Context: Given the relatively novel technique of tissue flossing is currently lacking in the research literature despite some positive findings in preliminary studies, the modality clearly requires further research. Current evidence suggests that band flossing results in performance improvements and may also be an effective method in injury prevention. Objective: Previous research has shown that tissue flossing may result in increased ankle range of motion, jump, and sprinting performance in recreational athletes. The present study aims to extend on this research, within an elite athlete sample. Design: Counterbalanced, cross-over design with experimental and control trials, separated by 1 week. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Fourteen professional male rugby union athletes (mean [SD]: age 23.9 [2.7] y). Intervention: Application of a floss band to both ankles (FLOSS) for 2 minutes or without flossing of the ankle joints (CON) on 2 separate occasions. Main Outcome Measures: A weight-bearing lunge test, a countermovement jump test, and a 20-m sprint test at pre and at 5 and 30 minutes post application of the floss band or control. Results: There were no statistically significant interactions between treatment (FLOSS/CON) and time for any of the measured variables (P > .05). Effect size analysis revealed small benefits for FLOSS in comparison with CON for countermovement performance 5 minutes post (d = 0.28) and for 10-m (d = −0.45) and 15-m (d = −0.24) sprint time 30 minutes post. Conclusion: Findings from the current study suggest minimal benefits of tissue flossing when applied to the ankle joint in elite athletes for up to 30 minutes following their application.
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Blair Mills, Brad Mayo, Francisco Tavares and Matthew Driller
Afshin Moghadasi, Gholamali Ghasemi, Ebrahim Sadeghi-Demneh and Masoud Etemadifar
Context: Muscle weakness and sensory deficits cause impaired balance and walking abilities that are prerequisites for independent activity of daily living in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent physical exercises tailored to improve the activity of daily living people with MS have focused on the functional training. Objective: To investigate the effect of total body resistance exercise suspension training on mobility, proprioception, and muscle strength of the knee in people with MS. Design: Single-blind pretest and posttest control group design. Setting: Referral Center of Multiple Sclerosis Society. Participants: Thirty-four women with relapsing–remitting MS were participated in this study. The mean (SD) of their age was 36.44 (4.88) years, and the Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.35 (0.94). The participants were divided into 2 groups: control group (n = 15) and training group (n = 19). Intervention: The training group performed the total body resistance exercise program for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week. The control group received their usual care and daily activities. Outcomes were measured presessions and postsessions. Main Outcome Measures: Mobility was assessed with Timed Up and Go test, 10-m walk maximum test, 2 minute walk test, and 5-time sit-to-stand test. Knee proprioception absolute error and isometric strength of knee flexor and extensor muscles were measured by using a biodex isokinetic dynamometer. Results: In the training group, mobility (P = .001), maximal voluntary isometric contraction of knee flexor and extensor muscles in both legs (P > .05), and the knee proprioception absolute error in nondominant leg at 60° knee flexion (P = .02) improved significantly compared with the control group. Conclusion: Total body resistance exercise is a functional and safe intervention that can improve the mobility and muscles strength of the knee in a short period in people with MS.
Mohamed Abdelmegeed, Everett Lohman, Noha Daher, June Kume and Hasan M. Syed
Context: In comparison with the published research on the surgical management of ulnar wrist pain, fewer studies that discuss the nonsurgical management of ulnar wrist pain exist. Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of ulnar-based wrist orthotics and strengthening exercises on subjects with ulnar wrist pain. Study Design: Prospective randomized controlled pilot study. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: Thirty subjects with acute and subacute ulnar wrist pain and age ranging from 18 to 53. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either ulnar-based orthotics, ulnar-based orthotics plus strengthening exercises, or placebo intervention. Main Outcome Measures: The authors measured pain and function using the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation questionnaire, and grip strength using the JAMAR dynamometer, at baseline and at 2- and 4-week postrandomization. A mixed analysis of variance modeling was used to investigate the effect of the intervention over time. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the 2 intervention groups and the control group regarding improvement in pain, function, and strength, whereas there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 intervention groups over the 3 measurement occasions regarding the outcome measures. Conclusion: Based on the results, orthotics intervention is as effective as orthotics plus strengthening exercises in improving pain, function, and grip strength in subjects with ulnar wrist pain. Level of Evidence: Therapy, level 2b individual Randomized Controlled Trial.
Berkiye Kirmizigil, Jeffry Roy Chauchat, Omer Yalciner, Gozde Iyigun, Ender Angin and Gul Baltaci
Context: Kinesio taping (KT) is a popular taping technique used in the recovery process; however, in the relevant literature, there is no real consensus on its efficacy. Objective: To investigate whether rectus femoris KT application after delayed onset muscle soreness enhances recovery of muscle soreness, edema, and physical performance. Participants: A total of 22 healthy amateur male athletes participated in this study. Design: Randomized, crossover study. Setting: Human performance laboratory of the university. Interventions: Participants performed an exercise protocol inducing delayed onset muscle soreness. They accomplished 2 distinct trials, with or without KT. The washout period between trials was 6 weeks. For the KT condition, KT inhibition technique was used and applied immediately after exercise bilaterally on rectus femoris. Main Outcome Measures: Range of motion, muscle soreness, and edema were measured at baseline, 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise. Dynamic balance, sprint, and horizontal jump were evaluated at similar time frame except for 30-minute postexercise. Results: The findings showed that there were no significant differences between the KT group (KTG) and control group for all outcome variables (P > .05). Muscle soreness returned to baseline values 72 hours postexercise only within the KTG (P > .05). Although the horizontal jump performance decreased substantially from baseline to 24 and 48 hours postexercise only within the control group (P < .05), the performance increased significantly from 24 to 72 hours postexercise within the KTG (P < .05). Balance increased significantly from baseline to 48 hours postexercise (P < .05) in both groups. Balance also increased significantly from baseline to 72 hours postexercise only within the KTG (P < .05). The effect size of soreness which is our primary outcome was large in both groups (r > .5). Conclusions: KT is favorable in the recovery of muscle soreness after delayed onset muscle soreness. KT has beneficial effects on horizontal jump performance and dynamic balance.
Dorianne Schuitema, Christian Greve, Klaas Postema, Rienk Dekker and Juha M. Hijmans
Context: Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common foot injuries. Several mechanical treatment options, including shoe inserts, ankle-foot orthoses, tape, and shoes are used to relieve the symptoms of plantar fasciitis. Objectives: To investigate the effectiveness of mechanical treatment in the management of plantar fasciitis. Evidence Acquisition: The review was reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane up to March 8, 2018. Two independent reviewers screened eligible articles and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. Evidence Synthesis: A total of 43 articles were included in the study, evaluating 2837 patients. Comparisons were made between no treatment and treatment with insoles, tape, ankle-foot orthoses including night splints and shoes. Tape, ankle-foot orthoses, and shoes were also compared with insoles. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 days to 12 months. Cointerventions were present in 26 studies. Conclusions: Mechanical treatment can be beneficial in relieving symptoms related to plantar fasciitis. Contoured full-length insoles are more effective in relieving symptoms related to plantar fasciitis than heel cups. Combining night splints or rocker shoes with insoles enhances improvement in pain relief and function compared with rocker shoes, night splints, or insoles alone. Taping is an effective short-term treatment. Future studies should aim to improve methodological quality using blinding, allocation concealment, avoid cointerventions, and use biomechanical measures of treatment effects.
TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim and BumChul Yoon
Context: A simulated horseback riding (SHR) exercise is effective for improvement of pain and functional disability, but its comparative effectiveness with the other is unknown. Objective: The authors aimed to demonstrate the effect of a SHR exercise in people with chronic low back pain. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Settings: Community and university campus. Participants: A total of 48 participants with chronic low back pain were divided into 2 groups, and SHR exercises (n = 24) or stabilization (STB) exercises (n = 24) were performed. Interventions: The exercises were performed for 30 minutes, 2 days per week for 8 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Numeric rating scale, functional disabilities (Oswestry disability index and Roland–Morris disability), and fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) scores were measured at baseline and at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months. Results: A 2-way repeated analysis of variance identified that between-group comparisons showed significant differences in the FABQ related to work scale (F = 21.422; P = .01). There were no significant differences in the numeric rating scale (F = 1.696; P = .21), Oswestry disability index (F = 1.848; P = .20), Roland–Morris disability (F = 0.069; P = .80), and FABQ related to physical scale (F = 1.579; P = .24). In within-group comparisons, both groups presented significant differences in numeric rating scale (both SHR and STB after 4 wk), Oswestry disability index (both SHR and STB after 6 mo), and Roland–Morris disability (SHR after 6 mo and STB after 8 wk) compared with baseline values. In FABQ-related physical (SHR after 4 wk) and work scales (SHR after 6 mo), there were only significant differences in the SHR compared with baseline values. Conclusions: SHR exercise for 8 weeks had a greater effect than STB exercise for reducing work-related FABQ. The SHR exercise performed in a seated position could substantially decrease pain-related fear disability in young adults with chronic low back pain.
David Cruz-Díaz, Kyung-Min Kim, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Marco Bergamin, Agustin Aibar-Almazán and Antonio Martínez-Amat
Context: Tai Chi is a physical activity modality which is widely practiced over the world. The effectiveness of Tai Chi on postural control and balance has been described in older population, but until recently there are no studies that include patients with chronic ankle instability. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 weeks of Tai Chi intervention on dynamic balance and self-reported instability in patients with chronic ankle instability. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial was carried out. Setting: University physical therapy facility. Participants: Fifty-two participants were allocated to an intervention group (n = 26) based on Tai Chi training or a control group (n = 26) who received no intervention. Intervention: The participants completed 12 weeks of Tai Chi intervention (1 h session/2 times per week) or no intervention in the control group. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included postural control and self-reported instability feeling assessed by the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool, respectively. Results: There was observed significant improvement in all Star Excursion Balance Test reach distances (anterior [F = 6.26, P < .01]; posteromedial [F = 9.58, P < .01], and posterolateral [F = 8.42, P < .01]) in the Tai Chi group with no change in the control group (P < .01). The intervention group demonstrated significant improvement on self-reported instability feeling assessed by the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool questionnaire (F = 21.36, P < .01). Conclusion: The obtained results suggested that 12 weeks of Tai Chi intervention have positive effects on postural control and self-reported instability feeling in patients with chronic ankle instability.
Jose A. Cecchini and Alejandro Carriedo
Purpose: New ways of teaching have been under consideration over the last decade. Thus, this study aims to examine the effects of an interdisciplinary educational approach integrating physical education and mathematics on light and moderate–vigorous physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and learning subtraction. Method: Forty-six first-grade students (M age = 76.98 ± 3.74 months) wore an accelerometer for 4 weeks to measure their PA levels. For 3 weeks, one group (n = 23) attended their physical education and mathematic lessons separately according to the traditional curriculum development (i.e., regular classroom lessons), and the other group (n = 23) was taught through an integrated curriculum based on an interdisciplinary approach integrating physical education and mathematics where the curricular time devoted to these subjects was unified. Results: Several t-test analyses revealed significant between-group differences in all variables following the curricular interventions. Students from the interdisciplinary group reached higher levels of light PA, t(44) = −10.095, p < .001, d = 2.97; moderate–vigorous PA, t(44) = −7.950, p < .001, d = 2.35; and spent less time in sedentary behavior, t(44) = 13.549, p < .001, d = 4.01, than students who attended regular classroom lessons. Moreover, the students from the interdisciplinary group achieved higher scores in subtraction learning, t(44) = −4.06, p < .001, d = 1.20. Discussion/Conclusion: The integration of PA into learning environments such as mathematics might help to develop tools that improve mathematical learnings (i.e., subtraction). Likewise, this kind of interdisciplinary approach may contribute to increase the children’s PA levels during the school day.
Dae-Hyun Kim, Jin-Hee Lee, Seul-Min Yu and Chang-Man An
Context: It is very important to empirically determine the optimal ankle position for the quadriceps femoris (QF) strengthening during isometric exercises. Objective: To examine the effect of different ankle positions on torque and electromyography (EMG) activity of QF during maximal isometric contraction. Study Design: Within-subject repeated measures. Setting: University laboratory. Participants : Thirty-six healthy volunteers (15 males and 21 females). Main Outcome Measures: The isometric strength of the QF was measured at 3 different ankle positions: active dorsiflexion (AD), active plantar flexion (AP), and neutral position (NP). Simultaneously, 3 different ankle positions were assessed for EMG activity of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris muscles during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Results: The peak torque per body weight and average peak torque were significantly higher in AD than in AP and NP (P < .01). The vastus medialis and rectus femoris maximal voluntary isometric contraction EMG activity were significantly higher in AD than in AP and NP (P < .01). The vastus lateralis maximal voluntary isometric contraction EMG activity was significantly higher in AD than in AP and NP (P < .01), and was significantly higher in AP than in NP (P < .05). Conclusions: These results indicate that the 3 different ankle positions affect the QF torque and EMG activity. In particular, AD position may be more efficient for improving QF strength than AP and NP position. Future studies should prove whether long-term duration QF isometric exercise effects muscle strength and functional performance in different ankle positions.
Louisa D. Raisbeck, Jed A. Diekfuss, Dustin R. Grooms and Randy Schmitz
Context: Although the beneficial effects of using an external focus of attention are well documented in attainment and performance of movement execution, neural mechanisms underlying external focus’ benefits are mostly unknown. Objective: To assess brain function during a lower-extremity gross motor movement while manipulating an internal and external focus of attention. Design: Cross-over study. Setting: Neuroimaging center Participants: A total of 10 healthy subjects (5 males and 5 females) Intervention: Participants completed external and internal focus of attention unilateral left 45° knee extension/flexion movements at a rate of 1.2 Hz laying supine in a magnetic resonance imaging scanner for 4 blocks of 30 seconds interspersed with 30-second rest blocks. During the internal condition, participants were instructed to “squeeze their quadriceps.” During the external condition, participants were instructed to “focus on a target” positioned above their tibia. Main Outcome Measures: T1 brain structural imaging was performed for registration of the functional data. For each condition, 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level dependent data representing 90 whole-brain volumes were acquired. Results: During the external relative to internal condition, increased activation was detected in the right occipital pole, cuneal cortex, anterior portion of the lingual gyrus, and intracalcarine cortex (Z max = 4.5–6.2, P < .001). During the internal relative to external condition, increased activation was detected in the left primary motor cortex, left supplementary motor cortex, and cerebellum (Z max = 3.4–3.5, P < .001). Conclusions: Current results suggest that an external focus directed toward a visual target produces more brain activity in regions associated with vision and ventral streaming pathways, whereas an internal focus manipulated through instruction increases activation in brain regions that are responsible for motor control. Results from this study serve as baseline information for future prevention and rehabilitation investigations of how manipulating focus of attention can constructively affect neuroplasticity during training and rehabilitation.