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Florian Hemme, Dominic G. Morais, Matthew T. Bowers, and Janice S. Todd

This study examined the planning, design, and implementation of a culture change program in a major North American public sport organization. Using interview data from 67 participants, the authors offer a rare, in-depth account of organizational culture change and discuss in particular how the change agent in charge of the initiative was able to manage employee concerns and resistance. At the heart of this successful transformation was a careful and intentional willingness of the change agent to consistently revisit, reinforce and recommunicate culture change along with all its facets and to connect all steps of the process to the ritualistic expression of the organization’s identity. This research offers a counter-perspective to technocratic imaginations of organizational culture change as neatly programmed, stepwise activity. Instead, the authors highlight the importance of attending to the continuous, local, and heterogeneous reframing activities underpinning organizational change efforts.

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Victoria Sanborn, Lauren Todd, Hanna Schmetzer, Nasha Manitkul-Davis, John Updegraff, and John Gunstad

Anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent in athletes. The pandemic of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) may increase risk for symptoms due to fear of exposure during competition or uncertainty regarding participation. The current study examined the prevalence of COVID-19 anxiety in 437 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes and its association with psychological symptoms. Only 0.2% of participants endorsed COVID-19 anxiety symptoms above cutoff. COVID-19 anxiety did not change after postponement of fall sports or differ between persons competing in different seasons. However, higher levels of COVID-19 anxiety were significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Though student-athletes generally reported low levels of psychological symptoms, females endorsed significantly higher levels than males. Low levels of COVID-19 anxiety in student-athletes may reflect protective factors (e.g., health knowledge, emotion regulation) or the tendency for this population to minimize psychological symptoms. Further investigations on the psychological impact of COVID-19 in athletes is needed.

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Sangsoo Park, Richard Van Emmerik, and Graham E. Caldwell

The aim of this study was to describe how major leg muscle activities are altered after learning a novel one-legged pedaling task. Fifteen recreational cyclists practiced one-legged pedaling trials during which they were instructed to match their applied pedal force to a target direction perpendicular to the crank arm. Activity in 10 major leg muscles was measured with surface electromyography electrodes. Improved upstroke task performance was obtained by greater activity in the hip and ankle flexor muscles, counteracting the negative effects of gravity. Greater quadriceps activities explained improved targeting near top dead center. Reduced uniarticular knee and ankle extensor downstroke activities were necessary to prevent freewheeling. Greater hamstring and tibialis anterior activities improved targeting performance near the bottom of the pedal stroke. The activity patterns of the biarticular plantarflexors changed little, likely due to their contributions as knee flexors for smooth upstroke pedaling motion. These results add to our understanding of how the degrees of freedom at the muscle level are altered in a cooperative manner to overcome gravitational effects in order to achieve the learning goal of the motor task while satisfying multiple constraints—in this case, the production of smooth one-legged pedaling motion at the designated mechanical task demands.

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Marcin Krawczyk, Mariusz Pociecha, Paulina Kozioł, Aleksandra Stepek, and Gabriela Gębica

The countermovement jump test (CMJ) is commonly used as an indicator of the anaerobic capacity of the lower limbs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the CMJ with arm swing and the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) among female volleyball and football players. A group of first league female volleyball club players (VG, n = 12, age = 24.2 years), a group of first league female football club players (FG, n = 12, age = 20.6 years), and a control group (CG, n = 10, age = 20.4 years) participated in this research. The measurements of selected somatic features were carried out. The CMJ and WAnT were used to assess the explosive strength and maximum muscle power of the lower extremities. An analysis of variance test demonstrated differences between the VG and FG in terms of height (p < .001), body weight (p < .001), and lean body mass (p < .001). In the FG and VG groups, correlations between CMJ and maximum anaerobic power as determined by WAnT were r = .82 and r = .57, respectively. There was not statistically significant differences between values of these coefficients. The obtained results showed a potentially lean body mass influence on the results of the CMJ in VG. In women’s football and volleyball, the results of the CMJ are strongly correlated with the power parameters registered with the WAnT. In volleyball, players’ coaches should include a measurement of lean body mass in the assessment peak power by vertical jump tests.

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Pauliina Husu, Kari Tokola, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Harri Sievänen, Jaana Suni, Olli J. Heinonen, Jarmo Heiskanen, Kaisu M. Kaikkonen, Kai Savonen, Sami Kokko, and Tommi Vasankari

Background: Studies measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior on a 24/7 basis are scarce. The present study assessed the feasibility of using an accelerometer at the hip while awake and at the wrist while sleeping to describe 24/7 patterns of physical behavior in working-aged adults by age, sex, and fitness. Methods: The study was based on the FinFit 2017 study where the physical behavior of 20- to 69-year-old Finns was assessed 24/7 by triaxial accelerometer (UKKRM42; UKK Terveyspalvelut Oy, Tampere, Finland). During waking hours, the accelerometer was kept at the right hip and, during time in bed, at the nondominant wrist. PA variables were based on 1-min exponential moving average of mean amplitude deviation of the resultant acceleration signal analyzed in 6-s epochs. The angle for the posture estimation algorithm was used to identify sedentary behavior and standing. Evaluation of time in bed was based on the wrist movement. Fitness was estimated by the 6-min walk test. Results: A total of 2,256 eligible participants (mean age 49.5 years, SD = 13.5, 59% women) wore the accelerometer at the hip 15.7 hr/day (SD = 1.4) and at the wrist 8.3 hr/day (SD = 1.4). Sedentary behavior covered 9 hr 18 min/day (SD = 1.8 hr/day), standing nearly 2 hr/day (SD = 0.9), light PA 3.7 hr/day (SD = 1.3), and moderate to vigorous PA 46 min/day (SD = 26). Participants took 7,451 steps per day (SD = 2,962) on average. Men were most active around noon, while women had activity peaks at noon and at early evening. The low-fit tertile took 1,186 and 1,747 fewer steps per day than the mid- and high-fit tertiles (both p < .001). Conclusions: One triaxial accelerometer with a two wear-site approach provides a feasible method to characterize hour-by-hour patterns of physical behavior among working-aged adults.

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Paul Mackie, Gary Crowfoot, Prajwal Gyawali, Heidi Janssen, Elizabeth Holliday, David Dunstan, and Coralie English

Background: Interrupting prolonged sitting can attenuate postprandial glucose responses in overweight adults. The dose–response effect in stroke survivors is unknown. The authors investigated the effects of interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting with increasingly frequent bouts of light-intensity standing-based exercises on the postprandial glucose response in stroke survivors. Methods: Within-participant, laboratory-based, dose-escalation trial. Participants completed three 8-hour conditions: prolonged sitting and 2 experimental conditions. Experimental conditions involved light-intensity standing-based exercises of increasing frequency (2 × 5 min to 6 × 5 min bouts). Postprandial glucose is reported. Results: Twenty-nine stroke survivors (aged 66 y) participated. Interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting with light-intensity standing-based exercises every 90 minutes significantly decreased postprandial glucose (positive incremental area under the curve; −1.1 mmol/L·7 h; 95% confidence interval, −2.0 to −0.1). In the morning (08:00–11:00), postprandial glucose decreased during the 4 × 5 minutes and 6 × 5 minutes conditions (positive incremental area under the curve; −0.8 mmol/L·3 h; 95% confidence interval, −1.3 to −0.3 and −0.8 mmol/L·3 h; 95% confidence interval, −1.5 to −0.2, respectively) compared with prolonged sitting. Conclusion: Interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting at least every 90 minutes with light-intensity standing-based exercises attenuates postprandial glucose in stroke survivors. During the morning, postprandial glucose is attenuated when sitting is interrupted every 60 and 90 minutes.

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu and Trent A. Petrie

Time and access to teams may be limited for sport psychology professionals, particularly those working in the college sport setting. Thus, learning how to intervene with teams and individual athletes within short, defined timeframes becomes essential for working effectively in this environment. In this article, using de Shazer’s solution-focused brief therapy along with Weinberg and Williams’s steps of psychological skills training, the authors describe the development and implementation of a brief intervention under time-limited circumstances (15 days, 15 min/day) through a preseason training program with a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women’s volleyball team. Then, they present data and evaluations based on the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 and athlete feedback, which support program effectiveness. They further reflect on the program strengths (e.g., individualization) and challenges (e.g., limited coach involvement) to provide recommendations for intervening briefly, yet systematically and effectively, to maximize athletes’ psychological skills under constraints.

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Lukas Stenzel, Melissa Röcken, Simon Borgmann, and Oliver Stoll

The present case study describes the content and implementation of a blended psychological skills training, consisting of an app and workshops, with a group of athletes (N = 44) from a Bundesliga soccer academy in Germany. In a pre–post design, athletes completed different questionnaires at two measurement points. There was a significant increase in concentration and self-efficacy and more frequent recovery after the intervention. However, athletes showed equal competition anxiety levels and more frequent stress after the intervention. The app’s training time was brief (M = 14.36 min, SD = 18.17 min) over 9 weeks and did not moderate the intervention’s effects. A comparison between active users and nonusers indicates that the results found were due to the workshops. The qualitative feedback indicates that motivational functions should be added to a psychological skills training app and time slots should be created in athletes’ demanding schedules to ensure high user engagement.

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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

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Eduardo B. Flores, Thaís Reichert, Juliano B. Farinha, Luiz Fernando M. Kruel, and Rochelle R. Costa

Background: The present study aimed to systematically review the literature on the effects of physical training on neuromuscular parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: The PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were accessed in September 2020. Clinical trials that evaluated the effects of physical training on neuromuscular parameters (maximum strength, resistance strength, muscle power, muscle quality, and muscle thickness) of patients with T1DM compared with a control group were considered eligible. The results were presented as the standardized mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. Effect size (ES) calculations were performed using the fixed effect method, with α = .05. Results: Combined training increased the maximum strength levels in individuals with T1DM to a lesser extent than in healthy individuals (ES: 0.363; P = .038). Strength training increased the maximum strength (ES: 1.067; P < .001), as well as combined training (ES: 0.943; P < .001); both compared with aerobic training in patients with T1DM. Strength training increased the maximum strength in a similar magnitude to combined training in patients with T1DM (ES: −0.114; P = .624). Conclusion: Both combined training and strength training represent effective strategies for improving the maximum strength in individuals with T1DM.