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Margo E.K. Adam, Abimbola O. Eke, and Leah J. Ferguson

Self-compassion, an adaptive self-attitude, is a resource that women athletes use during emotionally difficult times and as a way to reach their potential. The relationship between self-compassion and sport performance, however, is complex. The role and experience of self-compassion within perceived important competitive events are important to explore, as athletes face unique pressures and stressors in these meaningful sport experiences. This collective case study describes women athletes’ self-compassion, sport performance perceptions, and well-being around a self-identified important competitive event. Competitive women athletes (N = 9) participated in two one-on-one interviews, before and after their important competitive event. Results from the holistic, functional, and thematic analyses are represented by holistic case descriptions and an overarching theme, Continuing to Excel in Sport, and subthemes, Reframing Criticism and A Determined Approach. In important competitive events, women athletes utilize self-compassion to promote performance perceptions and well-being when preparing, competing, and reflecting to excel in sport.

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Myungjin Jung, Heontae Kim, Seungho Ryu, and Minsoo Kang

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate secular trends in domain-specific physical activity in the immigrant population in the US between 2009 and 2018. Method: A secondary data analysis from the 2009–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; a total of 7282 immigrants in the US were included in this analysis. All domain-specific physical activity was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Tests for linear trends were performed to examine the trends of each physical activity time using orthogonal polynomial coefficients. Physical activity trends were assessed by the whole group and the various subgroups. Results: Total physical activity showed an upward linear trend in female (P trend = .04) and young adult (P trend = .009) immigrants. Work-related physical activity showed an upward linear trend in young adult immigrants (P trend = .01). Recreational physical activity showed an upward linear trend in young adult (P trend = .03) and Mexican American (P trend < .001) immigrants and in immigrants living in the US for 15–29 years (P trend = .02). In contrast, we observed downward linear trends in transit-related physical activity for immigrants across male (P trend = .04), middle-aged adult (P trend = .01), and non-Hispanic black groups (P trend = .004) and in immigrants living in the US for 15–29 years (P trend = .03). Conclusion: There were no significant linear trends in the 4 domains of physical activity in the overall US immigrant population; however, trends in domain-specific physical activity in the US immigrant population differed by gender, age, race/ethnicity, and length of residence. These findings may inform physical activity promotion strategies targeting US immigrant populations with diverse sociocultural backgrounds.

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Danielle S. Molnar, Melissa Blackburn, Dawn Zinga, Natalie Spadafora, Tabitha Methot-Jones, and Maureen Connolly

This study provided the first test of the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism with respect to dancers’ goals for dancing in competitive dance. Four hundred twenty-five young female North American competitive dancers (M = 11.33 years; SD = 2.14) completed questionnaires assessing multidimensional perfectionism and goals for participation in dance. The latent moderated structural equations approach along with procedures outlined by Gaudreau indicated partial support for the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism. Pure Evaluative Concerns Perfectionism was associated with fewer intrinsic goals for dance and greater extrinsic goals for dance relative to nonperfectionism. Pure Personal Standards Perfectionism was related to less endorsement of extrinsic goals relative to nonperfectionism. Findings were complex with respect to mixed perfectionism, with this form of perfectionism being related to greater endorsement of both intrinsic and extrinsic goals for dance. Results provide partial support for the 2 × 2 model in youth dance.

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Lucimere Bohn, Duarte Barros, Flávia Borges-Machado, Susana Carrapatoso, Andreia N. Pizarro, and Joana Carvalho

The objective of this study was to observe the home-confinement effects on physical fitness, physical activity (PA), and body composition in active older adults, and to compare physical fitness and PA according to quality of life (QoL) during confinement. A total of 72 physically active older adults (61.1% females; 74.24 ± 5.57 years) were assessed pre- and postconfinement for aerobic capacity (6-min walk test), lower (30-s sit-to-stand), and upper (30-s arm-curl) body strength, PA (short-version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and QoL (EQ-5D-visual analogue scale). The pre- and postconfinement comparisons show declines in upper (−2.24 ± 0.45 repetitions; p < .001; η2 = .276) and lower body strength (−2.65 ± 0.42 repetitions; p < .001; η2 = .378) in both genders, but not in aerobic capacity. Ninety percentage of older adults perceived a decline in PA. Older adults reporting high QoL increased 19.27 ± 97.04 m in the 6-min walk test, while the participants with low QoL reduced 28.32 ± 63.27 m (p = .018; η2 = .090). Previously active older adults did not have their aerobic capacity decrease significantly despite a decline in upper and lower body strength during an 11-week home confinement period.

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Richard R. Suminski, Gregory M. Dominick, and Matthew Saponaro

Evidence suggests that video captured with a wearable video device (WVD) may augment or supplant traditional methods for assessing park use. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) are used to assess human activity, but research employing them for park assessments is sparse. Therefore, this study compared park user counts between a WVD and UAS. A diverse set of 33 amenities (e.g., playground) in three parks were videoed simultaneously by one researcher wearing a WVD and another operating the UAS. Assessments were done at 12 p.m. and 7 p.m. on weekends, with one park evaluated on two occasions 7 days apart. Two investigators independently reviewed videos and reached consensus on the counts of individuals at each amenity. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to determine intra- and interrater reliabilities. A total of 404 (M = 4.7; SD = 9.6) and 389 (M = 4.5; SD = 9.0) individuals were counted in the UAS and WVD videos, respectively. Absolute agreement was 86% (74/86) and 100% when no individuals were using the amenity. Whether using all 86 videos or only videos having people (48 videos), ICCs indicated excellent reliability (ICC = .99; p < .001). The totals seen for the repeated measures were UAS = 146 and WVD = 136 for Day 1 and UAS = 169 and WVD = 161 for Day 2. Intrarater reliability was excellent for the UAS (ICC = .92; p < .001) and good for the WVD (ICC = .89; p < .001). Disagreement was mainly due to obstructions—people behind or under structures. This study provides support for the use of UASs for counting park users and future research examining the potential benefits of video analysis for assessing park use.

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Jordan A. Carlson, Fatima Tuz-Zahra, John Bellettiere, Nicola D. Ridgers, Chelsea Steel, Carolina Bejarano, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Dori E. Rosenberg, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, Marta M. Jankowska, and Loki Natarajan

Background: The authors assessed agreement between participant diaries and two automated algorithms applied to activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd, Glasgow, United Kingdom) data for classifying awake wear time in three age groups. Methods: Study 1 involved 20 youth and 23 adults who, by protocol, removed the activPAL occasionally to create nonwear periods. Study 2 involved 744 older adults who wore the activPAL continuously. Both studies involved multiple assessment days. In-bed, out-of-bed, and nonwear times were recorded in the participant diaries. The CREA (in PAL processing suite) and ProcessingPAL (secondary application) algorithms estimated out-of-bed wear time. Second- and day-level agreement between the algorithms and diary was investigated, as were associations of sedentary variables with self-rated health. Results: The overall accuracy for classifying out-of-bed wear time as compared with the diary was 89.7% (Study 1) to 95% (Study 2) for CREA and 89.4% (Study 1) to 93% (Study 2) for ProcessingPAL. Over 90% of the nonwear time occurring in nonwear periods >165 min was detected by both algorithms, while <11% occurring in periods ≤165 min was detected. For the daily variables, the mean absolute errors for each algorithm were generally within 0–15% of the diary mean. Most Spearman correlations were very large (≥.81). The mean absolute errors and correlations were less favorable for days on which any nonwear time had occurred. The associations between sedentary variables and self-rated health were similar across processing methods. Conclusion: The automated awake wear-time classification algorithms performed similarly to the diary information on days without short (≤2.5–2.75 hr) nonwear periods. Because both diary and algorithm data can have inaccuracies, best practices likely involve integrating diary and algorithm output.

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Anna Witkowska, Małgorzata Grabara, Dorota Kopeć, and Zbigniew Nowak

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Nordic Walking compared to conventional walking on aerobic capacity, the lipid profile, left ventricular ejection fraction, body mass, and body mass index in women over 55 years old. Methods: The study was comprised of 74 women over 55 years of age. Participants were randomized to the Nordic Walking (n = 38) or conventional walking (n = 36) training groups. The echocardiogram, treadmill exercise stress test, lipid profile, and body mass were assessed at baseline (pretest) and after 12 weeks (posttest). Results: The authors found a significant main effect over time in duration (effect size [ES] = 0.59, P < .0001), distance covered (ES = 0.56, P < .0001), peak oxygen consumption (ES = 0.43, P < .0001), metabolic equivalent (ES = 0.29, P < .0001), peak heart rate (ES = 0.2, P < .0001), peak diastolic blood pressure (ES = 0.11, P = .0045), total cholesterol (ES = 0.26, P < .0001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ES = 0.16, P = .0005). The authors did not observe a time versus group interaction or the effect between groups. Post hoc tests revealed significant pretraining to posttraining differences in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after the Nordic Walking training program and in peak diastolic blood pressure after the conventional walking training program. The heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure at rest, peak diastolic blood pressure, somatic parameters (body mass and body mass index), and left ventricular ejection fraction did not change in either group. Conclusions: Both training programs resulted in increases in aerobic capacity and decreases in total cholesterol.

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Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Olga López-Torres, Álvaro Martos-Bermúdez, Lorena Rodriguez-Garcia, Marcela González-Gross, and Amelia Guadalupe-Grau

Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent supervised and unsupervised training program focused on muscle power to counteract the potential changes in sedentary behavior, disability, physical activity (PA), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic domiciliary confinement in prefrail older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Thirty-five older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were assigned to 2 groups according to their frailty status: exercise training group (prefrail or frail; n = 21; 74.7 [4.5] y; 33.3% male) and control group (robust; n = 14; 73.1 [3.9] y; 42.9% male). The exercise training group followed a multicomponent training program focusing on muscle power: supervised (5 wk) and unsupervised (6 wk). The primary outcomes, including PA and sitting time, perceived disability, and HRQoL, were assessed at the baseline and after 11 weeks. Results: At the end of confinement, there were significant decreases in PA in both groups (P < .05). Thus, sitting time increased more in the control group than in the exercise training group (P < .05). The HRQoL measures remained unchanged. Conclusions: Muscle power training before and during mandatory COVID-19 self-isolation in type 2 diabetes mellitus older adults (1) attenuates the COVID-19 domiciliary confinement-related increase in sitting time and (2) slightly decreases the self-reported levels of disability and maintains HRQoL.

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Pierre Van Luchene and Cécile Delens

Background: Starting college or university is a significant life event that can impact students’ physical activity (PA). Social support specific to PA (SSPA) is a social determinant of PA among college and university students. This review had 3 aims: (1) to systematically review studies examining the association between SSPA and PA among students; (2) to examine whether potential associations differed in terms of types or sources of SSPA; and (3) to examine whether any potential associations differed in terms of gender. Methods: Studies were identified using Academic Search Premier, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts, and SPORTDiscus. Results: This review included 25 papers. The results suggested that there is a positive association between SSPA and PA among college and university students. Although the importance of different sources of SSPA is not clear, the results suggested that family and friends provide significant SSPA. Conclusions: High variability in measurement methods made it difficult to compare studies and to come to a clear consensus. However, the findings suggested that SSPA may be a determinant of PA. In order to better understand the relationship between SSPA and PA among students, some elements, such as gender, socioeconomic level, and off- or on-campus housing, should be considered in future studies.

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Andreia Teixeira, Ronaldo Gabriel, Luis Quaresma, Ana Alencoão, José Martinho, and Helena Moreira

Background: Obesity is an important public health issue that has increased globally in the last decade and continues to be one of the main causes of morbidity and premature mortality. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that contact with nature is a valuable resource for the promotion of a more active lifestyle and seems to have a central role in maintaining a healthy weight. The authors conducted a systematic review to summarize the findings of studies that investigated the relationship between natural spaces and obesity. Methods: Following Primary Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a literature search was conducted using 11 databases for studies fully available in English and published between 2010 and 2020, with adults (18–64 y) and/or older people (≥65 y). Results: Fifty studies were found that met all the inclusion criteria. The majority (68%) of papers found that higher availability and less distance to green and blue spaces are associated with lower levels of adiposity. These associations were positive, even after adjusting for the demographic and socioeconomic factors. Conclusions: Exploring the characteristics of green and blue spaces seems to be a promising tool for urban planning and health policies. The authors suggest the implementation of exercise programs in contact with nature for future interventions.