Background: Structured physical activity (PA) interventions (ie, intentionally planned) can be implemented in a variety of facilities, and therefore can reach a large proportion of the population. The aim of the authors was to summarize the effectiveness of structured interventions upon PA outcomes, in addition to proportions of individuals adopting and maintaining PA, and adherence and retention rates. Methods: Systematic review with narrative synthesis and exploratory meta-analyses. Twelve studies were included. Results: Effectiveness on PA levels during adoption (pre- to first time point) showed a trivial standardized effect (0.15 [−0.06 to 0.36]); during maintenance (any time point after the first and >6 mo since initiation) the standardized effect was also trivial with a wide interval estimate (0.19 [−0.68 to 1.07]). Few studies reported adoption (k = 3) or maintenance rates (k = 2). Retention at follow-up did not differ between structured PA or controls (75.1% [65.0%–83.0%] vs 75.4% [67.0%–82.3%]), nor did intervention adherence (63.0% [55.6%–69.6%] vs 77.8% [19.4%–98.1%]). Conclusion: Structured PA interventions lack evidence for effectiveness in improving PA levels. Furthermore, though retention is often reported and is similar between interventions and controls, adoption, maintenance, and adherence rates were rarely reported rendering difficulty in interpreting results of effectiveness of structured PA interventions.
Nadja Willinger, James Steele, Lou Atkinson, Gary Liguori, Alfonso Jimenez, Steve Mann, and Elizabeth Horton
Jack Hagyard, Jack Brimmell, Elizabeth J. Edwards, and Robert S. Vaughan
Inhibitory control may be vital in elite sport. The authors examined the link between athletic expertise, inhibitory control, and sport performance in a two-part quasi experiment. Inhibitory control was indexed using the Stop-Signal Task, athlete expertise was categorized on literary recommendations, and sport performance was assessed using athlete and coach ratings. Study 1 examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of inhibitory control across athletic expertise. Study 2 investigated whether the inhibitory control–sport performance relationship was moderated by expertise. Study 1 showed that expertise was linked to greater inhibitory control cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Study 2 revealed that expertise was related to superior performance on the Stop-Signal Task and athlete and coach performance ratings, and this relationship was moderated by athletic expertise. Inhibitory control relates to sport performance, increases with greater athlete expertise, and develops longitudinally. Long-term participation in sport may bring about changes in inhibitory control, which may lead to improved sport performance.
This study aimed to explore older adults’ experience with an in-home Physio-feEdback and Exercise pRogram and explore whether the Physio-feEdback and Exercise pRogram intervention influenced their physical activity adherence. A qualitative study approach was employed, and data were collected using exercise logs, observations, focus groups, and open-ended questions after the program completion. Nineteen participants who engaged in an 8-week Physio-feEdback and Exercise pRogram intervention participated in this study. Thematic analysis was used. Three major concepts of the self-determination theory, including competence, relatedness, and autonomy, were used as guidelines for coding. Results reveal three themes, including: (a) competence-alignment of body and mind and increased awareness about fall risk, (b) relatedness-relationship with peer coach and having fun with friends, and (c) autonomy-integration of exercise into daily activities for staying physically and socially active. Individuals’ need for competence and autonomy can be supported by giving physio-feedback, cognitive reframing, and peer-led exercise, which can enhance physical activity and prevent falls.
Lisa Jasper, Lauren A. Beaupre, John C. Spence, and C. Allyson Jones
Few validated tools exist for measuring physical activity following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) despite the importance of returning to sufficient levels of physical activity post-TKA to achieve health benefits. This study examined the validity of two clinical measures—the Fitbit, a commercially available personal activity monitor, and the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a self-report questionnaire—compared with a reference standard accelerometer, the SenseWearTM Armband (SWA). At 6-month post-TKA, 47 participants wore the Fitbit and SWA for 4 days and then completed the CHAMPS. Moderate-to-good correlation was observed between the Fitbit and SWA for steps (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .79), energy expenditure (ICC = .78), and energy expenditure <3 METS (ICC = .79). Poor-to-moderate correlation was observed between the CHAMPS and SWA (ICC = .43) with the questionnaire reporting lower daily energy expenditures than the SWA. Results showed that Fitbit may be a reasonable measurement tool to measure steps and energy expenditures in older adults following TKA.
Costas I. Karageorghis, Leighton Jones, Luke W. Howard, Rhys M. Thomas, Panayiotis Moulashis, and Sam J. Santich
The authors investigated the effects of respite–active music (i.e., music used for active recovery in between high-intensity exercise bouts) on psychological and psychophysiological outcomes. Participants (N = 24) made four laboratory visits for a habituation, medium- and fast-tempo music conditions, and a no-music control. A high-intensity interval-training protocol comprising 8 × 60-s exercise bouts at 100% W max with 90-s active recovery was administered. Measures were taken at the end of exercise bouts and recovery periods (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], state attention, and core affect) and then upon cessation of the protocol (enjoyment and remembered pleasure). Heart rate was measured throughout. Medium-tempo music enhanced affective valence during exercise and recovery, while both music conditions increased dissociation (only during recovery), enjoyment, and remembered pleasure relative to control. Medium-tempo music lowered RPE relative to control, but the heart rate results were inconclusive. As predicted, medium-tempo music, in particular, had a meaningful effect on a range of psychological outcomes.
Dorthe Dalstrup Jakobsen, Jasper Schipperijn, and Jens Meldgaard Bruun
Background: In Denmark, most children are not sufficiently physically active and only a few interventions have been found to increase long-term physical activity among overweight and obese children. The aim of our study was to investigate if children are physically active in correspondence to Danish recommendations after attending a multicomponent-overnight camp. Methods: A questionnaire was developed to estimate children’s physical activity level and behavior and investigate how transport, economy, availability, time, motivation, and knowledge about physical activity affect children’s physical activity level and behavior. Results: In this study, 60.9% of the children did vigorous physical activity (VPA) minimum 30 minutes 3 times per week up to 3 years after camp. Most children were physically active at a sports club (44.3%) and only 5.7% of the children did not participate in physical activity. Parental physical activity and child motivation toward physical activity were significantly (P < .05) associated with children doing VPA. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that 60.9% of children who attended camp engage in VPA after camp, which compared with a recent Danish study, is more frequent than children who did not attend camp. Further investigations are needed to determine the long-term health effects in children attending interventions such as multicomponent-overnight camps.
Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf
Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes, and Rodolfo Novelino Benda
Background: Studies related to the motor performance of children have suggested an interaction between organisms and the environment. Although motor development seems to be similar among people, the behavior is specific to the context that people are part of. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the fundamental motor skill performance between indigenous (IN) and nonindigenous children. Methods: One hundred and thirteen children (43 IN and 70 nonindigenous children) between 8 and 10 years of age underwent the Test of Gross Motor Development—2. Results: A multivariate analysis showed a significant group main effect on both locomotor (p < .01) and object control (p < .01) performance with large and medium effect sizes (
Gregory J. Welk, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Philip M. Dixon, Paul R. Hibbing, Yang Bai, Gabriella M. McLoughlin, and Michael Pereira da Silva
A balance between the feasibility and validity of measures is an important consideration for physical activity (PA) research—particularly in school-based research with youth. The present study extends previously tested calibration methods to develop and test new equations for an online version of the youth activity profile (YAP) tool, a self-report tool designed for school applications. Data were collected across different regions and seasons to develop more robust, generalizable equations. The study involved a total of 717 youth from 33 schools (374 elementary [ages 9–11 years], 224 middle [ages 11–14 years], and 119 high school [ages 14–18 years]) in two different states in the United States. Participants wore a Sensewear monitor for a full week and then completed the online YAP at school to report PA and sedentary behaviors in school and at home. Accelerometer data were processed using an R-based segmentation program to compute PA and sedentary behavior levels. Quantile regression models were used with half of the sample to develop item-specific YAP calibration equations, and these were cross validated with the remaining half of the sample. Computed values of mean absolute percentage error ranged from 15 to 25% with slightly lower error observed for the middle school sample. The new equations had improved precision compared with the previous versions when tested on the same sample. The online version of the YAP provides an efficient and effective way to capture school level estimates of PA and sedentary behaviors in youth.
Andrew P. Kingsnorth, Mhairi Patience, Elena Moltchanova, Dale W. Esliger, Nicola J. Paine, and Matthew Hobbs
The response to COVID-19 resulted in behavioral restrictions to tackle the spread of infection. Initial data indicates that step counts were impacted by lockdown restrictions; however, there is little evidence regarding changes of light and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) behavioral intensities. In this study, participants were asked to provide longitudinal wearable data from Fitbit devices over a period of 30 weeks, from December 2019 to June 2020. Self-assessed key worker status was captured, along with wearable estimates of steps, light activity, and MVPA. Bayesian change point analyses of data from 97 individuals found that there was a sharp decrease of 1,473 steps (95% credible interval [CI] [−2,218, −709]) and light activity minutes (41.9; 95% CI [−54.3, −29.3]), but an increase in MVPA minutes (11.7; 95% CI [2.9, 19.4]) in the mean weekly totals for nonkey workers. For the key workers, the total number of steps (207; 95% CI [−788, 1,456]) and MVPA minutes increased (20.5; 95% CI [12.6, 28.3]) but light activity decreased by an average of 46.9 min (95% CI [−61.2, −31.8]). Interestingly, the change in steps was commensurate with that observed during Christmas (1,458; 95% CI [−2,286, −554]) for nonkey workers and behavioral changes occurred at different time points and rates depending on key worker status. Results indicate that there were clear behavioral modifications before and during the initial COVID-19 lockdown period, and future research should assess whether any behavioral modifications were sustained over time.