Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 8,603 items for :

  • Physical Education and Coaching x
  • All content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Fernando G. Beltrami, Elena Roos, Marco von Ow, and Christina M. Spengler

Purpose: To compare the cardiorespiratory responses of a traditional session of high-intensity interval training session with that of a session of similar duration and average load, but with decreasing workload within each bout in cyclists and runners. Methods: A total of 15 cyclists (maximal oxygen uptake [V˙O2max] 62 [6] mL·kg−1·min−1) and 15 runners (V˙O2max 58 [4] mL·kg−1·min−1) performed both sessions at the maximal common tolerable load on different days. The sessions consisted of four 4-minute intervals interspersed with 3 minutes of active recovery. Power output was held constant for each bout within the traditional day, whereas power started 40 W (2 km·h−1) higher and finished 40 W (2 km·h−1) lower than average within each bout of the decremental session. Results: Average oxygen uptake during the high-intensity intervals was higher in the decremental session in cycling (89 [4]% vs 86 [5]% of V˙O2max, P = .002) but not in running (91 [4]% vs 90 [4]% of V˙O2max, P = .38), as was the time spent >90% of V˙O2max and the time spent >90% of peak heart rate. Average heart rate (P < .001), pulmonary ventilation (P < .001), and blood lactate concentration (P < .001) were higher during the decremental sessions in both cycling and running. Conclusions: Higher levels of physiological perturbations were achieved during decremental sessions in both cycling and running. These differences were, however, more prominent in cycling, thus making cycling a more attractive modality for testing the effects of a training intervention.

Restricted access

Naoya Takei, Jacky Soo, Hideo Hatta, and Olivier Girard

Background: Compared with normoxia, repeated short (5–10 s) sprints (>10 efforts) with incomplete recovery (≤30 s) in hypoxia likely cause substantial performance reduction accompanied by larger metabolic disturbances and magnitude of neuromuscular fatigue. However, the effects of hypoxia on performance of repeated long (30 s) “all-out” efforts with near complete recovery (4.5 min) and resulting metabolic and neuromuscular adjustments remain unclear. Purpose: The intention was to compare acute performance, metabolic, and neuromuscular responses across repeated Wingates between hypoxia and normoxia. Methods: On separate visits, 6 male participants performed 4 × 30-second Wingate efforts with 4.5-minute recovery in either hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen: 0.145) or normoxia. Responses to exercise (muscle and arterial oxygenation trends, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration) and the integrity of neuromuscular function in the knee extensors were assessed for each exercise bout. Results: Mean (P = .80) and peak (P = .92) power outputs, muscle oxygenation (P = .88), blood lactate concentration (P = .72), and perceptual responses (all Ps > .05) were not different between conditions. Arterial oxygen saturation was significantly lower, and heart rate higher, in hypoxia versus normoxia (P < .001). Maximal voluntary contraction force and peripheral fatigue indices (peak twitch force and doublets at low and high frequencies) decreased across efforts (all Ps < .001) irrespective of conditions (all Ps > .05). Conclusion: Despite heightened arterial hypoxemia and cardiovascular solicitation, hypoxic exposure during 4 repeated 30-second Wingate efforts had no effect on performance and accompanying metabolic and neuromuscular adjustments.

Restricted access

Peter Leo, James Spragg, Iñigo Mujika, Verena Menz, and Justin S. Lawley

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the power profile of U23 professional cyclists during a competitive season based on maximal mean power output (MMP) and derived critical power (CP) and work capacity above CP (W′) obtained during training and racing. Methods: A total of 13 highly trained U23 professional cyclists (age = 21.1 [1.2] y, maximum oxygen consumption = 73.8 [1.9] mL·kg–1·min–1) participated in this study. The cycling season was split into pre-season and in-season. In-season was divided into early-, mid-, and late-season periods. During pre-season, a CP test was completed to derive CPtest and W′test. In addition, 2-, 5-, and 12-minute MMP during in-season were used to derive CPfield and W′field. Results: There were no significant differences in absolute 2-, 5-, and 12-minute MMP, CPfield, and W′field between in-season periods. Due to changes in body mass, relative 12-minute MMP was higher in late-season compared with early-season (P = .025), whereas relative CPfield was higher in mid- and late-season (P = .031 and P = .038, respectively) compared with early-season. There was a strong correlation (r = .77–.83) between CPtest and CPfield in early- and mid-season but not late-season. Bland–Altman plots and standard error of estimates showed good agreement between CPtest and in-season CPfield but not between W′test and W′field. Conclusion: These findings reveal that the power profile remains unchanged throughout the in-season, except for relative 12-minute MMP and CPfield in late-season. One pre-season and one in-season CP test are recommended to evaluate in-season CPfield and W′field.

Restricted access

Patrick C. Maughan, Niall G. MacFarlane, and Paul A. Swinton

Purpose: To quantify and describe relationships between subjective and external measures of training load in professional youth soccer players. Methods: Data from differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) and 7 measures of external training load were collected from 20 professional youth soccer players over a 46-week season. Relationships were described by repeated-measures correlation, principal component analysis, and factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results: Significant positive (.44 ≤ r ≤ .99; P < .001) within-individual correlations were obtained across dRPE and all external training load measures. Correlation magnitudes were found to decrease when training load variables were expressed per minute. Principal component analysis provided 2 components, which described 83.3% of variance. The first component, which described 72.9% of variance, was heavily loaded by all measures of training load, while the second component, which described 10.4% of the variance, appeared to have a split between objective and subjective measures of volume and intensity. Exploratory factor analysis identified 4 theoretical factors, with correlations between factors ranging from .5 to .8. These factors could be theoretically described as objective volume, subjective volume, objective running, and objective high-intensity measures. Removing dRPE measures from the analysis altered the structure of the model, providing a 3-factor solution. Conclusions: The dRPE measures are significantly correlated with a range of external training load measures and with each other. More in-depth analysis showed that dRPE measures were highly related to each other, suggesting that, in this population, they would provide practitioners with similar information. Further analysis provided characteristic groupings of variables.

Restricted access

Thimo Wiewelhove, Constantin Thase, Marcel Glahn, Anthony Hessel, Christoph Schneider, Laura Hottenrott, Tim Meyer, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, and Alexander Ferrauti

Purpose: To identify whether the use of active recovery (ACT) the day after high-intensity interval training (HIIT) benefits recovery and to assess whether individual responses to ACT are repeatable. Methods: Eleven well-trained, male intermittent-sport athletes (age: 25.5 ± 1.8 y) completed 4 HIIT sessions, each separated by a 2-week washout period. Of the 4 sessions, 2 were followed by passive recovery (PAS) and 2 by 60 minutes of moderate biking (ACT) 24 hours postexercise in the following sequences: ACT→PAS→ACT→PAS or PAS→ACT→PAS→ACT. Before and after HIIT and after 24 and 48 hours of recovery, maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC), countermovement jump height (CMJ), tensiomyographic markers of muscle fatigue (TMG), serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK), muscle soreness (MS), and perceived stress state (PS) were determined. Results: A 3-way repeated-measure analysis of variance with a triple-nested random effects model revealed a significant (P < .05) fatigue-related time effect of HIIT on markers of fatigue (MVIC↓; CMJ↓; TMG↑; CK↑; MS↑; PS↑). No significant (P > .05) main effect of recovery strategy was detected. In 9 subjects, the individual results revealed inconsistent and nonrepeatable responses to ACT, while a consistent and repeatable positive or negative response to ACT was found in 2 individuals. Conclusions: The repeated failure of ACT to limit the severity of fatigue was found both at the group level and with most individuals. However, a small percentage of athletes may be more likely to benefit repeatedly from either ACT or PAS. Therefore, the use of ACT should be individualized.

Restricted access

Brandon J. Shad, Janice L. Thompson, James Mckendry, Andrew M. Holwerda, Yasir S. Elhassan, Leigh Breen, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Gareth A. Wallis

The impact of resistance exercise frequency on muscle protein synthesis rates remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates over a 7-day period of low-frequency (LF) versus high-frequency (HF) resistance exercise training. Nine young men (21 ± 2 years) completed a 7-day period of habitual physical activity (BASAL). This was followed by a 7-day exercise period of volume-matched, LF (10 × 10 repetitions at 70% one-repetition maximum, once per week) or HF (2 × 10 repetitions at ∼70% one-repetition maximum, five times per week) resistance exercise training. The participants had one leg randomly allocated to LF and the other to HF. Skeletal muscle biopsies and daily saliva samples were collected to determine myofibrillar protein synthesis rates using 2H2O, with intracellular signaling determined using Western blotting. The myofibrillar protein synthesis rates did not differ between the LF (1.46 ± 0.26%/day) and HF (1.48 ± 0.33%/day) conditions over the 7-day exercise training period (p > .05). There were no significant differences between the LF and HF conditions over the first 2 days (1.45 ± 0.41%/day vs. 1.25 ± 0.46%/day) or last 5 days (1.47 ± 0.30%/day vs. 1.50 ± 0.41%/day) of the exercise training period (p > .05). Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were not different from BASAL at any time point during LF or HF (p > .05). The phosphorylation status and total protein content of selected proteins implicated in skeletal muscle ribosomal biogenesis were not different between conditions (p > .05). Under the conditions of the present study, resistance exercise training frequency did not modulate daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in young men.

Restricted access

Matías Henríquez, Aitor Iturricastillo, Arturo González-Olguín, Felipe Herrera, Sonny Riquelme, and Raul Reina

This study compared physical performance in a group of international cerebral palsy football players during two formats of small-sided games (SSGs) and performance in a simulated game (SG) according to players’ sport classes (FT1, FT2, and FT3). Internal load (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) and external load (total distance, distance covered at different velocities, maximum speed reached, acceleration, and deceleration) were obtained with global positioning system devices during two formats of SSGs (2-a-side/SSG2 and 4-a-side/SSG4) and an SG (7-a-side). SSG2 demands faster actions compared with SSG4/SG, and significant differences and large effect sizes were found in the distance covered in Speed Zones 5 (16.0−17.9 km/hr) and 6 (>18.0 km/hr; p < .05; .35<ηp2<.50, large). Lower moderate accelerations and decelerations per minute in SSG4/SG compared with SSG2 were also found (p < .01; .77<ηp2<.81, large). In the SSG2 task, the FT3 players reached maximum speeds, covered more distance at the highest intensities, and performed more moderate/high accelerations/decelerations and more sprints compared with FT1 and FT2 players (p < .05; −0.85 < d g < −4.64, large). The SSG2 task could be the best option for discriminating physical demands in important variables for cerebral palsy football performance between classes FT3 versus FT1/FT2.

Restricted access

Gabriella Whitcomb-Khan, Nick Wadsworth, Kristin McGinty-Minister, Stewart Bicker, Laura Swettenham, and David Tod

This study explored the experiences of elite athletes during the initial stages of lockdown as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The eight recruited participants (three females, five males) were asked to tell a story of their lockdown experience. Narrative analysis was used to explore the athletes’ stories. The athletes’ narrative is best represented in four distinct sections: (a) threat to goals, (b) ongoing consequences, (c) overcoming COVID-19, and (d) adapting to COVID-19. Four narrative themes were also coconstructed from the athletes’ stories: (a) factors athletes found challenging, (b) loss, (c) strategies that benefitted athletes psychologically, and (d) silver linings. Combined, these findings suggest that the initial stages of lockdown are best described as a critical pause. The authors present applied implications for athletes and sport psychology practitioners. The authors also recommend that future research investigate the longitudinal effect of prolonged lockdown on athletes’ lives and a potential return to sport.

Restricted access

Laura Prieto, Michael L. Norris, and Luis Columna

The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of people with Parkinson’s (PwP) and their care partners (CPs) who participated in a Parkinson’s-focused community dance class in a northeastern state of the United States. In this qualitative inquiry, participants included five PwP and their respective CPs (n = 5). Three major, recurrent, and interrelated themes emerged from the data. These themes were (a) keep moving, (b) compassion in action, and (c) acceptance and freedom in dance. These themes captured personal and environmental factors that influenced the participation of PwP and their CPs in a dance class and how they perceived that dance influenced their quality of life. The themes described the obstacles, motives, and perceived outcomes of participating in dance. The findings emphasize the need for future dance interventions and programs that consider the CPs’ role in promoting participation for PwP in dance classes.