Anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent in athletes. The pandemic of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) may increase risk for symptoms due to fear of exposure during competition or uncertainty regarding participation. The current study examined the prevalence of COVID-19 anxiety in 437 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes and its association with psychological symptoms. Only 0.2% of participants endorsed COVID-19 anxiety symptoms above cutoff. COVID-19 anxiety did not change after postponement of fall sports or differ between persons competing in different seasons. However, higher levels of COVID-19 anxiety were significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Though student-athletes generally reported low levels of psychological symptoms, females endorsed significantly higher levels than males. Low levels of COVID-19 anxiety in student-athletes may reflect protective factors (e.g., health knowledge, emotion regulation) or the tendency for this population to minimize psychological symptoms. Further investigations on the psychological impact of COVID-19 in athletes is needed.
Victoria Sanborn, Lauren Todd, Hanna Schmetzer, Nasha Manitkul-Davis, John Updegraff, and John Gunstad
Sangsoo Park, Richard Van Emmerik, and Graham E. Caldwell
The aim of this study was to describe how major leg muscle activities are altered after learning a novel one-legged pedaling task. Fifteen recreational cyclists practiced one-legged pedaling trials during which they were instructed to match their applied pedal force to a target direction perpendicular to the crank arm. Activity in 10 major leg muscles was measured with surface electromyography electrodes. Improved upstroke task performance was obtained by greater activity in the hip and ankle flexor muscles, counteracting the negative effects of gravity. Greater quadriceps activities explained improved targeting near top dead center. Reduced uniarticular knee and ankle extensor downstroke activities were necessary to prevent freewheeling. Greater hamstring and tibialis anterior activities improved targeting performance near the bottom of the pedal stroke. The activity patterns of the biarticular plantarflexors changed little, likely due to their contributions as knee flexors for smooth upstroke pedaling motion. These results add to our understanding of how the degrees of freedom at the muscle level are altered in a cooperative manner to overcome gravitational effects in order to achieve the learning goal of the motor task while satisfying multiple constraints—in this case, the production of smooth one-legged pedaling motion at the designated mechanical task demands.
Pauliina Husu, Kari Tokola, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Harri Sievänen, Jaana Suni, Olli J. Heinonen, Jarmo Heiskanen, Kaisu M. Kaikkonen, Kai Savonen, Sami Kokko, and Tommi Vasankari
Background: Studies measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior on a 24/7 basis are scarce. The present study assessed the feasibility of using an accelerometer at the hip while awake and at the wrist while sleeping to describe 24/7 patterns of physical behavior in working-aged adults by age, sex, and fitness. Methods: The study was based on the FinFit 2017 study where the physical behavior of 20- to 69-year-old Finns was assessed 24/7 by triaxial accelerometer (UKKRM42; UKK Terveyspalvelut Oy, Tampere, Finland). During waking hours, the accelerometer was kept at the right hip and, during time in bed, at the nondominant wrist. PA variables were based on 1-min exponential moving average of mean amplitude deviation of the resultant acceleration signal analyzed in 6-s epochs. The angle for the posture estimation algorithm was used to identify sedentary behavior and standing. Evaluation of time in bed was based on the wrist movement. Fitness was estimated by the 6-min walk test. Results: A total of 2,256 eligible participants (mean age 49.5 years, SD = 13.5, 59% women) wore the accelerometer at the hip 15.7 hr/day (SD = 1.4) and at the wrist 8.3 hr/day (SD = 1.4). Sedentary behavior covered 9 hr 18 min/day (SD = 1.8 hr/day), standing nearly 2 hr/day (SD = 0.9), light PA 3.7 hr/day (SD = 1.3), and moderate to vigorous PA 46 min/day (SD = 26). Participants took 7,451 steps per day (SD = 2,962) on average. Men were most active around noon, while women had activity peaks at noon and at early evening. The low-fit tertile took 1,186 and 1,747 fewer steps per day than the mid- and high-fit tertiles (both p < .001). Conclusions: One triaxial accelerometer with a two wear-site approach provides a feasible method to characterize hour-by-hour patterns of physical behavior among working-aged adults.
Paul Mackie, Gary Crowfoot, Prajwal Gyawali, Heidi Janssen, Elizabeth Holliday, David Dunstan, and Coralie English
Background: Interrupting prolonged sitting can attenuate postprandial glucose responses in overweight adults. The dose–response effect in stroke survivors is unknown. The authors investigated the effects of interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting with increasingly frequent bouts of light-intensity standing-based exercises on the postprandial glucose response in stroke survivors. Methods: Within-participant, laboratory-based, dose-escalation trial. Participants completed three 8-hour conditions: prolonged sitting and 2 experimental conditions. Experimental conditions involved light-intensity standing-based exercises of increasing frequency (2 × 5 min to 6 × 5 min bouts). Postprandial glucose is reported. Results: Twenty-nine stroke survivors (aged 66 y) participated. Interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting with light-intensity standing-based exercises every 90 minutes significantly decreased postprandial glucose (positive incremental area under the curve; −1.1 mmol/L·7 h; 95% confidence interval, −2.0 to −0.1). In the morning (08:00–11:00), postprandial glucose decreased during the 4 × 5 minutes and 6 × 5 minutes conditions (positive incremental area under the curve; −0.8 mmol/L·3 h; 95% confidence interval, −1.3 to −0.3 and −0.8 mmol/L·3 h; 95% confidence interval, −1.5 to −0.2, respectively) compared with prolonged sitting. Conclusion: Interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting at least every 90 minutes with light-intensity standing-based exercises attenuates postprandial glucose in stroke survivors. During the morning, postprandial glucose is attenuated when sitting is interrupted every 60 and 90 minutes.
Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf
Eduardo B. Flores, Thaís Reichert, Juliano B. Farinha, Luiz Fernando M. Kruel, and Rochelle R. Costa
Background: The present study aimed to systematically review the literature on the effects of physical training on neuromuscular parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: The PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were accessed in September 2020. Clinical trials that evaluated the effects of physical training on neuromuscular parameters (maximum strength, resistance strength, muscle power, muscle quality, and muscle thickness) of patients with T1DM compared with a control group were considered eligible. The results were presented as the standardized mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. Effect size (ES) calculations were performed using the fixed effect method, with α = .05. Results: Combined training increased the maximum strength levels in individuals with T1DM to a lesser extent than in healthy individuals (ES: 0.363; P = .038). Strength training increased the maximum strength (ES: 1.067; P < .001), as well as combined training (ES: 0.943; P < .001); both compared with aerobic training in patients with T1DM. Strength training increased the maximum strength in a similar magnitude to combined training in patients with T1DM (ES: −0.114; P = .624). Conclusion: Both combined training and strength training represent effective strategies for improving the maximum strength in individuals with T1DM.
Kelsey Saizew, M. Blair Evans, Veronica Allan, and Luc J. Martin
The authors explored how sport structure predisposed a team to subgroup formation and influenced athlete interactions and team functioning. A season-long qualitative case study was undertaken with a nationally ranked Canadian track and field team. Semistructured interviews were conducted with coaches (n = 4) and athletes (n = 11) from different event groups (e.g., sprinters, jumpers) at the beginning and at the end of the season. The results highlighted constraints that directly impacted athlete interactions and predisposed the group to subgroup formation (e.g., sport/event type, facility/schedule limitations, team size/change over time). The constraints led to structural divides that impacted interactions but could be overcome through team building, engaging with leaders, and prioritizing communication. These findings underline how structure imposed by the design of sports impacts teammate interactions and how practitioners, coaches, and athletes can manage groups when facing such constraints. The authors describe theoretical and practical implications while also proposing potential future directions.
Benjamin Noël and Stefanie Klatt
Most studies on offside decision making in soccer have not addressed rather simplistic situational probabilities like the number of players involved in an offside situation. In three studies (one observational and two experimental), the authors tried to assess whether the number of players close to the offside situation can predict the quality of offside decision making. In all three studies, they found that the presence of additional players negatively affected the percentage of correct decisions. The exact relationship between the number of players and the decrease in decision-making performance differed between the studies, though. Importantly, there was a negative influence of the number of players on decision-making quality in Studies 2 and 3, even though the authors tried to add players clearly farther away from the offside line than the relevant pair of players. This points to a crowding effect as a potential explanation for why decision-making quality decreases with an increasing number of players.
Eugene C. Fitzhugh, Jerry Everett, and Linda Daugherty
Background: School-aged children in the Southeast, compared with other United States of America (US) regions, have significantly lower levels of active transportation to school (ATS). The purpose of this study was to contrast the parental correlates of ATS choice specific to the Southeast with other areas of the US. Methods: This study utilized national data from 2952 households with school-aged children located within a 20-minute walk to a school. Parents reported their children’s ATS behavior and their own ATS beliefs and perceptions. Logistic regression contrasted correlates of parents from the Southeast with other regions. Results: Parents in the Southeast, compared with parents across the US, were significantly less likely to allow their child to take ATS (12.9% vs 33.3%, respectively) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36–0.59). Specific to the Southeast, parental correlates linked to increases in ATS were Black race/ethnicity (OR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.31–2.60), being single, (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15–2.54), and any parental physical activity (P value for trend = .0053). The only correlate associated with a decrease in ATS in the Southeast was heightened safety concerns (eg, traffic speed, safe crossings) (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.84). Conclusions: Among households with children in the Southeast, ATS interventions that allay parental safety concerns and that promote physical activity among parents might lead to increases in ATS.