Objective: To examine the selective influences of distinct acceleration profiles on the neuromuscular efficiency, force, and power during concentric and eccentric phases of isoinertial squatting exercise. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory of the university. Participants: A total of 38 active adults were divided according to their acceleration profiles: higher (n = 17; >2.5 m/s2) and lower acceleration group (n = 21; <2.5 m/s2). Intervention: All subjects performed squats until failure attached to an isoinertial conic pulley device monitored by surface electromyography of rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. Main Outcome Measures: An incremental optical encoder was used to assess maximal and mean power and force during concentric and eccentric phases. The neuromuscular efficiency was calculated using the mean force and the electromyographic linear envelope. Results: Between-group differences were observed for the maximal and mean force (P range = .001–.005), power (P = .001), and neuromuscular efficiency (P range = .001–.03) with higher significant values for the higher acceleration group in both concentric and eccentric phases. Conclusion: Distinct acceleration profiles affect the neuromuscular efficiency, force, and power during concentric and eccentric phases of isoinertial squatting exercise. To ensure immediate higher levels of power and force output without depriving the neuromuscular system, acceleration profiles higher than 2.5 m/s2 are preferable. The acceleration profiles could be an alternative to evolve the isoinertial exercise.
Denys Batista Campos, Isabella Christina Ferreira, Matheus Almeida Souza, Macquiden Amorim Jr, Leonardo Intelangelo, Gabriela Silveira-Nunes, and Alexandre Carvalho Barbosa
Kyung-eun Lee, Seung-min Baik, Chung-hwi Yi, Oh-yun Kwon, and Heon-seock Cynn
Context: Side bridge exercises strengthen the hip, trunk, and abdominal muscles and challenge the trunk muscles without the high lumbar compression associated with trunk extension or curls. Previous research using electromyography (EMG) reports that performance of the side bridge exercise highly activates the gluteus medius (Gmed). However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous research has investigated EMG amplitude in the hip and trunk muscles during side bridge exercise in subjects with Gmed weakness. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the EMG activity of the hip and trunk muscles during 3 variations of the side bridge exercise (side bridge, side bridge with knee flexion, and side bridge with knee flexion and hip abduction of the top leg) in subjects with Gmed weakness. Design: Repeated-measures experimental design. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients: Thirty subjects (15 females and 15 males) with Gmed weakness participated in this study. Intervention: Each subject performed 3 variations of the side bridge exercise in random order. Main Outcome Measures: Surface EMG was used to measure the muscle activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, longissimus thoracis, multifidus, Gmed, gluteus maximus, and tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and Gmed/TFL muscle activity ratio during 3 variations of the side bridge exercise. Results: There were significant differences in Gmed (F 2,56 = 110.054, P < .001), gluteus maximus (F 2,56 = 36.416, P < .001), and TFL (F 2,56 = 108.342, P < .001) muscles among the 3 side bridge exercises. There were significant differences in the Gmed/TFL muscle ratio (F 2,56 = 20.738, P < .001). Conclusion: Among 3 side bridge exercises, the side bridge with knee flexion may be effective for the individuals with Gmed weakness among 3 side bridge exercises to strengthen the gluteal muscles, considering the difficulty of the exercise and relative contribution of Gmed and TFL.
Bruno Augusto Lima Coelho, Helena Larissa das Neves Rodrigues, Gabriel Peixoto Leão Almeida, and Sílvia Maria Amado João
Context: Restriction in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) has been previously associated with excessive dynamic knee valgus. This, in turn, has been correlated with knee pain in women with patellofemoral pain. Objectives: To investigate the immediate effect of 3 ankle mobilization techniques on dorsiflexion ROM, dynamic knee valgus, knee pain, and patient perceptions of improvement in women with patellofemoral pain and ankle dorsiflexion restriction. Design: Randomized controlled trial with 3 arms. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: A total of 117 women with patellofemoral pain who display ankle dorsiflexion restriction were divided into 3 groups: ankle mobilization with anterior tibia glide (n = 39), ankle mobilization with posterior tibia glide (n = 39), and ankle mobilization with anterior and posterior tibia glide (n = 39). Intervention(s): The participants received a single session of ankle mobilization with movement technique. Main Outcome Measures: Dorsiflexion ROM (weight-bearing lunge test), dynamic knee valgus (frontal plane projection angle), knee pain (numeric pain rating scale), and patient perceptions of improvement (global perceived effect scale). The outcome measures were collected at the baseline, immediate postintervention (immediate reassessment), and 48 hours postintervention (48 h reassessment). Results: There were no significant differences between the 3 treatment groups regarding dorsiflexion ROM and patient perceptions of improvement. Compared with mobilization with anterior and posterior tibia glide, mobilization with anterior tibia glide promoted greater increase in dynamic knee valgus (P = .02) and greater knee pain reduction (P = .02) at immediate reassessment. Also compared with mobilization with anterior and posterior tibia glide, mobilization with posterior tibia glide promoted greater knee pain reduction (P < .01) at immediate reassessment. Conclusion: In our sample, the direction of the tibia glide in ankle mobilization accounted for significant changes only in dynamic knee valgus and knee pain in the immediate reassessment.
Arthur Alves Dos Santos, James Sorce, Alexandra Schonning, and Grant Bevill
This study evaluated the performance of 6 commercially available hard hat designs—differentiated by shell design, number of suspension points, and suspension tightening system—in regard to their ability to attenuate accelerations during vertical impacts to the head. Tests were conducted with impactor materials of steel, wood, and lead shot (resembling commonly seen materials in a construction site), weighing 1.8 and 3.6 kg and dropped from 1.83 m onto a Hybrid III head/neck assembly. All hard hats appreciably reduced head acceleration to the unprotected condition. However, neither the addition of extra suspension points nor variations in suspension tightening mechanism appreciably influenced performance. Therefore, these results indicate that additional features available in current hard hat designs do not improve protective capacity as related to head acceleration metrics.
Hannah E. Wyatt, Gillian Weir, Carl Jewell, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, and Joseph Hamill
Coordination variability (CV) is commonly analyzed to understand dynamical qualities of human locomotion. The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for the number of trials required to inform the calculation of a stable mean lower limb CV during overground locomotion. Three-dimensional lower limb kinematics were captured for 10 recreational runners performing 20 trials each of preferred and fixed speed walking and running. Stance phase CV was calculated for 9 segment and joint couplings using a modified vector coding technique. The number of trials required to achieve a CV mean within 10% of 20 strides average was determined for each coupling and individual. The statistical outputs of mode (walking vs running) and speed (preferred vs fixed) were compared when informed by differing numbers of trials. A minimum of 11 trials were required for stable mean stance phase CV. With fewer than 11 trials, CV was underestimated and led to an oversight of significant differences between mode and speed. Future overground locomotion CV research in healthy populations using a vector coding approach should use 11 trials as a standard minimum. Researchers should be aware of the notable consequences of an insufficient number of trials for overall study findings.
Kyndell R. Crowell, Ryan D. Nokes, and Nicole L. Cosby
Clinical Scenario: Dynamic knee valgus (DKV) is a mechanical alteration in the knee that leads to increased risk of injury. Weakness of hip musculature in hip abduction (HABD), extension (HEXT), and external rotation (HER) may contribute to increased DKV in single-leg landing tasks. Focused Clinical Question: Is decreased hip strength associated with an increase in DKV during a single-leg landing task in collegiate female athletes? Summary of Key Findings: Three studies were included: One randomized control trial (RCT), one cohort study, and one case-control. All three studies found that decreases in HABD and HER strength contributed to increased DKV during single-leg landing tasks. One study also found that the hip extensors contribute to controlling hip adduction, a common factor in many mechanisms of injuries. These three studies recommended strengthening HABD, HEXT, and HER to decrease DKV and reduce the risk of injury at the knee. Clinical Bottom Line: Weak HABD, HEXT, and HER contribute to increased DKV in college female athletes, but strengthening HABD, HEXT, and HER can lead to decreases in DKV and, overall, reduce the risk of injury at the knee. Strength of Recommendation: These articles were graded with a level of evidence of III or higher, giving a grade of B strength of recommendation that weak HABD, HEXT, and HER are associated with increased DKV in collegiate female athletes.
Hiromichi Usuki, Nealy Grandgenett, Sofia Jawed-Wessel, Adam B. Rosen, and Melanie L. McGrath
While Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) has a rate of injury similar to other combat sports, there is little information on the types of injuries sustained by BJJ athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess demographic information, participation rates, injuries, and medical care in BJJ athletes over a 12-month period. Seventy-eight athletes (75.0%) reported 136 injuries in the past year; however, medical attention was only sought for 59 (43.4%) of those injuries. No significant association was found between each demographic variable and injury prevalence. Despite the fact that a majority of BJJ athletes reported suffering an injury within the past year, slightly less than half of these injured athletes sought medical care. There was no difference in injury prevalence between belt ranks.
Kelly M. Cheever, W. Geoffrey Wright, Jane McDevitt, Michael Sitler, and Ryan T. Tierney
The objective of this study was to explore the correlation between preseason measures of cervical sensorimotor function and musculoskeletal injury rates across a contact sport season. The authors hypothesized that athletes with higher sensorimotor dysfunction at baseline would be more likely to suffer an injury. The authors further hypothesized that contact sport participation would lead to greater changes in cervical sensorimotor function across a sport season compared with noncontact controls. Forty-nine collegiate club athletes (26 rugby and 23 noncontact controls) participated in a cohort study. Low positive correlations between baseline sign and symptom severity (r = .383), and score (r = .344), and cervical joint position error (r = .385–.425) and time loss injury were observed. Combining sign and symptom severity score and the neck reposition error predicted musculoskeletal injury status with 80.8% accuracy (area under the curve = 0.80, p = .003). The results suggest preseason deficits in cervical sensorimotor function may be related to future musculoskeletal injury risk. Sign and symptom severity score, Neck Disability Index score, and cervical joint position error can help identify athletes requiring more comprehensive cervical spine assessment that may benefit from preventative intervention.
Giacomo Farì, Stefano Di Paolo, Domenico Ungaro, Gianluca Luperto, Eleonora Farì, and Francesca Latino
Background: Sport activities were interrupted due to a quarantine imposed to limit the spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy. This study aimed to describe the impact of COVID-19 on sports and on daily activities in an Italian cohort of school children signed up in a football school. Methods: A total of 44 children from an Italian football school were enrolled. An online survey was distributed to these children and their parents in May 2020. The questionnaire collected information on the daily use of electronic devices and on the number of hours per week spent in activities regarding nonsport activities, highlighting the differences between those who interrupted sports and those who continued driven remotely by their instructors during the lockdown. Results: A total of 26 players continued practicing sports during the COVID-19 quarantine, while 18 players suspended their sports. Daily time spent on electronic devices increased significantly in both groups during the pandemic (p < .0001), regardless of whether they continued to practice sports (p > .05). On the other hand, in the group of children who interrupted sports, the time spent on activities regarding nonsport physical activity significantly changed during pandemic, with a 50% decrease (p = .0027) of those who spent more than 3 hr per week before the quarantine in favor of those who spent less than 3 hr per week. Conclusion: Quarantine increases screen time, which is a sedentary behavior that represents a risk factor for the health of children. Maintaining regular physical activity during quarantine due to COVID-19 was important to preserve some aspects of a healthy lifestyle in children, such as physical activity regardless of sport. While reducing physical activity and adapting it remotely, it is desirable that it be encouraged by experienced instructors in order to limit potential physical and psychological harm to children.