Purpose: To determine if generic off-ice physical fitness tests can provide useful predictions of ice hockey players’ match performance. Methods: Approximately 40 to 60 defenders and 70 to 100 forwards from the Norwegian male upper ice hockey league were tested for strength (1-repetition maximum in squat and bench press), power (40-m sprint and countermovement jump), and endurance (hanging sit-ups, chins, and 3000-m run) annually at the end of every preseason period between 2008 and 2017. Measures of match performance were each player’s season mean counts per match of assists, points, goals, penalty minutes, and plus-minus score. Results: Overall, match performance measures displayed trivial to small correlations with the fitness tests. More specifically, points per game had at most small correlations with measures of strength (range, approximately −0.2 to 0.3), speed (approximately −0.2 to 0.3), and endurance (approximately −0.1 to 0.3). After adjustments for age that showed moderate to large correlations with player match performance, multiple-regression analyses of each test measure still provided some predictability among players of the same age. However, players selected for the national team had substantially better mean scores for most tests and match performance measures than those not selected, with a moderate to large difference for age, 1-repetition maximum squat, and 1-repetition maximum bench press. Conclusions: Fitness tests had only marginal utility for predicting match performance in Norwegian hockey players, but those selected into the national team had better general fitness.
Thomas Haugen, Will Hopkins, Felix Breitschädel, Gøran Paulsen, and Paul Solberg
Olivia Bartlett and James L. Farnsworth II
Clinical Scenario: Kinesiophobia is a common psychological phenomenon that occurs following injury involving fear of movement. These psychological factors contribute to the variability among patients’ perceived disability scores following injury. In addition, the psychophysiological, behavioral, and cognitive factors of kinesiophobia have been shown to be predictive of a patient’s self-reported disability and pain. Previous kinesiophobia research has mostly focused on lower-extremity injuries. There are fewer studies that investigate upper-extremity injuries despite the influence that upper-extremity injuries can have on an individual’s activities of daily living and, therefore, disability scores. The lack of research calls for a critical evaluation and appraisal of available evidence regarding kinesiophobia and its contribution to perceived disability for the upper-extremity. Focused Clinical Question: How does kinesiophobia in patients with upper-extremity injuries influence perceptions of disability and quality of life measurements? Summary of Key Findings: Two cross-sectional studies and one cohort study were included. The first study found a positive relationship between kinesiophobia and a high degree of perceived disability. Another study found that kinesiophobia and catastrophic thinking scores were the most important predictors of perceived upper-extremity disability. The third study found that kinesiophobia contributes to self-reported disability in the shoulder. Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate evidence that supports the relationship between kinesiophobia and perceived disability, and the relationship between elevated perceptions of disability and increased kinesiophobia scores in patients with an upper-extremity injury. Clinicians should evaluate and monitor kinesiophobia in patients following injury, a condition that can enhance perceptions of disability. An elevated perception of disability can create a cycle of fear that leads to hypervigilance and fear-avoidance behavior. Strength of Recommendation: Consistent findings from reviewed studies suggest there is grade B evidence to support that kinesiophobia is related to an increased perceived disability following upper-extremity injuries.
Erica H. Gavel, Heather M. Logan-Sprenger, Joshua Good, Ira Jacobs, and Scott G. Thomas
Purpose: The effects of menthol (MEN) mouth rinse (MR) on performance, physiological, and perceptual variables in female cyclists during a 30-km independent time trial (ITT) were tested. Methods: The participants (n = 9) cycled for 30 km in hot conditions (30°C [0.6°C], 70% [1%] relative humidity, 12  km/h wind speed) on 2 test occasions: with a placebo MR and with MEN MR. Handgrip and a 5-second sprint were measured before, following the first MR, and after the ITT. Ratings of perceived exertion Borg 6 to 20, thermal sensation, and thermal pleasantness were recorded every 5 km. Core temperature and heart rate were recorded throughout. Results: The ITT performance significantly improved with MEN MR by 2.3% (2.7%) relative to the placebo (62.6 [5.7] vs 64.0 [4.9] min P = .034; d = 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 2.8 min). The average power output was significantly higher in the MEN trial (P = .031; d = 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 15.0 W). No significant interaction of time and MR for handgrip (P = .581, η2 = .04) or sprint was observed (P = .365, η2 = .103). Core temperature, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, and thermal sensation did not significantly differ between trials at set distances (P > .05). Pleasantness significantly differed between the placebo and MEN only at 5 km, with no differences at other TT distances. Conclusion: These results suggest that a nonthermal cooling agent can improve 30-km ITT performance in female cyclists, although the improved performance with MEN MR is not due to altered thermal perception.
Inmaculada Reina-Martin, Santiago Navarro-Ledesma, Ana Belen Ortega-Avila, Kevin Deschamps, Alfonso Martinez-Franco, Alejandro Luque-Suarez, and Gabriel Gijon-Nogueron
Background: Imaging diagnosis plays a fundamental role in the evaluation and management of injuries suffered in sports activities. Objective: To analyze the differences in the thickness of the Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, plantar fascia, and posterior tibial tendon in the following levels of physical activity: persons who run regularly, persons otherwise physically active, and persons with a sedentary lifestyle. Design: Cross-sectional and observational. Participants: The 91 volunteers recruited from students at the university and the Triathlon Club from December 2016 to June 2019. The data were obtained (age, body mass index, and visual analog scale for quality of life together with the ultrasound measurements). Results: Tendon and ligament thickness was greater in the runners group than in the sedentary and active groups with the exception of the posterior tibial tendon. The thickness of the Achilles tendon was greater in the runners than in the other groups for both limbs (P = .007 and P = .005). This was also the case for the cross-sectional area (P < .01) and the plantar fascia at the heel insertion in both limbs (P = .034 and P = .026) and for patellar tendon thickness for the longitudinal measurement (P < .01). At the transversal level, however, the differences were only significant in the right limb (P = .040). Conclusion: The thickness of the Achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and patellar tendon is greater in runners than in persons who are otherwise active or who are sedentary.
Jordan L. Fox, Jesse Green, and Aaron T. Scanlan
Purpose: To compare peak and average intensities encountered during winning and losing game quarters in basketball players. Methods: Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (age = 23.1 [3.8] y) were monitored during all games (N = 18) over 1 competitive season. The average intensities attained in each quarter were determined using microsensors and heart-rate monitors to derive relative values (per minute) for the following variables: PlayerLoad, frequency of high-intensity and total accelerations, decelerations, changes of direction, jumps, and total inertial movement analysis events combined, as well as modified summated-heart-rate-zones workload. The peak intensities reached in each quarter were determined using microsensors and reported as PlayerLoad per minute over 15-second, 30-second, 1-minute, 2-minute, 3-minute, 4-minute, and 5-minute sample durations. Linear mixed models and effect sizes were used to compare intensity variables between winning and losing game quarters. Results: Nonsignificant (P > .05), unclear–small differences were evident between winning and losing game quarters in all variables. Conclusions: During winning and losing game quarters, peak and average intensities were similar. Consequently, factors other than the intensity of effort applied during games may underpin team success in individual game quarters and therefore warrant further investigation.
Jeffrey B. Driban and Patrick O. McKeon
Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Aitor Iturricastillo, Astrid Aracama, Alba Roldan, and Raúl Reina
Purpose: The objectives of this study were to analyze whether there were differences among para-footballers with different types and degrees of brain impairment (ie, bilateral spasticity, athetosis/ataxia, unilateral spasticity, minimum impairment criteria, or no impairment) in performing 3 football-specific tests requiring ball dribbling, to analyze whether there was an association among the results obtained in the 3 tests, and to determine whether the performance in the tests was associated with competitive level, level of training, or years’ experience in para-footballers with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: A total of 123 footballers took part in the study, 87 of whom were footballers with CP and 36 who were without impairment. Both groups were assessed in 3 football-specific tests (Stop and Go, Turning and Dribbling, and the Illinois Agility Test). Results: The results showed that the footballers without impairment recorded a better performance in all tests (P < .01) in comparison with the CP players. No significant differences in test performance were observed among the CP players from different competitive levels. However, significant differences (P < .01) were observed between players with diplegia or athetosis/ataxia compared with players with hemiplegia or minimum impairment level. Performance in the tests did not correlate with years of football experience, weekly strength training sessions, or specific football training in the footballers with CP (P = .12–.95). Conclusions: These findings suggest the possible inclusion of these tests in the classification process for footballers with CP because they discriminate among functional classes and are resistant to training and competitive level.
Silvia A. González, Olga L. Sarmiento, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Diana M. Camargo-Lemos, and Mark S. Tremblay
Background: Global estimates have shown that a small proportion of children and adolescents are physically active. However, the evidence on physical activity (PA) among Colombian children and adolescents is limited. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and correlates of meeting PA guidelines among Colombian children and adolescents. Methods: Data were collected as part of the National Survey of Nutrition 2015. A national sample of 16,612 children and adolescents (3–17 y) was included. Prevalence estimates of meeting PA and active play guidelines were calculated, and Poisson regression models were conducted to identify correlates of PA. Results: Low proportion of Colombian children and adolescents met the PA guidelines. Low engagement in active play was observed among preschoolers. Correlates varied by age group. Female sex was a consistent negative correlate of meeting PA guidelines across all age groups. Conclusions: Urgent actions are needed to promote active play and PA among Colombian children and adolescents. The correlates identified in our study can help inform the development of actions to overcome the disparities and provide opportunities for children to achieve their full potential for healthy growth and development.
Nicholas C. Clark and Elaine M. Mullally
Context: Single- versus double-leg landing events occur the majority of the time in a netball match. Landings are involved in large proportions of netball noncontact knee injury events. Of all landing-induced anterior cruciate ligament injuries, most occur during single-leg landings. Knowledge of whether different single-leg functional performance tests capture the same or different aspects of lower-limb motor performance will therefore inform clinicians’ reasoning processes and assist in netball noncontact knee injury prevention screening. Objective: To determine the correlation between the triple hop for distance (THD), single hop for distance (SHD), and vertical hop (VH) for the right and left lower limbs in adult female netball players. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Local community netball club. Participants: A total of 23 players (age 28.7 [6.2] y; height 171.6 [7.0] cm; mass 68.2 [9.8] kg). Interventions: There were 3 measured trials (right and left) for THD, SHD, and VH, respectively. Main Outcome Measures: Mean hop distance (percentage of leg length [%LL]), Pearson intertest correlation (r), and coefficient of determination (r 2). Results: Values (right and left; mean [SD]) were as follows: THD, 508.5 (71.8) %LL and 510.9 (56.7) %LL; SHD, 183.4 (24.6) %LL and 183.0 (21.5) %LL; and VH, 21.3 (5.2) %LL and 20.6 (5.0) %LL. All correlations were significant (P ≤ .05), r/r 2 values (right and left) were THD–SHD, .91/.83 and .87/.76; THD–VH, .59/.35 and .51/.26; and SHD–VH, .50/.25 and .37/.17. A very large proportion of variance (76%–83%) was shared between the THD and SHD. A small proportion of variance was shared between the THD and VH (25%–35%) and SHD and VH (17%–25%). Conclusion: The THD and SHD capture highly similar aspects of lower-limb motor performance. In contrast, the VH captures aspects of lower-limb motor performance different to the THD or SHD. Either the THD or the SHD can be chosen for use within netball knee injury prevention screening protocols according to which is reasoned as most appropriate at a specific point in time. The VH, however, should be employed consistently alongside rather than in place of the THD or SHD.
Craig Thomas, Helen Jones, Craig Whitworth-Turner, and Julien Louis
Purpose: (1) To compare the sleep of female players from a professional soccer team to nonathlete controls across an in-season week and (2) to compare the sleep of core and fringe players from the same team on the night after a match to training nights. Methods: Using an observational design, 18 professional female soccer players and 18 female nonathlete controls were monitored for their sleep via wristwatch actigraphy across 1 week. Independent-sample t tests and Mann–Whitney U tests were performed to compare sleep between groups, while an analysis of variance compared sleep on training nights to the night after a match. Results: Soccer players had significantly greater sleep duration than nonathlete controls (+38 min; P = .009; d: 0.92), which may have resulted from an earlier bedtime (−00:31 h:min; P = .047; d: 0.70). The soccer players also had less intraindividual variation in bedtime than nonathletes (−00:08 h:min; P = .023; r: .38). Despite this, sleep-onset latency was significantly longer among soccer players (+8 min; P = .032; d: 0.78). On the night after a match, sleep duration of core players was significantly lower than on training nights (−49 min; P = .010; d: 0.77). In fringe players, there was no significant difference between nights for any sleep characteristic. Conclusions: During the in-season period, sleep duration of professional female soccer players is greater than nonathlete controls. However, the night after a match challenges the sleep of players with more match involvement and warrants priority of sleep hygiene strategies.