Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welveart, Ida A. Heikura, Avish P. Sharma, Jamie Whitfield, Megan L. Ross, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Louise M. Burke
This study implemented a 2-week high carbohydrate (CHO) diet intended to maximize CHO oxidation rates and examined the iron-regulatory response to a 26-km race walking effort. Twenty international-level, male race walkers were assigned to either a novel high CHO diet (MAX = 10 g/kg body mass CHO daily) inclusive of gut-training strategies, or a moderate CHO control diet (CON = 6 g/kg body mass CHO daily) for a 2-week training period. The athletes completed a 26-km race walking test protocol before and after the dietary intervention. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 3 hr postexercise and measured for serum ferritin, interleukin-6, and hepcidin-25 concentrations. Similar decreases in serum ferritin (17–23%) occurred postintervention in MAX and CON. At the baseline, CON had a greater postexercise increase in interleukin-6 levels after 26 km of walking (20.1-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 35.7]) compared with MAX (10.2-fold, 95% CI [3.7, 18.7]). A similar finding was evident for hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise (CON = 10.8-fold, 95% CI [4.8, 21.2]; MAX = 8.8-fold, 95% CI [3.9, 16.4]). Postintervention, there were no substantial differences in the interleukin-6 response (CON = 13.6-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 20.5]; MAX = 11.2-fold, 95% CI [6.5, 21.3]) or hepcidin levels (CON = 7.1-fold, 95% CI [2.1, 15.4]; MAX = 6.3-fold, 95% CI [1.8, 14.6]) between the dietary groups. Higher resting serum ferritin (p = .004) and hotter trial ambient temperatures (p = .014) were associated with greater hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise. Very high CHO diets employed by endurance athletes to increase CHO oxidation have little impact on iron regulation in elite athletes. It appears that variations in serum ferritin concentration and ambient temperature, rather than dietary CHO, are associated with increased hepcidin concentrations 3 hr postexercise.
Lambros Stefanou, Niki Tsangaridou, Charalambos Y. Charalambous, and Leonidas Kyriakides
Purpose: Teacher content knowledge (CK) and its contribution to student achievement (SA) are understudied in physical education, especially concerning the examination of the effectiveness of professional development (PD) programs using direct measures of teachers’ CK and SA. To make progress in this research area, this study investigated the contribution of a content-focused PD program to teachers’ CK and SA in basketball, using direct measures thereof. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was utilized to examine the contribution of a PD program. The authors measured the CK of 52 elementary classroom teachers and their fifth or sixth grade students’ (n = 913) achievement in basketball before and after the PD program. The data were analyzed using unilevel and multilevel regression analyses. Results: Teachers who participated in the PD program exhibited higher learning gains in their CK; their students also exhibited higher learning gains. Discussion and Conclusion: The study findings suggest that PD programs focused on enhancing teachers’ CK might also support SA.
Insook Kim and Phillip Ward
Purpose: This study examined the effects of a specialized content knowledge workshop on developing teachers’ content development and adaptive competence in teaching badminton. Method: A quasi-experimental design was employed with three middle school physical education teachers who taught five or six badminton lessons before and after the content knowledge workshop (n = 66). Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis of variance were conducted to analyze the data of content development index scores and intratask adaptations. Frequency data across lessons by teachers and treatment conditions were employed for content development patterns. Results: There were statistically significant effects of the workshop in developing the teachers’ use of content development (p = .049) and adaptations (p = .000), but their effects varied by teacher. While the most used content development pattern by the teachers in comparison classes was an informing applying pattern, the teachers used a variety of content development patterns that included more task progressions in the experimental classes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that teachers’ instructional tasks and task adaptations could be improved through a well-designed professional development program. The findings can guide the direction of teacher education and professional development in ways to enhance teachers’ content development and adaptations.
Okseon Lee, Euichang Choi, Victoria Goodyear, Mark Griffiths, Hyukjun Son, Hyunsoo Jung, and Wonhee Lee
Although physical education (PE) teachers have increased access to digital/online continuous professional development activities, there are few robust accounts of how they engage with and experience these environments. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine PE teachers’ participation patterns within self-directed online PE continuous professional development activities using mobile instant messenger. Methods: Data were generated from (a) 5,246 messages exchanged in the mobile instant messenger chatroom from 281 teachers, (b) semistructured interviews with 10 teachers, and (c) 1,275 messages posted by the 10 interviewed teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed for measures of central tendency, and qualitative data were analyzed inductively. Findings: Five patterns of PE teachers’ usage of mobile instant messenger were identified: (a) ringmasters, (b) passive uploaders, (c) active uploaders, (d) requesters, and (e) bystanders. Discussion: The findings suggest that each engagement pattern illustrates the differential goals of learning, types of interaction, and forms of participation by teachers engaged in online continuous professional development.
Darla M. Castelli and Latrice Sales Mitchell
The authors explore the priorities for American physical education in the 21st century and reconsider the role of physical education teacher education. Purpose: This chapter will discuss the potential intersection of kinesiology, physical education, and public health with the assumption that their selective integration has the potential to stimulate the development of innovative pedagogical practices and new program designs. Method: A narrative summary of published works was used to support the rationale for reciprocal selective integration to increase the impact of physical education, kinesiology, and public health efforts to enhance health and well-being. Results: The practices and programs should be specialized and pedagogically focused to advance integrative, community-based approaches designed to achieve the national physical education standards and improve health and well-being. These new approaches are timely and essential in schools and communities, especially those where children and families experience adversity. Discussion/Conclusion: There are many ways in which selective integration can transpire. A redesign of physical education teacher education is warranted and timely.
ZáNean McClain, Jill Pawlowski, and Daniel W. Tindall
Annemiek J. Roete, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser, Ruby T.A. Otter, Inge K. Stoter, and Robert P. Lamberts
Purpose: The aim of this brief review was to present an overview of noninvasive markers in trained to professional endurance athletes that can reflect a state of functional overreaching. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases. After screening 380 articles, 12 research papers were included for the systematic review. Results: Good consensus was found between the different papers in which noninvasive parameters were able to reflect a state of functional overreaching. Changes in power output (PO), heart rate (HR; [sub]maximal and HR recovery), rating of perceived exertion, and scores in the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) and/or Profile of Mood States (POMS) were shown to be able to reflect functional overreaching, whereas changes in maximal oxygen uptake and HR-variability parameters were not. Conclusion: Functional overreaching within a maximal performance test was characterized by a decrease in peak PO and a lower maximum HR, whereas a lower mean PO and a lower HR were observed during time trials. Changes in parameters during a standardized submaximal test when functionally overreached were characterized by a higher PO at a fixed HR or a lower HR at a fixed intensity, higher rating of perceived exertion, and a faster HR recovery. Although both the DALDA and POMS were able to reflect functional overreaching, the POMS was not able to differentiate this response from acute fatigue, which makes it unsuitable for accurately monitoring functional overreaching.
Michelle T. Barrack, Marta D. Van Loan, Mitchell Rauh, and Jeanne F. Nichols
This prospective study evaluated the 3-year change in menstrual function and bone mass among 40 female adolescent endurance runners (age 15.9 ± 1.0 years) according to baseline disordered eating status. Three years after initial data collection, runners underwent follow-up measures including the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and a survey evaluating menstrual function, running training, injury history, and prior sports participation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density and body composition. Runners with a weight concern, shape concern, or global score ≥4.0 or reporting >1 pathologic behavior in the past 28 days were classified with disordered eating. Compared with runners with normal Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire scores at baseline, runners with disordered eating at baseline reported fewer menstrual cycles/year (6.4 ± 4.5 vs. 10.5 ± 2.8, p = .005), more years of amenorrhea (1.6 ± 1.4 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5, p = .03), and a higher proportion of menstrual irregularity (75.0% vs. 31.3%, p = .02) and failed to increase lumbar spine or total hip bone mineral density at the 3-year follow-up. In a multivariate model including body mass index and menstrual cycles in the past year at baseline, baseline shape concern score (B = −0.57, p value = .001) was inversely related to the annual number of menstrual cycles between assessments. Weight concern score (B = −0.40, p value = .005) was inversely associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score change between assessments according to a multivariate model adjusting for age and body mass index. These finding support associations between disordered eating at baseline and future menstrual irregularities or reduced accrual of lumbar spine bone mass in female adolescent endurance runners.