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Terry Eddy, B. Colin Cork, Katie Lebel, and Erin Howie Hickey

Research on sport sponsors’ use of social media has begun to emerge, but, to date, limited research has examined how sponsors are using social media as an activation platform to engage with followers. Thus, the purpose of this research was to examine differences in follower engagement with regard to sponsored Twitter posts from North American professional sport organizations, based upon the focus, scope, and activation type of the sponsored messages. This manuscript consists of two related studies—Study 1 employed a deductive content analysis, followed by negative binomial regression modeling, to examine differences in engagement between message structures defined by focus and scope. Study 2 featured an inductive content analysis to investigate differences in engagement between different types of activations. The findings suggest that, in general, more passive (or less overt) forms of sponsor integration in social media messages drive more engagement among followers.

Open access

Andrea Ramírez Varela and Michael Pratt

In 2012, the Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) was established to provide information that would enable countries to initiate or improve research capacity, surveillance systems, program development, and policymaking to increase physical activity levels. Findings from the first GoPA! Country Cards showed an unequal distribution of physical activity surveillance, research productivity, and policy development and implementation around the world. Regular global monitoring of these factors, especially in countries with the largest data gaps, was recommended to combat the global pandemic of physical inactivity. After 6 years and using standardized methods, GoPA! is launching the second set of Country Cards based on data up to 2019 from 217 countries. Overall results showed that periodic national surveillance of physical activity was less common in low-income countries, compared with middle- and high-income countries. Large inequities were seen with more than a 50-fold difference in publications between high- and low-income countries and 32% of the countries worldwide had no physical activity policy. GoPA! has a critical role in facilitating evidence-based physical activity promotion building on international guidelines and the World Health Organization Global Action Plan. GoPA! will continue to monitor progress as we battle the global pandemic of physical inactivity.

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Ja’mese V. Booth, Sarah E. Messiah, Eric Hansen, Maria I. Nardi, Emily Hawver, Hersila H. Patel, Hannah Kling, Deidre Okeke, and Emily M. D’Agostino

Background: Only 24% of US youth meet physical activity recommendations set by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Research demonstrates that community-based programs provide underresourced minority youth with opportunities for routine physical activity, although limited work draws from accelerometry data. This study objectively assessed youth physical activity attributable to participation (vs nonparticipation) days in a park-based afterschool program in Miami-Dade County, Miami, FL. Methods: Participants’ (n = 66; 60% male; 57% white Hispanic, 25% non-Hispanic black, 14% Black Hispanic, mean age = 10.2 y) physical activity was assessed April to May 2019 over 10 days across 7 park sites using Fitbit (Charge 2) devices. Separate repeated-measures multilevel models were developed to assess the relationship between program daily attendance and total (1) moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes and (2) step counts per day. Results: Models adjusted for individual-level age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty, and clustering by park showed significantly higher moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes (β = 25.33 more minutes per day; 95% confidence interval, 7.0 to 43.7, P < .01) and step counts (β = 4067.8 more steps per day; 95% confidence interval, 3171.8 to 4963.8, P < .001) on days when youth did versus did not attend the program. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that park-based programs may support underserved youth in achieving daily physical activity recommendations.

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Nick Wadsworth, Hayley McEwan, Moira Lafferty, Martin Eubank, and David Tod

This study explored the stories of critical moments experienced by applied sport psychology practitioners. The 13 recruited practitioners (eight male and five female) were in different stages of their development (trainee, neophyte, and experienced) and were asked to tell one story about a critical moment that significantly contributed to their development as applied practitioners. Narrative analysis was used to explore the stories of critical moments. Four distinct narrative structures were evident: Rebirth, Rags to Riches, Tragedy, and The Quest. There was one consistent narrative feature that supported these plots: Critical moments contribute toward an alignment between a practitioner’s beliefs and behavior, which supports the development of a congruent philosophy of practice and the environment they choose to work within. The authors recommend future research, such as the use of narrative analysis, to explore alternative narrative structures and the investigation of successful and unsuccessful consultancy experiences.

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Bethany Barone Gibbs, Melissa A. Jones, John M. Jakicic, Arun Jeyabalan, Kara M. Whitaker, and Janet M. Catov

Background: Though moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity is recommended, limited research exists on sedentary behavior (SED) during pregnancy. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective cohort study to describe objectively measured patterns of SED and activity during each trimester of pregnancy. Women wore thigh- (activPAL3) and waist-mounted (ActiGraph GT3X) activity monitors. SED and activity were compared across trimesters using likelihood ratio tests and described using group-based trajectories. Exploratory analyses associated SED and activity trajectories with adverse pregnancy outcomes and excessive gestational weight gain. Results: Pregnant women (n = 105; mean [SD] age = 31 [5] y; prepregnancy body mass index = 26.2 [6.6] kg/m2) had mean SED of 9.7, 9.5, and 9.5 hours per day (P = .062) across trimesters, respectively. Some activities differed across trimesters: standing (increased, P = .01), stepping (highest in second trimester, P = .04), steps per day (highest in second trimester, P = .008), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (decreased, P < .001). Prolonged SED (bouts ≥ 30 min) and bouted moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (≥10 min) were stable (P > .05). In exploratory analyses, higher SED and lower standing, stepping, and steps per day trajectories were associated with increased odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes (P < .05). No trajectories were associated with excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions: Pregnant women exhibited stable SED of nearly 10 hours per day across pregnancy. Future research evaluating SED across pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome risk is warranted.

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Shikha Prashad, Yue Du, and Jane E. Clark

Current methods to understand implicit motor sequence learning inadequately assess motor skill acquisition in daily life. Using fixed sequences in the serial reaction time task is not ideal as participants may become aware of the sequence, thereby changing the learning from implicit to explicit. Probabilistic sequences, in which stimuli are linked by statistical, rather than deterministic, associations can ensure that learning remains implicit. Additionally, the processes underlying the learning of motor sequences may differ based on sequence structure. Here, the authors compared the learning of fixed and probabilistic sequences to randomly ordered stimuli using a modified serial reaction time task. Both the fixed and probabilistic sequence groups exhibited learning as indicated by decreased response time and variability. In the initial stage of learning, fixed sequences exhibited both online and offline gains in response time; however, only the offline gain was observed during the learning of probabilistic sequences. These results indicated that probabilistic structures may be learned differently from fixed structures and have important implications for our current understanding of motor learning. Probabilistic sequences more accurately reflect motor skill acquisition in daily life, offer ecological validity to the serial reaction time framework, and advance our understanding of motor learning.

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Jeffrey D. MacCharles and E. Nicole Melton

Gay men in sport are currently at a historic crossroads. On the one hand, the sport industry has never been more accepting and inclusive of sexual minorities than it is today. On the other hand, however, the sociocultural norms and organizational practices within sport that have traditionally stigmatized gay men and influenced their career choices—both in pursuit of and persistence within careers in sport—continue to exist. Drawing from life course theory, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the experiences of 12 gay men working in the sport industry and understand how their awareness (or lack thereof) of the stigma associated with being gay shaped their career decisions. Findings suggest that historical/social context, organizational practices, personal and professional relationships, and the interplay between these factors inform how gay men navigate their stigmatized identities while working in sport.

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Greg Joachim, Nico Schulenkorf, Katie Schlenker, Stephen Frawley, and Adam Cohen

As research into sport innovation management continues to evolve, the innovation efforts of both for- and non-profit sport organizations are increasingly revealed to be focused on best serving the sport user. Design thinking—a human-centered approach to innovation—may hold promise for sport organizations attempting to identify and deliver on the unmet needs of their users. As such, we undertook a qualitative exploration of the innovation practices of a commercial sport organization, attempting to balance hybrid for- and non-profit service goals. Alignment with design thinking themes was discovered in the organization’s practice, as were performative components of design thinking practice. Our findings suggest that design thinking is suitable—and indeed desirable—for adoption into sport management practice, particularly as a means of enhancing innovation efforts, designing holistic sport experiences, and/or overcoming competing institutional demands.

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Catherine E. Draper, Karen Milton, and Jasper Schipperijn

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Philip J. Morgan, Clare E. Collins, Alyce T. Barnes, Emma R. Pollock, Stevie-Lee Kennedy, Ryan J. Drew, Kristen L. Saunders, Jacqueline A. Grounds, Anna T. Rayward, and Myles D. Young

Background: Few lifestyle programs for young children have targeted fathers. This study examined the feasibility of a lifestyle intervention for fathers and their preschool-aged children. Method: A total of 24 father/preschool child dyads were recruited from Newcastle, Australia, into a single-arm, feasibility trial (baseline and 3-mo postbaseline assessments). The 9-session program aimed to improve physical activity and dietary habits of fathers and children. A priori feasibility benchmarks targeted recruitment (15 dyads), eligibility rate (>60%), attendance (80%), retention (≥85%), and program acceptability (≥4 out of 5). Acceptability of data collection procedures, research team program/resource management, home-program compliance, and preliminary intervention outcomes were also assessed. Results: Feasibility benchmarks were surpassed for recruitment (24 dyads), eligibility rate (61.5%), attendance (89%), retention (100%), and program acceptability (4.6 out of 5). Data collection procedures were acceptable. Challenges included mothers reporting their own dietary intake rather than their child’s, children moving during body composition measurement, and resetting pedometers. Resource and program management were excellent. Most families met home-program requirements (83%). Preliminary intervention outcomes were encouraging for fathers and children. Conclusion: Program feasibility was demonstrated by excellent recruitment, attendance, acceptability, retention, program administration, and promising preliminary intervention outcomes. A few data collection difficulties were identified. A larger scale efficacy trial is warranted.