, perspectives on how the Swedish model could be connected to the tenets of self-determination theory will be discussed.
Karin Weman Josefsson
Marziyeh Arman, Lisa M. Barnett, Steven J. Bowe, Abbas Bahram, and Anoshirvan Kazemnejad
The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Perceived Movement Skill Competence scales for Iranian children. In particular, the scales aligned with the second and third versions of the Test of Gross Motor Development and the active play skills. The total sample was 314 children aged 4–8 years (M age = 6.1 years, SD = 1.1). From this, a random sample of 74 were recruited for face validity. The data from the remaining 240 children were used to establish construct validity using Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling. The data from a second random subsample of 126 children were used to investigate Perceived Movement Skill Competence reliability using ordinal alpha coefficients and intraclass correlations coefficients. The majority of children correctly identified the skills and understood most of the pictures. Internal consistency was very good (from 0.81 to 0.95) for all scales and subscales. Test–retest reliability was excellent with intraclass correlation coefficient values above .85. For construct validity, the initial hypothesized models for three-factor (i.e., locomotor, object control, and play skills) and two-factor (i.e., locomotor and object control) models showed a reasonable fit. The pictorial scales for Perceived Movement Skill Competence are valid and reliable for Iranian young children.
Sarah Labudek, Lena Fleig, Carl-Philipp Jansen, Franziska Kramer-Gmeiner, Corinna Nerz, Clemens Becker, Jochen Klenk, and Michael Schwenk
This study examined the applicability of the health action process approach (HAPA) to walking duration in older adults and the added value of extending the HAPA by intrinsic motivation. Self-reports from older adults (N = 309; M age = 78.7, 70–95 years) regarding activity-related intrinsic motivation and HAPA variables were collected at the baseline of a fall prevention intervention study. Walking duration at ≥3 metabolic equivalents of task was measured for 7 days via body-worn accelerometers. Two structural equation models with walking duration as a manifest outcome were specified. In both models, the model fit was acceptable, but intention and planning were not associated with walking duration. Intrinsic motivation was significantly related to most HAPA variables and walking duration. Variance explained for walking duration was R 2 = .14 in the HAPA and R 2 = .17 in the extended model. For explaining older adults’ walking duration, intrinsic motivation, but not HAPA-based intention and planning, seemed to be important.
Manju Daniel, David Marquez, Diana Ingram, and Louis Fogg
Background: South Asian Indian immigrants residing in the United States are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (prevalence ≥35%), diabetes (prevalence 45.4%), and stroke (prevalence 26.5%). This study examined the effect of culturally relevant physical activity interventions on the improvement of physiological measures and average daily steps in at-risk midlife South Asian Indian immigrant women. Methods: In this 2-arm interventional research design, the dance (n = 25) and the motivational phone calls group (n = 25), attended social cognitive theory–based motivational workshops every 2 weeks for the first 12 weeks. Data for weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol level, and 12-lead electrocardiogram were collected at the baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Results: Significant differences were seen in body weight (F
2,94 = 4.826, P = .024;
Andrea Ramírez Varela and Michael Pratt
In 2012, the Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) was established to provide information that would enable countries to initiate or improve research capacity, surveillance systems, program development, and policymaking to increase physical activity levels. Findings from the first GoPA! Country Cards showed an unequal distribution of physical activity surveillance, research productivity, and policy development and implementation around the world. Regular global monitoring of these factors, especially in countries with the largest data gaps, was recommended to combat the global pandemic of physical inactivity. After 6 years and using standardized methods, GoPA! is launching the second set of Country Cards based on data up to 2019 from 217 countries. Overall results showed that periodic national surveillance of physical activity was less common in low-income countries, compared with middle- and high-income countries. Large inequities were seen with more than a 50-fold difference in publications between high- and low-income countries and 32% of the countries worldwide had no physical activity policy. GoPA! has a critical role in facilitating evidence-based physical activity promotion building on international guidelines and the World Health Organization Global Action Plan. GoPA! will continue to monitor progress as we battle the global pandemic of physical inactivity.