Most studies on offside decision making in soccer have not addressed rather simplistic situational probabilities like the number of players involved in an offside situation. In three studies (one observational and two experimental), the authors tried to assess whether the number of players close to the offside situation can predict the quality of offside decision making. In all three studies, they found that the presence of additional players negatively affected the percentage of correct decisions. The exact relationship between the number of players and the decrease in decision-making performance differed between the studies, though. Importantly, there was a negative influence of the number of players on decision-making quality in Studies 2 and 3, even though the authors tried to add players clearly farther away from the offside line than the relevant pair of players. This points to a crowding effect as a potential explanation for why decision-making quality decreases with an increasing number of players.
Benjamin Noël and Stefanie Klatt
Eugene C. Fitzhugh, Jerry Everett, and Linda Daugherty
Background: School-aged children in the Southeast, compared with other United States of America (US) regions, have significantly lower levels of active transportation to school (ATS). The purpose of this study was to contrast the parental correlates of ATS choice specific to the Southeast with other areas of the US. Methods: This study utilized national data from 2952 households with school-aged children located within a 20-minute walk to a school. Parents reported their children’s ATS behavior and their own ATS beliefs and perceptions. Logistic regression contrasted correlates of parents from the Southeast with other regions. Results: Parents in the Southeast, compared with parents across the US, were significantly less likely to allow their child to take ATS (12.9% vs 33.3%, respectively) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36–0.59). Specific to the Southeast, parental correlates linked to increases in ATS were Black race/ethnicity (OR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.31–2.60), being single, (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15–2.54), and any parental physical activity (P value for trend = .0053). The only correlate associated with a decrease in ATS in the Southeast was heightened safety concerns (eg, traffic speed, safe crossings) (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.84). Conclusions: Among households with children in the Southeast, ATS interventions that allay parental safety concerns and that promote physical activity among parents might lead to increases in ATS.
A. Dallaway, J. Hattersley, J. Tallis, D. Renshaw, C. Griffen, and M. Duncan
This study investigated age-related changes in trunk muscle function in healthy men and the moderating effect of physical activity. Twelve older (67.3 ± 6.0 years) and 12 younger (24.7 ± 3.1 years) men performed isokinetic trunk flexion and extension tests across a range of angular velocities (15°/s–180°/s) and contractile modes (concentric and eccentric). For concentric trunk extension, mixed-effects analysis of covariance revealed a significant interaction between Angular velocity × Age group (p = .026) controlling for physical activity. Follow-up univariate analysis of covariance revealed that the younger group produced significantly greater peak torque for all concentric extension conditions. Eccentric trunk strength was somewhat preserved in the older group. Age-related changes in trunk strength were independent of physical activity. The normal loss of trunk muscle strength in older age is muscle- and contractile-mode specific. These findings provide guidance for effective intervention strategies to offset adverse health outcomes related to trunk strength loss in older adults.
Takahiro Ogawa, Yuki Sueyoshi, Shintaro Taketomi, and Nobumasa Chijiiwa
Age-related sarcopenia and osteoporosis-related fractures are critical health issues. Therefore, this study aimed to assess skeletal muscle mass changes in older patients with vertebral compression fractures undergoing rehabilitation and to evaluate factors associated with muscle increases. This study included 179 patients aged ≥80 years in rehabilitation wards with vertebral compression fractures. Appendicular skeletal muscle index was significantly higher at discharge (5.22 ± 1.04 kg/m2, p < .001) than on admission (5.03 ± 1.00 kg/m2). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that length of hospital stay was significantly associated with increased skeletal muscle index (odds ratios, 1.020; 95% confidence intervals [1.000, 1.032]), whereas age, sex, body mass index, functional independence measure, protein intake, and exercise therapy duration were not. Participants with vertebral compression fractures aged ≥80 years achieved significantly increased skeletal muscle mass in rehabilitation wards. In addition, length of hospital stay was the factor independently associated with increased skeletal muscle index.
Wen-Yen Tseng, Ghazi Rekik, Chia-Hui Chen, Filipe M. Clemente, Pedro Bezerra, Zachary J. Crowley-McHattan, and Yung-Sheng Chen
Background: The psychological and physiological adaptations in response to the FIFA 11+ for kids (FIFA11+kid) program has not been examined in school children. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8-week FIFA11+kid intervention on physical fitness and attentional capacity in elementary school children. Methods: A total of 55 elementary school students voluntarily participated in the study. Participants were assigned to either the FIFA11+kid (n = 28, 5 times per week) or the control (n = 27) group. At baseline and after 8 weeks, all participants were asked to perform a battery of physical fitness tests (sit-and-reach, broad jump, sit-up test, and 800-m run) and the Attention Scale for Elementary School Children, including 5 subscales: focused, sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attentions. Results: The FIFA11+kid group demonstrated larger pre–post change in sit-and-reach (P < .001) and sit-up test (P < .001) than that of control group. Moreover, the FIFA11+kid group demonstrated large improvements pre–post change in Attention Scale for Elementary School Children scores of total score (P < .001), focused (P < .001), sustained (P < .001), and selective attentions (P < .001) compared with the control group. Conclusion: A total of 8 weeks of FIFA11+kid exercise intervention can improve general physical fitness and attentional capacities in elementary school children.