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Justin B. Hollander, Ann Sussman, Peter Lowitt, Neil Angus and Minyu Situ

Background: Understanding more about the unseen side of our responses to visual stimuli offers a powerful new tool for transportation planning. Traditional transportation planning tends to focus on the mobility of vehicles rather than on opportunities to encourage sustainable transport modes, like walking. Methods: Using eye-tracking emulation software, this study measured the unconscious visual responses people have to designs and layouts in new built environments, focusing on what makes streets most walkable. Results: The study found key differences between the way the brain takes in conventional automobile-oriented residential developments versus new urbanist layouts, with the former lacking key fixation points. Conclusion: The study’s discoveries significantly explain why new urbanist layouts promote walking effortlessly and conventional automobile-oriented residential developments cannot.

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Gashaw Abeza, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove, Benoit Séguin, Norm O’Reilly, Ari Kim and Yann Abdourazakou

This study explored the practices and strategies of ambush marketing via social media (SM) during the 2014 Sochi, 2016 Rio, and 2018 PyeongChang Olympic Games. An observational netnography method was adopted to investigate direct industry competitors’ (of the Olympic sponsors) use of SM for the purpose of ambush marketing during the 2014, 2016, and 2018 Games. Data were gathered from the official Twitter accounts of 15 direct industry competitors over the three most recent Games. Despite a series of SM guidelines released by IOC for the 2014, 2016, and 2018 Games, the findings showed that the practice of ambush marketing via SM was evident during each of the Games. Direct industry competitors were found employing four specific ambush strategies, namely, associative, values, coattail, and property infringement. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as an impetus for future research, are suggested.

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Inge Milius, Wade D. Gilbert, Danielle Alexander and Gordon A. Bloom

There is a growing body of research on positive tactile communication and its impact on athlete performance and team dynamics. The purpose of the present study was to examine the profile and perceived impact of positive tactile communication as a coaching strategy in a high-performance team sport setting. Participants were members of a successful American collegiate women’s basketball team comprising the head coach, associate head coach, and 16 student-athletes. Methods of data collection included systematic observation and focus groups. Positive tactile communication was perceived to be an effective coaching strategy for enhancing relationships and athlete performance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to include both quantitative and qualitative data from multiple coaches on the same team, as well as athlete perceptions of coaches’ strategic use of positive tactile communication.

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Tim Ströbel, B. David Ridpath, Herbert Woratschek, Norm O’Reilly, Markus Buser and Michael Pfahl

Scholars forecast that globalization will require sport managers to have competencies in international business. Sport, due to its global nature, has become an international business, leading to sport management programs at postsecondary institutions growing in number and the marketing of such programs becoming a key success factor. In an increasingly competitive educational environment, both effective curriculum offerings and innovative marketing, including branding, are important for a successful sport management program. This article shares a case study of innovative marketing—the co-branding through a double degree program between two long-standing sport management programs, one in North America (Ohio University, United States) and one in Europe (University of Bayreuth, Germany). This program is designed to enhance international education, as well as global internship and job-placement opportunities. The details of the double degree program within the background of co-branding are presented as a pedagogical framework for international education. Data from a survey of industry professionals are analyzed to demonstrate the need for such an international double degree program. Results provide a template for replication by other institutions and identify potential future research.

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Parisa Alaei, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi, Zahra Fakhari, Shiva Komesh and Jan Dommerholt

Context: Hamstring muscle tightness is one of the most common problems in athletic and healthy people. Dry needling (DN) was found to be an effective approach for improving muscle flexibility, but there is no study to compare this approach with static stretching (SS) as a common technique for the increase of muscle length. Objective: To compare the immediate effects of DN and SS on hamstring flexibility in healthy subjects with hamstring tightness. Study Design: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: A musculoskeletal physiotherapy clinic at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Subjects: Forty healthy subjects (female: 32, age range: 18–40 y) with hamstring tightness were randomly assigned into 2 groups of DN and SS. Intervention: The DN group received a single session of DN on 3 points of the hamstring muscles, each for 1 minute. The SS group received a single session of SS of the hamstrings, consisting of 3 sets of 30-second SS with a 10-second rest between sets in the active knee extension test (AKET) position. Main Outcome Measures: The AKET, muscle compliance, passive peak torque, and stretch tolerance were measured at the baseline, immediately, and 15 minutes after the interventions. Results: Improvements in all outcomes was better for the DN group than for the SS group. DN increased muscle compliance significantly 15 minutes after the intervention, but it did not improve in the SS group. Conclusion: DN is effective in improving hamstring flexibility compared with SS. One session of DN can be an effective treatment for hamstring tightness and increase hamstring flexibility. The improvements suggest that DN is a novel treatment for hamstring flexibility.

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Katherine L. Helly, Katherine A. Bain, Phillip A. Gribble and Matthew C. Hoch

Clinical Scenario: Patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) demonstrate deficits in both sensory and motor function, which can be objectively evaluated through static postural control testing. One intervention that has been suggested to improve somatosensation and, in turn, static postural control is plantar massage. Clinical Question: Does plantar massage improve static postural control during single-limb stance in patients with CAI relative to baseline? Summary of Key Findings: A search was performed for articles exploring the effect of plantar massage on static postural control in individuals with CAI. Three articles were included in this critically appraised topic including 1 randomized controlled trial and 2 crossover studies. All studies supported the use of plantar massage to improve static postural control in patients with CAI. Clinical Bottom Line: There is currently good-quality and consistent evidence that supports the use of plantar massage as an intervention that targets the somatosensory system to improve static postural control in patients with CAI. Future research should focus on incorporating plantar massage as a treatment intervention during long-term rehabilitation protocols for individuals with CAI. Strength of Recommendation: In agreement with the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, the consistent results from 2 crossover studies and 1 randomized controlled trial designate that there is level B evidence due to consistent, moderate- to high-quality evidence.

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Geeta Sharma, Tom Stewart and Scott Duncan

Background: Curriculum-integrated dance programs are a promising but relatively under-researched strategy for increasing children’s physical activity (PA). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a curriculum-integrated dance program on children’s PA. Methods: A total of 134 primary children aged 7–9 years from 4 New Zealand schools were assigned to either a dance group (n = 78) or a control group (n = 56). The dance group participated in a 6-week curriculum-integrated dance program during school time. Although the dance program focused on curricular learning, fitness and coordination were embedded in the dance sessions. Intensity of PA varied according to the focus of each dance session. PA was measured at baseline and postintervention using a waist-mounted ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 8 consecutive days. Results: There were no significant intervention effects on PA levels between the dance and control groups postintervention. Conclusion: Dance-embedded learning did not increase overall levels of PA in this study. Future studies may consider assessing longer term effects of a dance-based intervention, or programs that place more focus on PA promotion.

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Mackenzie Holman, Madeline P. Casanova and Russell T. Baker

Context: Patient-reported outcomes are widely used in health care. The Disablement in the Physically Active (DPA) Scale Short Form-8 (SF-8) was recently proposed as a valid scale for the physically active population. However, further psychometric testing of the DPA SF-8 has not been completed, and scale structure has not been assessed using a sample of adolescent athletes. Objective: To assess scale structure of the DPA SF-8 in a sample of adolescent high-school athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Adolescent athletes (n = 289) completed the DPA SF-8. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the scale. Results: The CFA of the DPA SF-8 indicated that the model exceeded recommended fit indices (Comparative Fit Index = .976, Tucker–Lewis Index = .965, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .061, and Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index = .976). All factor loadings were significant and ranged from .62 to .86. Modification indices did not suggest that meaningful cross-loadings were present or additional specifications that could further maximize fit or parsimony. Conclusions: The CFA of the DPA SF-8 met contemporary model fit recommendations in the adolescent athlete population. The results confirmed initial findings supporting the psychometric properties of the DPA SF-8 as well as the uniqueness of the quality-of-life and physical summary factors in an adolescent population. Further research (eg, reliability, invariance between groups, minimal clinically important differences, etc) is warranted to inform scale use in clinical practice and research.

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Ángel Luis Clemente Remón, Víctor Jiménez Díaz-Benito, José Emilio Jiménez Beatty and José Antonio Santacruz Lozano

The study aimed to ascertain the levels of older European people’s physical activity according to sociodemographic variables. The sample size was 7,893 citizens aged 65 and over from the European Union. The participants were classified as physically inactive, adequately active, or highly active, according to the World Health Organization. The total metabolic equivalents of task minutes per week were also calculated. In the results, 55.5% of older people were adequately active, and 43.8% were highly active, especially in the North and West. The average metabolic equivalents of task minutes per week was 1,313 metabolic equivalents of task minutes, with walking as the main activity, followed by moderate physical activity and vigorous activity. Male older people of a lower age from the North and West, with a higher level of education and less difficulty in paying bills, were more likely to be physically active. As a conclusion, only slightly more than half the population were adequately active. These sociodemographic inequalities show the necessity of implementing specific measures.