The menstrual cycle is an important biological process in women that is associated with a range of physical symptoms, which can shape how women think, feel, and participate in activities of daily life. This study employed a mixed-methods design to investigate adult women’s physical activity throughout the menstrual cycle. One hundred and twenty-eight participants completed an online questionnaire that explored events of the menstrual cycle (e.g., bleeding, pain, fatigue) and physical activity. Semistructured interviews with 21 questionnaire respondents unpacked individual experiences of physical activity throughout the menstrual cycle. From the questionnaire data, 44 participants were categorized as avoiders and 84 as nonavoiders of physical activity due to menstrual events. Avoiders of physical activity reported longer periods, heavier menstrual flow, and higher levels of fatigue and pain compared with nonavoiders. Interviews revealed that avoidance of physical activity ranged from complete avoidance to adaptation (e.g., types of exercise). Reasons for avoidance and adaptation of physical activity included menstrual symptoms, personal thoughts, and concerns about other people’s views of the period. The present study findings emphasize the importance of not only evaluating prevalent physical symptoms, but also unpacking women’s individual perspectives and established societal norms to better understand and normalize physical activity throughout the menstrual cycle.
Petra V. Kolić, David T. Sims, Kirsty Hicks, Laura Thomas, and Christopher I. Morse
Mark A. Thompson, Adam R. Nicholls, John Toner, John L. Perry, and Rachel Burke
The authors investigated relationships between emotions, coping, and resilience across two studies. In Study 1a, 319 athletes completed dispositional questionnaires relating to the aforementioned constructs. In Study 1b, 126 athletes from Study 1a repeated the same questionnaires 6 months later. In Study 2, 21 athletes were randomly allocated to an emotional (e.g., pleasant or unpleasant emotions) or control group and undertook a laboratory-based reaction-time task across three time points. Questionnaires and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after each performance with imagery-based emotional manipulations engendered during the second testing session. Partial longitudinal evidence of the broaden-and-build effects of pleasant emotions was found. Pleasant emotions may undo lingering cognitive resource losses incurred from previous unpleasant emotional experiences. In Study 2, pleasant and unpleasant emotions had an immediate and sustained psychophysiological and performance impact. Taken together, this research supports the application of broaden-and-build theory in framing emotional interventions for athletes.
Deborah L. Feltz
In this brief autobiography, I reflect on how my childhood and adolescent experiences influenced my decision to study the psychology of sport and physical activity. I describe how my research evolved over time, my contributions to the field, and the people who were influential in my career. Finally, I offer some suggestions for how the field of kinesiology, as a whole, might engage in the future.
Thaís Amanda Reia, Roberta Fernanda da Silva, André Mourão Jacomini, Ana Maria Guilmo Moreno, Letícia Perticarra Ferezin, Sherliane Carla Pereira, Riccardo Lacchini, Thiago José Dionísio, Carlos Ferreira Santos, and Anderson Saranz Zago
Background: This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of physical exercise on nitric oxide concentration and blood pressure (BP) in older adults with different levels of training status (TS) and verified the influence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms on these variables. Methods: A total of 145 older adults were divided into good TS (G1) and weak TS (G2). Participants were subjected to a 40-minute treadmill walk (40%–60% of maximum oxygen consumption) with BP measurements and blood collections for plasma nitrite and oxidative stress biomarkers at pretest and posttest moments. Data were analyzed by 2-way repeated-measures with Sidak post hoc test (P < .05) and multivariate linear analysis. Results: After acute exercise, G2 showed an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (P = .008), and both groups showed an increase in systolic BP (P < .001). Polymorphisms 894G > T and intron 4b/a had no association with nitrite and BP. However, −786T > C polymorphism showed an association with reduced systolic and diastolic BP (TT genotype) and increased diastolic BP (TC genotype). Higher TS level was also associated with lower BP. Conclusion: The maintenance of good TS levels may have a protective effect on cardiovascular risks regardless of the genetic profile.
Amy E. Mendham, Julia H. Goedecke, Melony C. Fortuin-de Smidt, Lindokuhle Phiri, Louise Clamp, Jeroen Swart, Gosia Lipinska, and Dale E. Rae
Background: Improving sleep quality and reducing depressive symptoms may be target mechanisms for intervention-based research aimed at reducing cardiometabolic risk in low-income communities. This study assessed the effects of exercise training on depressive symptoms and sleep in obese women for a low socioeconomic community. The secondary aim explored associations between changes in depressive symptoms and sleep with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: Participants were randomized into exercise (n = 20) or control (n = 15) groups. The exercise group completed 12 weeks of combined resistance and aerobic training (40–60 min, 4 d/wk), and the control group maintained habitual diet and activity. Preintervention and postintervention testing included questionnaires on symptoms of depression, psychological distress, and sleep quality. Sedentary time, peak oxygen consumption, body mass index, and insulin sensitivity were measured objectively. Sleep duration (accelerometry) was assessed at preintervention and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Exercise training reduced depressive symptoms (P = .002) and improved sleep quality (P < .001) and sleep efficiency (P = .005). Reduced depressive symptoms were associated with improved peak oxygen consumption (rho = −.600, P < .001), and improved sleep quality correlated with reduced sedentary time (rho = .415, P = .018). Conclusion: These results highlight the potential for community-based exercise interventions to simultaneously address multiple comorbidities in a low-income setting.
Paige Watkins, Anne-Marie Hill, Ian K. Thaver, and Elissa Burton
The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to investigate older adults’ perceptions of having a peer to encourage their participation in resistance training. The participants were recruited from a retirement village to undergo a 6-week resistance training program. Some participants attended a center; others participated in their home. Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed thematically using a six-phase framework to obtain the participants’ perspectives about the peer support they received. The participants (n = 21) had divergent views about peer support, with some finding it enabling, while others did not find it helpful. Overall, the participants suggested that peer support could be beneficial if offered as a choice. Further research is needed to determine whether peer support assists in sustaining resistance training engagement among older adults when the aspect of choice is included.
Paloma Flores-Barrantes, Greet Cardon, Iris Iglesia, Luis A. Moreno, Odysseas Androutsos, Yannis Manios, Jemina Kivelä, Jaana Lindström, Marieke De Craemer, and on behalf of the Feel4Diabetes Study Group
Background: Shared risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) between parents at risk and their children, such as low physical activity levels, should be addressed to prevent the development of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of objectively measured step counts per day between parents at risk of developing T2DM and their 6- to 10-year-old children. Methods: The baseline data from the Feel4Diabetes study were analyzed. Dyads of children and one parent (n = 250, 54.4% girls and 77.6% mothers) from Belgium were included. Step counts per day during 5 consecutive days from parents and their children were objectively measured with ActiGraph accelerometers. Results: Adjusted linear regression models indicated that parents’ and children’s step counts were significantly associated during all days (β = 0.245), weekdays (β = 0.205), and weekend days (β = 0.316) (P ≤ .002 in all cases). Specifically, mother–daughter associations during all days and weekend days and father–son step counts during weekdays and when considering all days were significant. Conclusion: There is a positive association between step counts from adults at risk of developing T2DM and their children, especially in the mother–daughter and father–son dyads.
Timothy M. Dasinger and Melinda A. Solmon
Physical activity participation is linked with many benefits including a reduction in anxiety; it is, however, also important to explore aspects of activity that incite anxiety. One way to investigate sources of anxiety in physical activity is to use the critical incident technique (CIT). The purpose of this study was to explore anxiety-inducing events in physical activity settings and to evaluate the impact on future behavior. A total of 122 participants (M = 21.23 ± 1.77 years) completed an online survey asking when a physical activity setting incited anxiety using the CIT. Four common sources of anxiety were evident in the responses: fragile self-beliefs, social interaction and the threat of negative social evaluation, competition, and a lack of knowledge or unfamiliarity with surroundings. Tenets from achievement goal theory can help to explain the incitement of anxiety and can help shape physical activity settings to be more inclusive and welcoming for all.
David R. Axon and Niloufar Emami
This retrospective, cross-sectional database study aimed to identify characteristics associated with self-reported frequent exercise (defined as moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise for ≥30 min five times a week) in older U.S. (≥50 years) adults with pain in the past 4 weeks, using 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data and hierarchical logistic regression models. The variables significantly associated with frequent exercise included being male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.507, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.318, 1.724]); non-Hispanic (AOR = 1.282, 95% CI [1.021, 1.608]); employed (AOR = 1.274, 95% CI [1.040, 1.560]); having no chronic conditions versus ≥5 conditions (AOR = 1.576, 95% CI [1.094, 2.268]); having two chronic conditions versus ≥5 conditions (AOR = 1.547, 95% CI [1.226, 1.952]); having no limitation versus having a limitation (AOR = 1.209, 95% CI [1.015, 1.441]); having little/moderate versus quite/extreme pain (AOR = 1.358, 95% CI [1.137, 1.621]); having excellent/very good versus fair/poor physical health (AOR = 2.408, 95% CI [1.875, 3.093]); and having good versus fair/poor physical health (AOR = 1.337, 95% CI [1.087, 1.646]). These characteristics may be useful to create personalized pain management protocols that include exercise for older adults with pain.
Karsten Elmose-Østerlund, Graham Cuskelly, Jens Høyer-Kruse, and Christian Røj Voldby
Despite a rich literature on organizational capacity (OC) in voluntary sports clubs (VSCs), few studies have examined OC building and its long-term sustainability. Against this background, the authors identified changes in OC among VSCs that participated in a club development program and examined the sustainability of these changes. The authors collected survey data 9 months after participation comparing the participating VSCs (n = 62) with similar nonparticipating VSCs (n = 64). A selection of the participating VSCs was then contacted 3–4 years later for a follow-up survey (n = 48) and focus group interviews (n = 5). The results show that (a) significant differences in human resource capacity, planning and development capacity, and infrastructure and process capacity were visible between the participating and nonparticipating VSCs, and that (b) certain changes in OC remain in the clubs 3–4 years after participation. A sustainable change was that core volunteers related differently to the work in their respective VSCs.