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Heidi Skantz, Timo Rantalainen, Laura Karavirta, Merja Rantakokko, Lotta Palmberg, Erja Portegijs, and Taina Rantanen

The authors examined whether accelerometer-based free-living walking differs between those reporting walking modifications or perceiving walking difficulty versus those with no difficulty. Community-dwelling 75-, 80-, or 85-year-old people (N = 479) wore accelerometers continuously for 3–7 days, and reported whether they perceived no difficulties, used walking modifications, or perceived difficulties walking 2 km. Daily walking minutes, walking bouts, walking bout intensity and duration, and activity fragmentation were calculated from accelerometer recordings, and cut points for increased risk for perceiving walking difficulties were calculated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The authors’ analyses showed that accumulating ≤83.1 daily walking minutes and walking bouts duration ≤47.8 s increased the likelihood of reporting walking modifications and difficulties. Accumulating walking bouts ≤99.4 per day, having walking bouts ≤0.119 g intensity, and ≥0.257 active to sedentary transition probability fragmented activity pattern were associated only with perceiving walking difficulties. The findings suggest that older people’s accelerometer-based free-living walking reflects their self-reported walking capability.

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Cheng Li, Christy Hullings, Wei Wang, and Debra M. Palmer Keenan

Background: Low-income adolescents’ physical activity (PA) levels fall below current recommendations. Perceived barriers to physical activity (PBPA) are likely significant predictors of PA levels; however, valid and reliable measures to assess PA barriers are lacking. This manuscript describes the development of the PBPA Survey for Low-Income Adolescents. Methods: A mixed-method approach was used. Items identified from the literature and revised for clarity and appropriateness (postcognitive interviews) were assessed for test–retest reliability with 74 adolescents using intraclass correlation coefficient. Items demonstrating low intraclass correlation coefficients or floor effects were removed. Both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis analyses (n = 1914 low-income teens) were used to finalize the scale; internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha. Concurrent validity was established by correlating the PBPA with the PA questionnaire for adolescents using a Spearman correlation. Results: The exploratory factor analysis yielded a 38-item, 7-factor solution, which was cross-validated by confirmatory factor analysis (comparative-fit index, nonnormed fit index = .90). The scale’s Cronbach’s alpha was .94, with subscales ranging from .70 to .88. The PBPA Survey for Low-Income Adolescents’ concurrent validity was supported by a negative PA questionnaire for adolescents’ correlation values. Conclusion: The PBPA Survey for Low-Income Adolescents can be used to better understand the relationship between PBPA among low-income teens. Further research is warranted to validate the scale with other adolescent subgroups.

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David Thivel, Michéle Tardieu, Pauline Genin, Alicia Fillon, Benjamin Larras, Pierre Melsens, Julien Bois, Frédéric Dutheil, Francois Carré, Gregory Ninot, Jean-Francois Toussaint, Daniel Rivière, Yves Boirie, Bruno Pereira, Angelo Tremblay, and Martine Duclos

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Andréa Kruger Gonçalves, Eliane Mattana Griebler, Wagner Albo da Silva, Débora Pastoriza Sant´Helena, Priscilla Cardoso da Silva, Vanessa Dias Possamai, and Valéria Feijó Martins

The objective was to assess the physical fitness of older adults participating in a 5-year multicomponent exercise program. The sample consisted of 138 older adults aged 60–93 years (70.4 ± 7.8 years) evaluated with the Senior Fitness Test (muscle strength, flexibility, balance, and cardiorespiratory fitness). The multicomponent program was carried out between the months of March and November of each year. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (factor year: Year 1, Year 2, Year 3, Year 4, and Year 5; factor time: pretest and posttest) with Bonferroni’s post hoc test. Participation in the multicomponent exercise program for 5 years (baseline pretest Year 1 and follow-up Year 5) improved lower and upper limb strength, lower limb flexibility, and balance and cardiorespiratory fitness, while upper limb flexibility was maintained. Year-by-year analysis revealed variable patterns for each fitness parameter. The results of this study show the potential benefits of implementing a long-term community-based exercise program.

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Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, and Christopher R. West

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Catherine Carty, Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Fiona Bull, Juana Willumsen, Lindsay Lee, Kaloyan Kamenov, and Karen Milton

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Mana Ogawa, Chiaki Ohtaka, Motoko Fujiwara, and Hiroki Nakata

The authors investigated the kinematic characteristics of the standing long jump in preschool children. Sixty 4-year-old children (boys: 30 and girls: 30) and sixty 5-year-old children (boys: 30 and girls: 30) participated in the present study. The authors focused on three differences in kinematics: between 4- and 5-year-old children, between boys and girls, and between high and low jumping performance groups at the same age. The kinematic data included the maximum flexions of the knee and hip before takeoff, at takeoff, and on landing; angular displacement of the upper body; takeoff speeds in horizontal and vertical directions; and takeoff angle of the greater trochanter. Anthropometric variables and kinematic data were separately analyzed with factors of age, sex, and group. The authors also performed multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of the jump distance. The movement speed of the greater trochanter in a horizontal direction, the maximum flexion angle of the hip before takeoff, and the hip angle on landing were identified as significant predictors of the jump distance among young children. These findings suggest that knowing how to use the hip and awareness of the horizontal direction are key factors to improve the long jump distance in young children.

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Philip Furley and Alexander Roth

Nonverbal behavior (NVB) plays an important role in sports. However, it has been difficult to measure, as no coding schemes exist to objectively measure NVB in sports. Therefore, the authors adapted the Body Action and Posture Coding System to the context of soccer penalties, validated it, and initially used this system (Nonverbal Behavior Coding System for Soccer Penalties [NBCSP]) to explore NVB in penalties. Study 1 demonstrated that the NBCSP had good to excellent intercoder reliability regarding the occurrence and temporal precision of NVBs. It also showed that the coding system could differentiate certain postures and behaviors as a function of emotional valence (i.e., positive vs. negative emotional states). Study 2 identified differences in NVB for successful and missed shots in a sample of penalties (time spent looking toward the goal, toward the ground, right arm movement, and how upright the body posture was). The authors discuss the utility of the coding system for different sport contexts.

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Oliver R. Runswick, Matthew Jewiss, Ben T. Sharpe, and Jamie S. North

Extensive literature has shown the effect of “quiet eye” (QE) on motor performance. However, little attention has been paid to the context in which tasks are executed (independent of anxiety) and the mechanisms that underpin the phenomenon. Here, the authors aimed to investigate the effects of context (independent of anxiety) on QE and performance while examining if the mechanisms underpinning QE are rooted in cognitive effort. In this study, 21 novice participants completed golf putts while pupil dilation, QE duration, and putting accuracy were measured. Results showed that putting to win was more accurate compared with the control (no context) condition, and QE duration was longer when putting to win or tie a hole compared with control. There was no effect of context on pupil dilation. Results suggest that, while the task was challenging, performance scenarios can enhance representativeness of practice without adding additional load to cognitive resources, even for novice performers.