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Joanne A. McVeigh, Jennifer Ellis, Caitlin Ross, Kim Tang, Phoebe Wan, Rhiannon E. Halse, Satvinder Singh Dhaliwal, Deborah A. Kerr, and Leon Straker

Activity trackers provide real-time sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) data enabling feedback to support behavior change. The validity of activity trackers in an obese population in a free-living environment is largely unknown. This study determined the convergent validity of the Fitbit Charge 2 in measuring SB and PA in overweight adults. The participants (n = 59; M ± SD: age = 48 ± 11 years; body mass index = 34 ± 4 kg/m2) concurrently wore a Charge 2 and ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 8 days. The same waking wear periods were analyzed, and standard cut points for GT3X+ and proprietary algorithms for the Charge 2, together with a daily step count, were used. Associations between outputs, mean difference (MD) and limits of agreement (LOA), and relative differences were assessed. There was substantial association between devices (intraclass correlation coefficients from .504, 95% confidence interval [.287, .672] for SB, to .925, 95% confidence interval [.877, .955] for step count). In comparison to the GT3X+, the Charge 2 overestimated SB (MD = 37, LOA = −129 to 204 min/day), moderate to vigorous PA (MD = 15, LOA = −49 to 79 min/day), and steps (MD = 1,813, LOA = −1,066 to 4,691 steps/day), and underestimated light PA (MD = −32, LOA = −123 to 58 min/day). The Charge 2 may be a useful tool for self-monitoring of SB and PA in an overweight population, as mostly good agreement was demonstrated with the GT3X+. However, there were mean and relative differences, and the implications of these need to be considered for overweight adult populations who are already at risk of being highly sedentary and insufficiently active.

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Karl Spiteri, Kate Grafton, John Xerri de Caro, and David Broom

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is a widely used self-reported physical activity (PA) measure developed to allow for international cross-country comparisons. Due to its unavailability, the aim of this study was to translate the IPAQ-long to Maltese and undertake reliability testing. The IPAQ-long English version was translated into Maltese following the IPAQ guidelines, which included backwards translation. Maltese-speaking participants, aged between 18 and 69 years, were recruited through convenience sampling (n = 170). Participants completed the IPAQ-long twice within an 8- to 48-hr period. PA was calculated in MET minutes per week, and reliability was calculated using the Spearman correlation, intraclass correlation coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient, and Bland–Altman plots. A total of 155 participants completed the questionnaire at two time points. Spearman correlation was .83 (.76–.88) for total PA and .84 (.77–.89) for total sitting time. The intraclass correlation coefficient was .83 (.76–.88) and the concordance correlation coefficient was .75–.87 for total PA. The lowest reliability was for total transport, with a concordance correlation coefficient of .21−.45. Bland–Altman plots highlight that 95% of the differences fell within 2 SDs from the mean. Since the Maltese IPAQ-long has similar reliability to the English version, the authors recommend that health care professionals and PA practitioners use this tool when examining population-level PA among Maltese-speaking individuals.

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Kasper Salin, Anna Kankaanpää, Xiaolin Yang, Tuija H. Tammelin, Costan G. Magnussen, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Jorma S.A. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari, and Mirja Hirvensalo

Background: To examine if major life changes over a 4-year period among 34- to 49-year-old adults (mean = 41.8, SD = 5.0) were associated with a change in physical activity in men (37.7%) and women (62.3%). Methods: Daily steps and aerobic steps (steps that lasted for at least 10 min without interruption at a pace of >60 steps/min) were collected from 1051 participants in 2007 and 2011. Changes in marital status, work status, and residence and the birth of a child were determined from both time points. A latent change score model was used to examine mean changes in daily total steps, aerobic steps, and nonaerobic steps (total steps minus aerobic steps). Results: Women who had a first child in the 4-year period had a decrease in their nonaerobic steps (P = .001). Men who divorced in the 4-year period had a decrease in their nonaerobic steps (P = .020), whereas women who recoupled decreased their total steps (P = .030). Conclusions: Counseling for parents having a first child on how to increase physical activity in their everyday life could potentially have an influence on an individual’s physical activity.

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Xiyao Shan, Pavlos Evangelidis, Takaki Yamagishi, Shun Otsuka, Fumiko Tanaka, Shigenobu Shibata, and Yasuo Kawakami

This study investigated (a) site- and direction-dependent variations of passive triceps surae aponeurosis stiffness and (b) the relationships between aponeurosis stiffness and muscle strength and walking performance in older individuals. Seventy-nine healthy older adults participated in this study. Shear wave velocities of the triceps surae aponeuroses at different sites and in two orthogonal directions were obtained in a prone position at rest using supersonic shear imaging. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque of the plantar flexors and normal (preferred) and fast (fastest possible) walking speeds (5-m distance) were also measured. The shear wave velocities of the adjoining aponeuroses were weakly associated with plantar flexion torque (r = .23–.34), normal (r = .26), and fast walking speed (r = .25). The results show clear spatial variations and anisotropy of the triceps surae aponeuroses stiffness in vivo, and the aponeurosis stiffness was associated with physical ability in older adults.

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Craig Pickering, Dylan Hicks, and John Kiely

Elite sprint performances typically peak during an athlete’s 20s and decline thereafter with age. The mechanisms underpinning this sprint performance decline are often reported to be strength-based in nature with reductions in strength capacities driving increases in ground contact time and decreases in stride lengths and frequency. However, an as-of-yet underexplored aspect of Masters sprint performance is that of age-related degradation in neuromuscular infrastructure, which manifests as a decline in both strength and movement coordination. Here, the authors explore reductions in sprint performance in Masters athletes in a holistic fashion, blending discussion of strength and power changes with neuromuscular alterations along with mechanical and technical age-related alterations. In doing so, the authors provide recommendations to Masters sprinters—and the aging population, in general—as to how best to support sprint ability and general function with age, identifying nutritional interventions that support performance and function and suggesting useful programming strategies and injury-reduction techniques.

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Julie Freedman, Sally Hage, and Paula A. Quatromoni

Male athletes are underrepresented in eating disorders research. This phenomenological study investigated the experiences of male athletes who self-identified as having an eating disorder, disordered eating, or compulsive exercise behaviors. Eight male collegiate athletes were interviewed, and qualitative analysis identified factors associated with the onset and maintenance of disordered behaviors. Among the novel findings was the salient influence of social media as a driver of body dissatisfaction and disordered behaviors. The participants described a perceived sense of control and feeling of pride associated with the use of behaviors, cultural norms in a male sport environment that sustained these behaviors, and a shared belief that, until they experienced a loss of control over their use of behaviors, they would not likely ask for help or seek treatment. These findings have implications for additional research, as well as individual and systems-level strategies for the prevention, screening, and treatment of eating and exercise disorders in male sport.

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Caroline Pereira Santos, Mahara Proença, Tamara dos Santos Gouveia, Crystian Bitencourt Soares de Oliveira, Guilherme Yassuki Tacao, Iara Buriola Trevisan, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, and Dionei Ramos

Background: The specific benefits of aerobic exercises in smoking cessation are unclear, as they have different characteristics, intensities, and durations. The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise, with or without co-interventions, compared with a control group of cognitive behavior treatment on smoking cessation. Methods: This review was prospectively registered on PROSPERO, and the searches were performed from 2016 to 2018. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of aerobic exercise, with or without nicotine therapy replacement, compared with usual care were included. The primary outcome was smoking cessation defined as the prevalence of those who quit or continuous abstinence. Meta-analysis was calculated using random effects model in the comprehensive meta-analysis software. Results: The authors identified 18 trials reporting data for a total of 2815 participants. There was moderate-quality evidence that aerobic exercise was better than usual care in promoting smoking cessation at short term (11 trials, risk ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–0.94). However, there were no differences between aerobic exercises and usual care at medium- or long-term follow-ups. Conclusions: According to review, aerobic exercise may be effective in promoting smoking cessation at short-term, but not at medium- and long-term follow-ups.

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Antje Ullrich, Sophie Baumann, Lisa Voigt, Ulrich John, and Sabina Ulbricht

Background: The purposes of this study were to examine accelerometer measurement reactivity (AMR) in sedentary behavior (SB), physical activity (PA), and accelerometer wear time in 2 measurement periods and to quantify AMR as a human-related source of bias for the reproducibility of SB and PA estimates. Methods: In total, 136 participants (65% women, mean age = 54.6 y) received 7-day accelerometry at the baseline and after 12 months. Latent growth models were used to identify AMR. Intraclass correlations were calculated to examine the reproducibility using 2-level mixed-effects linear regression analyses. Results: Within each 7-day accelerometry assessment, the participants increased their time spent in SB (b = 2.4 min/d; b = 3.8 min/d) and reduced their time spent in light PA (b = −2.0 min/d; b = −3.2 min/d), but did not change moderate to vigorous PA. The participants reduced their wear time (b = −5.2 min/d) only at the baseline. The intraclass correlations ranged from .42 for accelerometer wear time to .74 for SB. The AMR was not identified as a source of bias in any regression model. Conclusions: AMR may influence SB and PA estimates differentially. Although 7-day accelerometry seems to be a reproducible measure, our findings highlight accelerometer wear time as a crucial confounder in analyzing SB and PA data.

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Matthew D. Bird, Eadie E. Simons, and Patricia C. Jackman

Mental toughness has been associated with factors related to psychological well-being, but little is known about its relationship with stigma toward mental health and mental health help-seeking. This study investigated the relationship between mental toughness, sport-related well-being, and personal stigma toward mental health in a sample of 154 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes. The moderating effect of mental toughness on the relationship between public stigma and self-stigma toward mental health help-seeking was also explored. Mental toughness was significantly and positively associated with sport-related well-being, but not significantly related to personal stigma toward mental health. Moderation analysis indicated that mental toughness was not a significant moderator of the relationship between public stigma and self-stigma, but higher levels of mental toughness were significantly associated with lower levels of stigma toward mental health help-seeking. Building mental toughness may be a way to increase well-being and to reduce stigma toward help-seeking in student-athletes.

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Rodrigo Torres-Castro, Luis Vasconcello-Castillo, Roberto Acosta-Dighero, Nicolás Sepúlveda-Cáceres, Marisol Barros-Poblete, Homero Puppo, Roberto Vera-Uribe, Jordi Vilaró, and Mario Herrera-Romero

Background: The literature is unclear as to whether children and adolescents with chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) differ from their healthy peers in physical activity (PA). Objective: To determine the PA levels measured through accelerometers in children and adolescents with CRDs. Methods: The authors conducted a systematic review using five databases. The authors included studies that assessed the PA measured by accelerometers in children and adolescents with CRDs. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Results: From 11,497 reports returned by the initial search, 29 articles reporting on 4381 patients were included. In the sensitivity analysis, the authors found that children and adolescents with CRDs had a moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) of −0.08 hours per day (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.12 to −0.03 h/d; P = .001), which was lower than the healthy controls; the values for sedentary time (mean difference −0.47 h/d; 95% CI, −1.29 to 0.36 h/d; P = .27) and steps/d (mean difference 361 steps/d; 95% CI −385 to 1707 steps/d; P = .45) were similar for both. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with CRDs have a slight reduction in MVPA in comparison with healthy controls, but sedentary time and steps/d were similar for both.