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Paul R. Hibbing, Nicholas R. Lamoureux, Charles E. Matthews, and Gregory J. Welk

Physical behavior can be assessed using a range of competing methods. The Free-Living Activity Study for Health (FLASH) is an ongoing study that facilitates the comparison of such methods. The purpose of this report is to describe the FLASH, with a particular emphasis on a subsample of participants who have consented to have their deidentified data released in a shared repository. Participants in the FLASH wear seven physical activity monitors for a 24-hr period and then complete a detailed recall using the Activities Completed Over Time in 24-hr online assessment tool. The participants can optionally agree to be video recorded for 30–60 min, which allows for direct observation as a criterion indicator of their behavior during that period. As of version 0.1.0, the repository includes data from 38 participants, and the sample size will grow as data are collected, processed, and released in future versions. The repository makes it possible to combine sensor data (e.g., from ActiGraph and SenseWear) with minute-by-minute contextual data (from the Activities Completed Over Time in 24-hr recall system), which enables the FLASH to generate benchmark data for a wide range of future research. The repository itself provides an example of how a powerful open-source tool (GitHub) can be used to share data and code in a way that encourages communication and collaboration among a variety of scientists (e.g., algorithm developers and end users). The FLASH data set will provide long-term benefits to researchers interested in advancing the science of physical behavior monitoring.

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S. Maria O’Kane, Ian M. Lahart, Alison M. Gallagher, Angela Carlin, Maria Faulkner, Russell Jago, and Marie H. Murphy

Background: To suppress the transmission of coronavirus, many governments, including that of the island of Ireland, implemented a societal lockdown, which included school closures, limits on social gatherings, and time outdoors. This study aimed to evaluate changes in physical activity (PA), mental health, sleep, and social media use among adolescent girls during lockdown. Methods: 281 female pupils (12–14 y) taking part in the ongoing Walking In Schools study on the island of Ireland self-reported PA, mental health, sleep, and social media use before (September–October 2019) and during lockdown (May–June 2020), via questionnaires. These were supplemented with open-ended structured interviews conducted with 16 girls during lockdown. Results: During the period of lockdown and school closures, pupils tried new forms of PA and undertook PA with family, but there was no significant change in self-reported PA. There was a decline in health-related quality of life and motivation for exercise; however, self-efficacy for walking and happiness with appearance increased. There was no change in sleep quality or social media usage. Conclusions: Despite the many challenges that schools face as they reopen, there is a need to continue to prioritize PA and motivation for exercise to support health and well-being in adolescent girls.

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Oliver W.A. Wilson, Michael J. Panza, M. Blair Evans, and Melissa Bopp

Background: The purpose of this scoping review was to critically examine the design and quality of contemporary research involving college student physical activity participation, focusing on physical activity measurement, assessment of sociodemographic characteristics, and examination of inequities based on sociodemographic characteristics. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in 4 electronic databases. Results: From 28,951 sources screened, data were extracted from 488 that met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies were cross-sectional in design (91.4%) and employed convenience sampling methods (83.0%). Based on the subsample of studies that reported the percentage of students meeting aerobic (n = 158; equivalent of 150 min/wk of moderate physical activity) and muscle-strengthening activity recommendations (n = 8; ≥2 times/wk), 58.7% and 47.8% of students met aerobic and muscle-strengthening recommendations, respectively. With the exception of age and sex, sociodemographic characteristics were rarely assessed, and inequities based upon them were even more scarcely examined—with no apparent increase in reporting over the past decade. Conclusions: College student physical activity levels remain concerningly low. The generalizability of findings from the contemporary literature is limited due to study design, and acknowledgement of the influence that sociodemographic characteristics have on physical activity has largely been overlooked. Recommendations for future research directions and practices are provided.

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Mary E. Medysky, Kelcey A. Bland, Sarah E. Neil-Sztramko, Kristin L. Campbell, Donald R. Sullivan, and Kerri M. Winters-Stone

The authors systematically reviewed and summarized exercise trials in persons with lung cancer on (a) attention to the principles of exercise training (specificity, progression, overload, initial values, reversibility, and diminishing returns); (b) methodological reporting of FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) components; and (c) reporting on participant adherence to prescribed FITT. Randomized controlled trials of exercise that reported on ≥1 physical fitness, physical function, or body composition outcome in persons with lung cancer were included. Of 20 trial arms, none incorporated all principles of exercise training. Specificity was included by 95%, progression by 45%, overload by 75%, and initial values by 80%, while one trial arm applied reversibility and diminishing returns. Fourteen interventions reported all FITT components; however, none reported adherence to each component. Including the principles of training and reporting FITT components will contribute to better understanding of the efficacy of exercise for persons with lung cancer and inform evidence-based exercise prescriptions.

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Victoria Sanborn, Lauren Todd, Hanna Schmetzer, Nasha Manitkul-Davis, John Updegraff, and John Gunstad

Anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent in athletes. The pandemic of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) may increase risk for symptoms due to fear of exposure during competition or uncertainty regarding participation. The current study examined the prevalence of COVID-19 anxiety in 437 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes and its association with psychological symptoms. Only 0.2% of participants endorsed COVID-19 anxiety symptoms above cutoff. COVID-19 anxiety did not change after postponement of fall sports or differ between persons competing in different seasons. However, higher levels of COVID-19 anxiety were significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Though student-athletes generally reported low levels of psychological symptoms, females endorsed significantly higher levels than males. Low levels of COVID-19 anxiety in student-athletes may reflect protective factors (e.g., health knowledge, emotion regulation) or the tendency for this population to minimize psychological symptoms. Further investigations on the psychological impact of COVID-19 in athletes is needed.

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Sangsoo Park, Richard Van Emmerik, and Graham E. Caldwell

The aim of this study was to describe how major leg muscle activities are altered after learning a novel one-legged pedaling task. Fifteen recreational cyclists practiced one-legged pedaling trials during which they were instructed to match their applied pedal force to a target direction perpendicular to the crank arm. Activity in 10 major leg muscles was measured with surface electromyography electrodes. Improved upstroke task performance was obtained by greater activity in the hip and ankle flexor muscles, counteracting the negative effects of gravity. Greater quadriceps activities explained improved targeting near top dead center. Reduced uniarticular knee and ankle extensor downstroke activities were necessary to prevent freewheeling. Greater hamstring and tibialis anterior activities improved targeting performance near the bottom of the pedal stroke. The activity patterns of the biarticular plantarflexors changed little, likely due to their contributions as knee flexors for smooth upstroke pedaling motion. These results add to our understanding of how the degrees of freedom at the muscle level are altered in a cooperative manner to overcome gravitational effects in order to achieve the learning goal of the motor task while satisfying multiple constraints—in this case, the production of smooth one-legged pedaling motion at the designated mechanical task demands.

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Pauliina Husu, Kari Tokola, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Harri Sievänen, Jaana Suni, Olli J. Heinonen, Jarmo Heiskanen, Kaisu M. Kaikkonen, Kai Savonen, Sami Kokko, and Tommi Vasankari

Background: Studies measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior on a 24/7 basis are scarce. The present study assessed the feasibility of using an accelerometer at the hip while awake and at the wrist while sleeping to describe 24/7 patterns of physical behavior in working-aged adults by age, sex, and fitness. Methods: The study was based on the FinFit 2017 study where the physical behavior of 20- to 69-year-old Finns was assessed 24/7 by triaxial accelerometer (UKKRM42; UKK Terveyspalvelut Oy, Tampere, Finland). During waking hours, the accelerometer was kept at the right hip and, during time in bed, at the nondominant wrist. PA variables were based on 1-min exponential moving average of mean amplitude deviation of the resultant acceleration signal analyzed in 6-s epochs. The angle for the posture estimation algorithm was used to identify sedentary behavior and standing. Evaluation of time in bed was based on the wrist movement. Fitness was estimated by the 6-min walk test. Results: A total of 2,256 eligible participants (mean age 49.5 years, SD = 13.5, 59% women) wore the accelerometer at the hip 15.7 hr/day (SD = 1.4) and at the wrist 8.3 hr/day (SD = 1.4). Sedentary behavior covered 9 hr 18 min/day (SD = 1.8 hr/day), standing nearly 2 hr/day (SD = 0.9), light PA 3.7 hr/day (SD = 1.3), and moderate to vigorous PA 46 min/day (SD = 26). Participants took 7,451 steps per day (SD = 2,962) on average. Men were most active around noon, while women had activity peaks at noon and at early evening. The low-fit tertile took 1,186 and 1,747 fewer steps per day than the mid- and high-fit tertiles (both p < .001). Conclusions: One triaxial accelerometer with a two wear-site approach provides a feasible method to characterize hour-by-hour patterns of physical behavior among working-aged adults.

Open access

Paul Mackie, Gary Crowfoot, Prajwal Gyawali, Heidi Janssen, Elizabeth Holliday, David Dunstan, and Coralie English

Background: Interrupting prolonged sitting can attenuate postprandial glucose responses in overweight adults. The dose–response effect in stroke survivors is unknown. The authors investigated the effects of interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting with increasingly frequent bouts of light-intensity standing-based exercises on the postprandial glucose response in stroke survivors. Methods: Within-participant, laboratory-based, dose-escalation trial. Participants completed three 8-hour conditions: prolonged sitting and 2 experimental conditions. Experimental conditions involved light-intensity standing-based exercises of increasing frequency (2 × 5 min to 6 × 5 min bouts). Postprandial glucose is reported. Results: Twenty-nine stroke survivors (aged 66 y) participated. Interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting with light-intensity standing-based exercises every 90 minutes significantly decreased postprandial glucose (positive incremental area under the curve; −1.1 mmol/L·7 h; 95% confidence interval, −2.0 to −0.1). In the morning (08:00–11:00), postprandial glucose decreased during the 4 × 5 minutes and 6 × 5 minutes conditions (positive incremental area under the curve; −0.8 mmol/L·3 h; 95% confidence interval, −1.3 to −0.3 and −0.8 mmol/L·3 h; 95% confidence interval, −1.5 to −0.2, respectively) compared with prolonged sitting. Conclusion: Interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting at least every 90 minutes with light-intensity standing-based exercises attenuates postprandial glucose in stroke survivors. During the morning, postprandial glucose is attenuated when sitting is interrupted every 60 and 90 minutes.

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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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Eduardo B. Flores, Thaís Reichert, Juliano B. Farinha, Luiz Fernando M. Kruel, and Rochelle R. Costa

Background: The present study aimed to systematically review the literature on the effects of physical training on neuromuscular parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: The PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were accessed in September 2020. Clinical trials that evaluated the effects of physical training on neuromuscular parameters (maximum strength, resistance strength, muscle power, muscle quality, and muscle thickness) of patients with T1DM compared with a control group were considered eligible. The results were presented as the standardized mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. Effect size (ES) calculations were performed using the fixed effect method, with α = .05. Results: Combined training increased the maximum strength levels in individuals with T1DM to a lesser extent than in healthy individuals (ES: 0.363; P = .038). Strength training increased the maximum strength (ES: 1.067; P < .001), as well as combined training (ES: 0.943; P < .001); both compared with aerobic training in patients with T1DM. Strength training increased the maximum strength in a similar magnitude to combined training in patients with T1DM (ES: −0.114; P = .624). Conclusion: Both combined training and strength training represent effective strategies for improving the maximum strength in individuals with T1DM.