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Joy Khayat, Stéphane Champely, Ahmad Diab, Ahmad Rifai Sarraj and Patrick Fargier

The present study aimed at examining the effect of mental calculation and number comparison on motor performance measured as the movement time of a fast manual-pointing movement. Three experiments, involving a total number of 65 undergraduate subjects, examined the effect of mental subtraction (complex) and, respectively, of (a) mental addition (simple or complex), (b) mental multiplication (simple or complex), and (c) the comparison of dot sets and number comparison. Each number was written in Arabic. The movement times were analyzed by using a multilevel linear mixed-effect model. The results showed significant improvement of manual-pointing movement performance only after the complex calculations and after number comparison. Possible implication of attentional mechanisms specific to this arithmetical activity is further discussed.

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Geovani Messias da Silva and Maria Eduarda Crescencio Bezerra

External focus is a way to guide human movement based on outcome rather than execution, therefore all instructions are provided based on factors present in the environment. The aim of this review is to search information about the effects of external focus in the long jump task and to compare its outcomes with other learning methods. For the research, online database search engines such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Cinahl, and Scopus were used from January 2010 to June 2020. About 41 articles were identified by searching the online databases, 12 were discarded because they were duplicates, 11 were excluded due to the content of the abstract, and finally, 5 were excluded after evaluating the content of the full text, leaving 13 articles to be included in this review. This review sought to summarize the findings in the literature on the use of external focus in the practice of long jump. The authors concluded that the external focus is a relevant approach and can be used as a tool for the learning process.

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Stephanie L. Barrett and Trent A. Petrie

Although researchers have examined eating disorders in female athletes, few such studies have been done with athletes who are retired, and even fewer have been quantitative. Thus, the authors empirically tested an established eating disorder theoretical model with 218 former NCAA Division-I female collegiate athletes who had been retired for 2–6 years. In retirement, participants completed measures of general sociocultural pressures related to body and appearance, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, negative affect, and bulimic symptomatology. Through structural equation modeling, the authors examined the direct and indirect relationships among the latent variables while controlling for body mass index and years since retirement. The model fit the data well, supporting the hypothesized direct and indirect relationships among the variables and explaining 54% of the variance in bulimic symptomatology. Despite no longer being exposed to sport pressures that contribute to eating disorders, female athletes experience such symptoms long into retirement.

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Xiangyu Liu, Meiyu Zhou, Chenyun Dai, Wei Chen and Xinming Ye

Surface electromyogram-based finger motion classification has shown its potential for prosthetic control. However, most current finger motion classification models are subject-specific, requiring calibration when applied to new subjects. Generalized subject-nonspecific models are essential for real-world applications. In this study, the authors developed a subject-nonspecific model based on motor unit (MU) voting. A high-density surface electromyogram was first decomposed into individual MUs. The features extracted from each MU were then fed into a random forest classifier to obtain the finger label (primary prediction). The final prediction was selected by voting for all primary predictions provided by the decomposed MUs. Experiments conducted on 14 subjects demonstrated that our method significantly outperformed traditional methods in the context of subject-nonspecific finger motion classification models.

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Nefertiti A. Walker, Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Marvin Washington, Lauren C. Hindman and Jeffrey MacCharles

Unpaid internships are embedded in sport hegemony. These unpaid sport internships often offer fewer learning opportunities and foster an environment wherein interns feel like “second-class citizens” in their organization. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the world of unpaid internships in the sport industry by exploring students’ perspectives of them as an institutionalized practice, as well as how privilege impacts their internship experiences. Grounded in institutional theory, data from semistructured interviews with 17 sports management students were analyzed using the Gioia methodology. Three themes emerged from the findings: the idiosyncratic nature of sport internships, the legitimization of unpaid internships in the sport industry, and the institutionalization of privilege spurred by such positions. Practical implications from the study include increasing sport organizations’ awareness of how unpaid internships disadvantage students from less privileged backgrounds and may, therefore, result in a less socioeconomically diverse workforce in the sport industry.

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Laura C. Healy, Nikos Ntoumanis and Calum A. Arthur

Using a person-centered approach, the aim of this study was to examine how student-athletes’ motives for multiple-goal pursuit relate to indices of well- and ill-being. Student-athletes (N = 362) from British universities identified the most important sporting and academic goals that they were pursuing over the academic year. The participants rated their extrinsic, introjected, identified, and intrinsic goal motives for each goal and completed measures of well- and ill-being. Latent profile analysis revealed six distinct profiles of goal motives, with variations in both the strength of motives and the motivational quality. Follow-up analyses revealed between-profile differences for well- and ill-being; students with more optimal goal motive profiles reported higher and lower well- and ill-being, respectively, than those with less optimal goal motives. To experience well-being benefits when pursuing multiple goals, student-athletes should strive for their academic and sporting goals with high autonomous and low controlled goal motives.

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Jay Scherer, Judy Davidson, Rylan Kafara and Jordan Koch

The new urban sporting territory in Edmonton’s city center was constructed within the framework of continued settler colonialism. The main catalyst for this development was sport-related gentrification: a new, publicly financed ice hockey arena for the National Hockey League’s Edmonton Oilers, and a surrounding sport and entertainment district. This two-year ethnography explores this territory, in particular the changing interactions between preexisting, less affluent city-center residents and police, private security, crisis workers, and hockey fans. It reveals how residents navigate the physical and spatial changes to a downtown that are not only structured by revanchism, but by what Rai Reece calls “carceral redlining,” or the continuation of White supremacy through regulation, surveillance, displacement, and dispossession.

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Michele Verdonck, Jacquie Ripat, Peita-Maree Clark, Florin Oprescu, Marion Gray, Lisa Chaffey and Bridie Kean

Wheelchair basketball (WCBB) often includes reverse integration (RI), defined as the inclusion of athletes without impairment in a sport traditionally aimed at athletes with an impairment. This study explored how RI in WCBB was understood by internal stakeholders. Data were gathered from athletes, coaches, and administrators at an Australian club competition and at a Canadian elite training center. Analysis of semistructured interviews with 29 participants led to the identification of eight themes. Collectively, the findings showed that RI was embedded within WCBB, RI was considered to be a way to advance the growth and improve the quality of WCBB as well as a way to increase awareness of WCBB and disability. There were some concerns that RI may not be equitable, as WCBB is a “disability sport.” Stakeholders’ perspectives on RI could provide useful information for sport policymakers, managers, administrators, sports organizations, and athletes interested in further developing WCBB.

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Brice Fossard

L’histoire des leaders du nationalisme au Vietnam a déjà été maintes fois abordée mais celle de leurs lieutenants comporte encore de nombreuses zones d’ombre. Cet article vise à combler une lacune historiographique en analysant la carrière professionnelle et sportive de Hoàng Đo Thúy et Pham Văn Bính. Ces deux acteurs ont joué un rôle important dans la transformation des élites indochinoises et l’avènement de l’indépendance du Vietnam; ce faisant ils ont utilisé des pratiques culturelles occidentales pour provoquer la libération de leur pays.

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Keith V. Osai, Travis E. Dorsch and Shawn D. Whiteman

Organized youth sport is a relatively common family context in which sibling dynamics are not well understood. The present study was designed to address two contrasting mechanisms of socialization—modeling and differentiation—in examining older siblings’ influence on younger siblings’ sport participation. American youth (N = 221) age 10–15 years (M = 12.38, SD = 1.01) who were active sport participants completed an online survey measuring individual and family demographics, sibling relationship qualities, and parent–child relationship dimensions. The participants reported on their most proximal older siblings, all of whom were within 4 years of age. The analyses suggest that sibling differentiation dynamics decreased the likelihood of playing the same primary sport as an older sibling for (a) the same biological sex, close in age to siblings; (b) the same biological sex, further in age from siblings; and (c) mixed biological sex, wide in age from siblings. The “Discussion” section highlights the practical value of understanding the impact of sibling influence processes on the individual, sibling dyad, and family system.