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Thaynã Alves Bezerra, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Anastácio Neco de Souza Filho, Cain Craig Truman Clark, Jorge Augusto Pinto Silva Mota, Michael Joseph Duncan, and Clarice Maria de Lucena Martins

Background: The relationship between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and fundamental motor skill (FMS) is inconsistent in early childhood, due to its complex and nonlinear characteristics. This study aimed to analyze the nonlinear relationships between MVPA, FMS, body mass index (BMI), sex, and age in preschoolers. Methods: This cross-sectional study with preschoolers (n = 204; 4.0 [0.8] y old; 99 boys), provided objective physical activity data, FMS assessments, and BMI. The associations between MVPA, FMS, BMI, sex, and age were explored using the network analysis (RStudio and qgraph). Results: Boys were more motor competent than girls in all FMS skills, while girls were more active than boys during the weekend. Older children were less active than their younger peers during these days. MVPA is weak and differently related to each FMS, and the leap skill emerged with the highest betweenness and strength values in the network. Conclusions: For the assessed preschoolers, when considering BMI, age, and sex, the relationships between MVPA and FMS are inconsistent, and leap emerged as the main variable. During early childhood, these variables are connected as part of a complex system in which each skill has a dynamic role within the emerging pattern.

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Oliver Vogel, Daniel Niederer, Jan Wilke, Maike Steinmann, and Lutz Vogt

This study investigates methods of data gathering and management, along with the relationship of lifespan and older adults’ activity. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 47, 81.7 ± 3.6 years) completed the Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire. Current activity was assessed by use of accelerometers. The data were converted to the metabolic equivalent of task hours. Correlations between the main outcomes (metabolic equivalent of task/hour, Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire), as well as individual estimation errors for data adjustments, were computed. The accelerometer and Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire data for the last 12 months’ activity were associated (r = .31, p = .033). The average overestimation in the self-reported data was 176%. The adapted data on lifetime physical activity reveals correlations between older adults’ activity and the activity levels of three 15-year episodes (r = .354; r = .336; r = .323; each p < .05), as well as compliance with guidelines throughout life (Hotelling’s T 2 = 45–164; p ≤ .002). Our findings indicate a relationship between lifetime and older adults’ activity and provide further support for lifelong engagement in physical activity.

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Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Maree Gleeson, Alice Wallett, Warren A. McDonald, Kate L. Pumpa, and David B. Pyne

Gastrointestinal disturbances are one of the most common issues for endurance athletes during training and competition in the heat. The relationship between typical dietary intake or nutritional interventions and perturbations in or maintenance of gut integrity is unclear. Twelve well-trained male endurance athletes (peak oxygen consumption = 61.4 ± 7.0 ml·kg−1·min−1) completed two trials in a randomized order in 35 °C (heat) and 21 °C (thermoneutral) conditions and kept a detailed nutritional diary for eight consecutive days between the two trials. The treadmill running trials consisted of 15 min at 60% peak oxygen consumption, 15 min at 75% peak oxygen consumption, followed by 8 × 1-min high-intensity efforts. Venous blood samples were taken at the baseline, at the end of each of the three exercise stages, and 1 hr postexercise to measure gut integrity and the permeability biomarker concentration for intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein, lipopolysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein. The runners self-reported gut symptoms 1 hr postexercise and 3 days postexercise. The heat condition induced large (45–370%) increases in intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and lipopolysaccharide concentrations compared with the baseline, but induced mild gastrointestinal symptoms. Carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fat intake 24 hr preexercise were associated with less lipopolysaccharide translocation. Protein, carbohydrate, total fat, and polyunsaturated fat intake (8 days) were positively associated with the percentage increase of intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein in both conditions (range of correlations, 95% confidence interval = .62–.93 [.02, .98]). Typical nutrition intake partly explained increases in biomarkers and the attenuation of symptoms induced by moderate- and high-intensity exercise under both heat and thermoneutral conditions.

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Luciana L.S. Barboza, Heike Schmitz, Julian Tejada, Ellen Caroline M. Silva, Advanusia S.S. Oliveira, Luís B. Sardinha, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: To evaluate the effects of the introduction of physically active lessons on movement behaviors, cognitive, and academic performance in schoolchildren. Methods: This was a cluster-controlled trial. A total of 61 students from the second year of elementary school in a public school in Brazil made up 2 intervention classes (n = 34) with the introduction of physically active lessons and 2 control classes (n = 27). Sedentary behavior, physical activity, cognitive, and academic performance were evaluated in 3 moments, which were compared using models of generalized estimating equations. Results: The intervention was effective for reducing the standing time between the baseline and 3 months while increasing the walking time between baseline and 3 months and baseline and 9 months. There was a reduction in time in stationary activities and increased time in light physical activities between all moments. The intervention group increased their performance in the go/no go test, showing a smaller number of errors between the baseline and 3 months and baseline and 9 months, and a reduction in the test time between baseline and 3 months. No impact on students’ academic performance was observed. Conclusion: Physically active lessons improve movement behaviors and cognitive functions among elementary schoolchildren.

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Roseane de Fátima Guimarães, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Ryan E.R. Reid, Mélanie Henderson, and Tracie Ann Barnett

Background: Behavioral trajectories from childhood to adolescence may differ and are poorly understood. The authors estimated the trajectories of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), screen time, and sleep duration during this period, by sex and initial weight status. Methods: Data from Quebec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth, an ongoing cohort study in Canada on the natural history of obesity, were used. Participants predisposed to obesity attended baseline (8–10 y old, n = 630) and follow-up visits 2 years (n = 564) and 7 years (n = 359) after baseline. Participants with completed self-reported and accelerometer-based data were included in the analyses (n = 191, 353, and 240 for MVPA, screen time, and sleep, respectively). The authors performed group-based trajectory analyses and multinomial logistic regression models. Results: Two MVPA, 3 screen time, and 2 sleep trajectories were identified. Girls were more likely than boys to belong to trajectory with lower MVPA means (odds ratio [OR] = 6.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.08 to 13.49), yet less likely to belong to the trajectory with higher screen time (OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.97) and lower sleep duration (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.78). Overweight or obesity at baseline was associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to the trajectory with lower MVPA (OR = 10.99; 95% CI, 1.31 to 91.14) and higher screen time (OR = 2.01; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.06), respectively. Conclusions: It appears to be gender- and weight-based determinants of behavioral trajectories in this sample. These results may provide guidance for interventions in similar populations.

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Antonis Kesisoglou, Andrea Nicolò, Lucinda Howland, and Louis Passfield

Purpose: To examine the effect of continuous (CON) and intermittent (INT) running training sessions of different durations and intensities on subsequent performance and calculated training load (TL). Methods: Runners (N = 11) performed a 1500-m time trial as a baseline and after completing 4 different running training sessions. The training sessions were performed in a randomized order and were either maximal for 10 minutes (10CON and 10INT) or submaximal for 25 minutes (25CON and 25INT). An acute performance decrement (APD) was calculated as the percentage change in 1500-m time-trial speed measured after training compared with baseline. The pattern of APD response was compared with that for several TL metrics (bTRIMP, eTRIMP, iTRIMP, running training stress score, and session rating of perceived exertion) for the respective training sessions. Results: Average speed (P < .001, ηp2=.924) was different for each of the initial training sessions, which all resulted in a significant APD. This APD was similar when compared across the sessions except for a greater APD found after 10INT versus 25CON (P = .02). In contrast, most TL metrics were different and showed the opposite response to APD, being higher for CON versus INT and lower for 10- versus 25-minute sessions (P < .001, ηp2>.563). Conclusion: An APD was observed consistently after running training sessions, but it was not consistent with most of the calculated TL metrics. The lack of agreement found between APD and TL suggests that current methods for quantifying TL are flawed when used to compare CON and INT running training sessions of different durations and intensities.

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Bjarne Rud, Eivind Øygard, Even B. Dahl, Gøran Paulsen, and Thomas Losnegard

Purpose: We tested whether a single session of heavy-load resistance priming conducted in the morning improved double-poling (DP) performance in the afternoon. Methods: Eight national-level male cross-country skiers (mean [SD]: 23 [3] y, 184 [6] cm, 73 [7] kg, maximum oxygen consumption = 69 [6] mL·kg−1·min−1) carried out 2 days of afternoon performance tests. In the morning, 5 hours before tests, subjects were counterbalanced to either a session of 3 × 3 repetitions (approximately 85%–90% 1-repetition maximum) of squat and sitting pullover exercises or no exercise. The performance was evaluated in DP as time to exhaustion (TTE) (approximately 3 min) on a treadmill and 30-m indoor sprints before and after TTE (30-m DP pre/post). Furthermore, submaximal DP oxygen cost, countermovement jump, and isometric knee-extension force during electrical stimulation were conducted. Participants reported perceived readiness on test days. Results: Resistance exercise session versus no exercise did not differ for TTE (approximately 3 min above) (mean ± 95% confidence interval = 3.6% ± 6.0%; P = .29; effect size [ES], Cohen d = 0.27), 30-m DP pre (−0.56% ± 0.80%; P = .21; ES = 0.20), 30-m DP post (−0.18% ± 1.13%; P = .76; ES = 0.03), countermovement jump (−2.0% ± 2.8%; P = .21; ES = 0.12), DP oxygen cost (−0.13% ± 2.04%; P = .91; ES = 0.02), or perceived readiness (P ≥ .11). Electrical stimulation force was not different in contraction or relaxation time but revealed low-frequency fatigue in the afternoon for the resistance exercise session only (−12% [7%]; P = .01; ES = 1.3). Conclusion: A single session of heavy-load, low-volume resistance exercise in the morning did not increase afternoon DP performance of short duration in high-level skiers. However, leg low-frequency fatigue after resistance priming, together with the presence of small positive effects in 2 out of 3 DP tests, may indicate that the preconditioning was too strenuous.

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Megan A. Kuikman, Margo Mountjoy, Trent Stellingwerff, and Jamie F. Burr

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Maria Misailidi, Konstantinos Mantzios, Christos Papakonstantinou, Leonidas G. Ioannou, and Andreas D. Flouris

Purpose: We investigated the environmental conditions in which all outdoor International Tennis Federation (ITF) junior tournaments (athlete ages: <18 y) were held during 2010–2019. Thereafter, we performed a crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04197375) assessing the efficacy of head–neck precooling for mitigating the heat-induced psychophysical and performance impacts on junior athletes during tennis match play. Methods: ITF junior tournament information was collected. We identified meteorological data from nearby (13.6 [20.3] km) weather stations for 3056 (76%) tournaments. Results: Overall, 30.1% of tournaments were held in hot (25°C–30°C wet-bulb globe temperature [WBGT]; 25.9%), very hot (30°C–35°C WBGT; 4.1%), or extremely hot (>35°C WBGT; 0.1%) conditions. Thereafter, 8 acclimatized male junior tennis athletes (age = 16.0 [0.9] y; height = 1.82 [0.04] m; weight = 71.3 [11.1] kg) were evaluated during 2 matches: one with head–neck precooling (27.7°C [2.2°C] WBGT) and one without (27.9°C [1.8°C] WBGT). Head–neck precooling reduced athletes’ core temperature from 36.9°C (0.2°C) to 36.4°C (0.2°C) (P = .001; d = 2.4), an effect reduced by warm-up. Head–neck precooling reduced skin temperature (by 0.3°C [1.3°C]) for the majority of the match and led to improved (P < .05) perceived exertion (by 13%), thermal comfort (by 14%), and thermal sensation (by 15%). Muscle temperature, heart rate, body weight, and urine specific gravity remained unaffected (P ≥ .05; d < 0.2). Small or moderate improvements were observed in most performance parameters assessed (d = 0.20–0.79). Conclusions: Thirty percent of the last decade’s ITF junior tournaments were held in hot, very hot, or extremely hot conditions (25°C–36°C WBGT). In such conditions, head–neck precooling may somewhat lessen the physiological and perceptual heat strain and lead to small to moderate improvements in the match-play performance of adolescent athletes.