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Katie R. Hosteng, Jacob E. Simmering, Linnea A. Polgreen, James F. Cremer, Alberto M. Segre, Shelby L. Francis, Kara M. Whitaker, Philip M. Polgreen, and Lucas J. Carr

Background: Regular physical activity is crucial for healthy aging, but older adults are the least active age group. This study explored the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a multilevel mHealth intervention for increasing physical activity of older adults living in a retirement community. Methods: Participants included 54 older adults (mean age = 81.2 y, 77.8% female, 98.1% white) living in a retirement community. Participants received a Fitbit Zip and access to a multilevel mHealth physical activity intervention (MapTrek Residential) for 8 weeks. Physical activity (in steps per day) and intervention compliance (days worn) were measured objectively with the Fitbit for 12 weeks (8-wk intervention plus 4-wk follow-up). Psychosocial outcomes (social support, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations) were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Acceptability outcomes were assessed with an open-ended process evaluation survey and focus groups. Descriptive statistics and linear mixed models were used to examine intervention effects. Results: Participants increased daily steps from 5438 steps per day at baseline (95% CI, 4620 to 6256) to 6201 steps per day (95% CI, 5359 to 7042) at week 8 (P < .0001) but this was not maintained at 12 weeks (P = .92). Conclusions: Our multilevel mHealth physical activity intervention was effective for increasing physical activity older adults over 8 weeks. Additional research focused on maintaining physical activity gains with this approach is warranted.

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Andrew A. Flatt, Jeff R. Allen, Clay M. Keith, Matthew W. Martinez, and Michael R. Esco

Purpose: To track cardiac-autonomic functioning, indexed by heart-rate variability, in American college football players throughout a competitive period. Methods: Resting heart rate (RHR) and the natural logarithm root mean square of successive differences (LnRMSSD) were obtained throughout preseason and ∼3 times weekly leading up to the national championship among 8 linemen and 12 nonlinemen. Seated 1-minute recordings were performed via mobile device and standardized for time of day and proximity to training. Results: Relative to preseason, linemen exhibited suppressed LnRMSSD during camp-style preparation for the playoffs (P = .041, effect size [ES] = −1.01), the week of the national semifinal (P < .001, ES = −1.27), and the week of the national championship (P = .005, ES = −1.16). As a combined group, increases in RHR (P < .001) were observed at the same time points (nonlinemen ES = 0.48–0.59, linemen ES = 1.03–1.10). For all linemen, RHR trended upward (positive slopes, R 2 = .02–.77) while LnRMSSD trended downward (negative slopes, R 2 = .02–.62) throughout the season. Preseason to postseason changes in RHR (r = .50, P = .025) and LnRMSSD (r = −.68, P < .001) were associated with body mass. Conclusions: Heart-rate variability tracking revealed progressive autonomic imbalance in the lineman position group, with individual players showing suppressed values by midseason. Attenuated parasympathetic activation is a hallmark of impaired recovery and may contribute to cardiovascular maladaptations reported to occur in linemen following a competitive season. Thus, a descending pattern may serve as an easily identifiable red flag requiring attention from performance and medical staff.

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I Putu Adiartha Griadhi, I Putu Gede Adiatmika, and I Ketut Tirtayasa

Background: Légong dance is a famous Balinese dance with a dynamic movement. It potentially becomes an exercise of choice to improve young girls’ physical fitness. This study aimed to evaluate légong dance training’s effect on physical fitness compared with aerobic training. Methods: Forty young girls were randomly assigned to the aerobic training (AG) and lègong dance (DG) group and trained with jogging and lègong dancing at moderate-intensity aerobic training. Each was carried out for 30 minutes, 3 times a week, for 6 weeks. Result: Aerobic capacity (estimated maximal oxygen consumption) improved significantly in AG and DG, with a mean difference and Cohen d effect size of 0.36 mL/kg/min and 0.68. The back- and leg-muscle strength increased significantly in DG and AG, with a mean difference of 5.55 kg and 6.67 kg, and an effect size of 0.69 and 0.77. Balance improved significantly in DG and AG, with a mean difference of 21.26 seconds and an effect size of 1.05. All significant values are reported at P < .05. There were no significant improvements in arm muscle strength, body fat percentage, and flexibility in either group (P > .05). Conclusion: Lègong dance training results in significant physical fitness improvement and better results than aerobic training.

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Fatemeh Abbasi, Zeinab Khademi, Rasoul Eslami, and Alireza Milajerdi

Background: Despite several studies on the effects of exercise training on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with breast cancer, no earlier study has systematically summarized their findings. Current systematic review and meta-analysis have been done on earlier clinical trials in this topic. Methods: Relevant studies published up to May 2020 were searched through PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar using predefined keywords. Studies that examined the effect of exercise training on serum glucose and lipid profiles in adult women with breast cancer were included. Results: A total of 16 studies were included. Combining 10 effect sizes, exercise training had no significant influence on serum fasting plasma glucose concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 4.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], −4.65 to 14.29). However, it resulted in significant reduction of serum insulin (WMD = −2.37; 95% CI, −3.57 to −1.16) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (WMD = −0.71; 95% CI, −1.27 to −0.15) in 14 and 8 studies, respectively. Pooling 6 effect sizes, exercise training did not change serum total cholesterol (WMD = −11.99; 95% CI, −32.42 to 8.45), low-density lipoprotein (WMD = −3.21; 95% CI, −10.45 to 4.04), high-density lipoprotein (WMD = 4.13; 95% CI, −6.20 to 14.46), and triglyceride (WMD = −23.34; 95% CI, −66.96 to 20.29) concentrations. Subgroup analyses showed beneficial effects of exercise training on outcomes of interest among studies with higher methodological quality. Conclusion: Current meta-analysis demonstrated significant reductions in serum levels of insulin and insulin resistance following exercise training. However, exercise training had no significant effect on serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Further high-quality studies are needed to shed light on this issue.

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Thaynã Alves Bezerra, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Anastácio Neco de Souza Filho, Cain Craig Truman Clark, Jorge Augusto Pinto Silva Mota, Michael Joseph Duncan, and Clarice Maria de Lucena Martins

Background: The relationship between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and fundamental motor skill (FMS) is inconsistent in early childhood, due to its complex and nonlinear characteristics. This study aimed to analyze the nonlinear relationships between MVPA, FMS, body mass index (BMI), sex, and age in preschoolers. Methods: This cross-sectional study with preschoolers (n = 204; 4.0 [0.8] y old; 99 boys), provided objective physical activity data, FMS assessments, and BMI. The associations between MVPA, FMS, BMI, sex, and age were explored using the network analysis (RStudio and qgraph). Results: Boys were more motor competent than girls in all FMS skills, while girls were more active than boys during the weekend. Older children were less active than their younger peers during these days. MVPA is weak and differently related to each FMS, and the leap skill emerged with the highest betweenness and strength values in the network. Conclusions: For the assessed preschoolers, when considering BMI, age, and sex, the relationships between MVPA and FMS are inconsistent, and leap emerged as the main variable. During early childhood, these variables are connected as part of a complex system in which each skill has a dynamic role within the emerging pattern.

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Oliver Vogel, Daniel Niederer, Jan Wilke, Maike Steinmann, and Lutz Vogt

This study investigates methods of data gathering and management, along with the relationship of lifespan and older adults’ activity. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 47, 81.7 ± 3.6 years) completed the Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire. Current activity was assessed by use of accelerometers. The data were converted to the metabolic equivalent of task hours. Correlations between the main outcomes (metabolic equivalent of task/hour, Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire), as well as individual estimation errors for data adjustments, were computed. The accelerometer and Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire data for the last 12 months’ activity were associated (r = .31, p = .033). The average overestimation in the self-reported data was 176%. The adapted data on lifetime physical activity reveals correlations between older adults’ activity and the activity levels of three 15-year episodes (r = .354; r = .336; r = .323; each p < .05), as well as compliance with guidelines throughout life (Hotelling’s T 2 = 45–164; p ≤ .002). Our findings indicate a relationship between lifetime and older adults’ activity and provide further support for lifelong engagement in physical activity.

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Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Maree Gleeson, Alice Wallett, Warren A. McDonald, Kate L. Pumpa, and David B. Pyne

Gastrointestinal disturbances are one of the most common issues for endurance athletes during training and competition in the heat. The relationship between typical dietary intake or nutritional interventions and perturbations in or maintenance of gut integrity is unclear. Twelve well-trained male endurance athletes (peak oxygen consumption = 61.4 ± 7.0 ml·kg−1·min−1) completed two trials in a randomized order in 35 °C (heat) and 21 °C (thermoneutral) conditions and kept a detailed nutritional diary for eight consecutive days between the two trials. The treadmill running trials consisted of 15 min at 60% peak oxygen consumption, 15 min at 75% peak oxygen consumption, followed by 8 × 1-min high-intensity efforts. Venous blood samples were taken at the baseline, at the end of each of the three exercise stages, and 1 hr postexercise to measure gut integrity and the permeability biomarker concentration for intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein, lipopolysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein. The runners self-reported gut symptoms 1 hr postexercise and 3 days postexercise. The heat condition induced large (45–370%) increases in intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and lipopolysaccharide concentrations compared with the baseline, but induced mild gastrointestinal symptoms. Carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fat intake 24 hr preexercise were associated with less lipopolysaccharide translocation. Protein, carbohydrate, total fat, and polyunsaturated fat intake (8 days) were positively associated with the percentage increase of intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein in both conditions (range of correlations, 95% confidence interval = .62–.93 [.02, .98]). Typical nutrition intake partly explained increases in biomarkers and the attenuation of symptoms induced by moderate- and high-intensity exercise under both heat and thermoneutral conditions.

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Luciana L.S. Barboza, Heike Schmitz, Julian Tejada, Ellen Caroline M. Silva, Advanusia S.S. Oliveira, Luís B. Sardinha, and Danilo R. Silva

Background: To evaluate the effects of the introduction of physically active lessons on movement behaviors, cognitive, and academic performance in schoolchildren. Methods: This was a cluster-controlled trial. A total of 61 students from the second year of elementary school in a public school in Brazil made up 2 intervention classes (n = 34) with the introduction of physically active lessons and 2 control classes (n = 27). Sedentary behavior, physical activity, cognitive, and academic performance were evaluated in 3 moments, which were compared using models of generalized estimating equations. Results: The intervention was effective for reducing the standing time between the baseline and 3 months while increasing the walking time between baseline and 3 months and baseline and 9 months. There was a reduction in time in stationary activities and increased time in light physical activities between all moments. The intervention group increased their performance in the go/no go test, showing a smaller number of errors between the baseline and 3 months and baseline and 9 months, and a reduction in the test time between baseline and 3 months. No impact on students’ academic performance was observed. Conclusion: Physically active lessons improve movement behaviors and cognitive functions among elementary schoolchildren.

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Roseane de Fátima Guimarães, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Ryan E.R. Reid, Mélanie Henderson, and Tracie Ann Barnett

Background: Behavioral trajectories from childhood to adolescence may differ and are poorly understood. The authors estimated the trajectories of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), screen time, and sleep duration during this period, by sex and initial weight status. Methods: Data from Quebec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth, an ongoing cohort study in Canada on the natural history of obesity, were used. Participants predisposed to obesity attended baseline (8–10 y old, n = 630) and follow-up visits 2 years (n = 564) and 7 years (n = 359) after baseline. Participants with completed self-reported and accelerometer-based data were included in the analyses (n = 191, 353, and 240 for MVPA, screen time, and sleep, respectively). The authors performed group-based trajectory analyses and multinomial logistic regression models. Results: Two MVPA, 3 screen time, and 2 sleep trajectories were identified. Girls were more likely than boys to belong to trajectory with lower MVPA means (odds ratio [OR] = 6.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.08 to 13.49), yet less likely to belong to the trajectory with higher screen time (OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.97) and lower sleep duration (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.78). Overweight or obesity at baseline was associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to the trajectory with lower MVPA (OR = 10.99; 95% CI, 1.31 to 91.14) and higher screen time (OR = 2.01; 95% CI, 1.04 to 4.06), respectively. Conclusions: It appears to be gender- and weight-based determinants of behavioral trajectories in this sample. These results may provide guidance for interventions in similar populations.