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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Jefferson Rodrigues Dorneles, Guilherme Henrique Lopes, José Irineu Gorla, and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

Context: Monitoring training loads and consequent fatigue responses are usually a result of personal trainers’ experiences and an adaptation of methods used in sports for people without disabilities. Currently, there is little scientific evidence on the relationship between training load and fatigue resulting from training sessions in wheelchair sports. Analogous to the vertical jump, which has been associated with competitive performance and used to assess fatigue in Olympic sports, the medicine ball throw (MBT) is a fast, feasible, and accessible test that might be used to measure performance outcomes in Paralympic athletes. Objective: To test the MBT responsiveness to detect meaningful changes after training sessions in beginner wheelchair basketball players (WBP). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Paralympic Program. Participants: Twelve male WBP. Main Outcomes Measures: The participants performed 3 consecutive days of training sessions involving exercises of wheelchair basketball skills, strength, and power. The MBT test was performed pre and post training sessions. Results: The smallest worthwhile change for MBT was 0.10 cm, and the lower and upper limits were 3.54 and 3.75 m, respectively. On the first day, the MBT started below the smallest worthwhile change lower limit and increased above the upper limit (3.53 and 3.78 m, respectively). On the second day, the MBT pretraining and posttraining session results were near the sample mean (3.62 and 3.59 m, respectively). On the third day, the WBP started the MBT test training higher than the upper limit (3.78 m) and decreased to near the mean (3.58 m). Conclusions: During 3 consecutive days of training sessions, the magnitude-based inference model presented meaningful changes in MBT test performance. The accurate association of the magnitude-based inference model with the MBT allows coaches and sports team staff to interpret the correct magnitude of change in WBP performance.

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Guillermo Mendez-Rebolledo, Romina Figueroa-Ureta, Fernanda Moya-Mura, Eduardo Guzmán-Muñoz, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, and Rhodri S. Lloyd

Context: Few reports have analyzed the effects of neuromuscular (NM) training programs on the injury incidence among youth female track-and-field athletes. Objective: To determine the effects of NM training on reducing lower limb injury incidence and to establish its effects on countermovement jump performance, balance, 30-m sprint, and joint position sense in youth female track-and-field athletes. Design: Single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting:Sports research laboratory. Participants: Twenty-two female athletes were allocated into 2 groups: Conventional (CONV) training (n = 11; age = 15.3 [2.1] y) and NM training (n = 11; age = 15.0 [2.7] y). Interventions: Interventions were performed during the preseason of 6 weeks. The CONV training included anaerobic, strength, and aerobic training. The NM training consisted of a multicomponent program that integrated jumps, landings, and running with strength, endurance, agility, balance, and CORE training. Main Outcome Measures: A follow-up of the cohorts was carried out through the evaluation of lower limb injuries (main outcome) during a regular season (weeks 7–18). Secondary outcomes were measured before and after the intervention: Y-balance test, active joint repositioning, ground reaction force, and countermovement jump height. Results: The injury incidence rate was 17.89 injuries per 1000 hours athlete-exposure in CONV training, and 6.58 in NM training (relative risk = 0.38; 95% confidence interval,  0.18 to 0.82; P = .044). Particularly, the medial tibial stress syndrome incidence rate was 5.96 injuries per 1000 hours athlete-exposure in CONV training and 0.82 in NM training (relative risk = 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.02 to 1.12; P = .012). In addition, a significant training × time interaction was noted, favoring improvements in 30-m sprint and countermovement jump height after NM. Conclusion: The NM training may improve youth female athlete’s physical fitness and reduce their injury relative risk of medial tibial stress syndrome injury.

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Ernst Albin Hansen

Investigations of behavior and control of voluntary stereotyped rhythmic movement contribute to the enhancement of motor function and performance of disabled, sick, injured, healthy, and exercising humans. The present article presents examples of unprompted alteration of freely chosen movement rate during voluntary stereotyped rhythmic movements. The examples, in the form of both increases and decreases of movement rate, are taken from activities of cycling, finger tapping, and locomotion. It is described that, for example, strength training, changed power output, repeated bouts, and changed locomotion speed can elicit an unprompted alteration of freely chosen movement rate. The discussion of the examples is based on a tripartite interplay between descending drive, rhythm-generating spinal neural networks, and sensory feedback, as well as terminology from dynamic systems theory.

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Karlee Naumann, Jocelyn Kernot, Gaynor Parfitt, Bethany Gower, and Kade Davison

The purpose of this study was to produce a descriptive overview of the types of water-based interventions for people with neurological disability, autism, and intellectual disability and to determine how outcomes have been evaluated. Literature was searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid Emcare, SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, and Google. One hundred fifty-three papers met the inclusion criteria, 115 hydrotherapy, 62 swimming, 18 SCUBA (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), and 18 other water-based interventions. Common conditions included cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and intellectual disability. Fifty-four papers explored physical outcomes, 36 psychosocial outcomes, and 24 both physical and psychosocial outcomes, with 180 different outcome measures reported. Overall, there is a lack of high-quality evidence for all intervention types. This review provides a broad picture of water-based interventions and associated research. Future research, guided by this scoping review, will allow a greater understanding of the potential benefits for people with neurological disability, autism, and intellectual disability.

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Pavlos Angelopoulos, Konstantinos Mylonas, Elias Tsepis, Evdokia Billis, Nikolaos Vaitsis, and Konstantinos Fousekis

Context: Instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM), tissue flossing, and kinesiology taping are increasingly popular treatments among athletes for improving functional performance, despite limited evidence for their efficacy. Objective: Previous research regarding the efficacy of soft tissues and neuromuscular techniques on improving functional capacity of shoulder joints in athletes has yielded conflicting results. We examined the immediate and short-term effects of IASTM, flossing, and kinesiology taping on the functional capacities of amateur athletes’ shoulders. Design: Randomized controlled study. Setting: Clinical assessment laboratory. Participants: Eighty amateur overhead athletes (mean [SD]: age = 23.03 [1.89]; weight = 78.36 [5.32]; height = 1.77 [.11]). Interventions: We randomly assigned participants to 4 research sub-groups in which they received the following treatments on their dominant shoulders: IASTM (n = 20), flossing (n = 20), both IASTM and flossing (n = 20), and kinesiology tape (n = 20). Nondominant shoulders served as controls. Main Outcome Measure: We evaluated participants—before, immediately after, and 45 minutes after the therapeutic interventions—with the following tests: internal and external shoulder rotation range of motion, isokinetic strength and total work, the functional throwing performance index, and the one-arm seated shot put throw performance. Results: All therapeutic interventions significantly improved the strength and functional performance of the dominant shoulder in comparison with the control (P < .005) immediately after and 45 minutes after the treatment. The IASTM led to significantly greater improvement in shoulder internal rotation than kinesiology taping immediately after (P = .049) and 45 minutes after the treatment (P = .049). We observed no significant differences between the other treatment interventions (P > .05). Conclusion: Findings from the current study support the use of novel soft tissue and neuromuscular techniques for the immediate and short-term improvement of the shoulder functional capacities in amateur overhead athletes.

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Whitney N. Neal, Emma Richardson, and Robert W. Motl

The uptake and benefits of the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis (PAGs) have been validated, but there is limited understanding regarding the knowledge, needs, and preferences of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) for implementing the PAGs outside of clinical research. The authors conducted online, semistructured interviews with 40 persons with MS from across the United States seeking information on awareness of and potential approaches for increasing the uptake of the PAGs. They identified first impressions and potential approaches for increasing the uptake of the PAGs through inductive, semantic thematic analysis. Participants perceived the PAGs as a good introduction for structured exercise but desired more information on how to meet the PAGs. Participants further believed that modifying the PAGs for inclusivity and applying a multifaceted approach for dissemination and implementation may increase uptake of exercise behavior. Physical activity research in MS should include both analyzing the effects of exercise and the unique challenges faced by persons with MS in putting the PAGs into practice.

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Frédéric Dierick, Fabien Buisseret, Loreda Filiputti, and Nathalie Roussel

The objective of this study was to explore the effects of static and dynamic hamstring muscles stretching on kinematics and esthetics of grand battement (high velocity kicks) in adolescent recreational dancers. Sixteen participants were assessed before and immediately after both stretching modalities. Kinematics of movement was measured by an optoelectronic system and esthetics was scored by a jury of professional dancers. Both stretching modalities led to significant kinematic differences compared with without stretching. Significant linear correlations between kinematic parameters and esthetic scores have been observed: improving dancers’ physical performances has noticeable impact on the perception of their movements.