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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 4 (Jul 2024)

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 4 (Jul 2024)

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Volume 43 (2024): Issue 3 (Jul 2024)

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The Amount and Pattern of Reciprocal Compensations Predict Performance Stability in a Visually Guided Finger Force Production Task

Valéria Andrade, Nicole S. Carver, Francis M. Grover, Scott Bonnette, and Paula L. Silva

Previous work suggests that synergistic activity among motor elements implicated in force production tasks underlies enhanced performance stability associated with visual feedback. A hallmark of synergistic activity is reciprocal compensation, that is, covariation in the states of motor elements that stabilizes critical performance variables. The present study examined if characteristics of reciprocal compensation are indicators of individuals’ capacity to respond adaptively to variations in the resolution of visual feedback about criterion performance. Twenty healthy adults (19.25 ± 1.25 years; 15 females and five males) pressed two sensors with their index fingers to produce a total target force equivalent to 20% of their maximal voluntary contraction under nine conditions that differed in the spatial resolution of real-time feedback about their performance. By combining within-trial uncontrolled manifold and sample entropy analyses, we quantified the amount and degree of irregularity (i.e., non-repetitiveness) of reciprocal compensations over time. We found a U-shaped relationship between performance stability and gain. Importantly, this relationship was moderated by the degree of irregularity of reciprocal compensation. Lower irregularity in reciprocal compensation patterns was related to individuals’ capacity to maintain (or minimize losses in) performance under changes in feedback resolution. Results invite future investigation into how interindividual variations in reciprocal compensation patterns relate to differences in control strategies supporting adaptive responses in complex, visually guided motor tasks.

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Exploring an Alternative to Record Motor Competence Assessment: Interrater and Intrarater Audio–Video Reliability

Cristina Menescardi, Aida Carballo-Fazanes, Núria Ortega-Benavent, and Isaac Estevan

The Canadian Agility and Movement Skill Assessment (CAMSA) is a valid and reliable circuit-based test of motor competence which can be used to assess children’s skills in a live or recorded performance and then coded. We aimed to analyze the intrarater reliability of the CAMSA scores (total, time, and skill score) and time measured, by comparing the live audio with the video assessment method. We also aimed to assess the interrater reliability using both audio- and video coding on a sample of 177 Spanish children. We found moderate-to-excellent inter- and intrarater video–audio intraclass correlation coefficients for the CAMSA score, time measured, time score, and skill score. Nonsignificant differences were found between video and audio recordings in the CAMSA score, time measured, and time score. Our findings support the rationale that different raters and scoring methods can accurately assess the participants’ motor competence level using the CAMSA Spanish version.

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Leveraging the Momentum

Luke Donovan

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Superstars Really Are Scarce: Shohei Ohtani and Baseball Attendance

Christopher T. Imbrogno and Brian M. Mills

We estimate the superstar effects in Major League Baseball, focusing on a particularly unique international athlete, Shohei Ohtani, using a fixed effects panel regression with multiway clustering. Ohtani’s scarce talent as both a pitcher and a hitter provides the potential to have outsized influence on demand at home (superstar effect) and away (superstar externality) games, providing new marketing opportunities for the league. We compare Ohtani’s impact on attendance with other top pitchers, particularly after large attendance drops attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting that his superstardom played a key role in bringing fans back to baseball games. Results revealed a large attendance externality, especially after the pandemic, that increased away attendance by up to 40% in 2021 specifically (and up to 20% overall). We propose that Ohtani provides an opportunity for Major League Baseball to leverage a recognizable face of baseball and leverage superstar value that was previously shown to be in decline.

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Team Identity and Environmentalism: The Case of Forest Green Rovers

Elizabeth B. Delia, Brian P. McCullough, and Keegan Dalal

Despite consumer concern over climate change, research on environmental issues and sport fandom has focused more on organizational outcomes than on fans themselves. Recognizing fandom can be representative of social movements, and social identity and collective action are utilized in an intrinsic case study of Forest Green Rovers football club supporters (who also identify with environmentalism) to understand the extent to which the club represents a social movement, and whether Forest Green Rovers’ sustainability efforts encourage pro-environment actions. Through interview research, we found supporters’ team and environmental identities cooperate synergistically. Forest Green Rovers is not just representative of environmentalism but has become a politicized identity itself—a means to act for change on environmental issues. We discuss implications concerning identity synergy, team identity as a politicized identity, perceptions of success, collective action, and cognitive alternatives to the status quo. We conclude by noting the unavoidable inseparability of environmental issues and sport consumption.

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“There’s a Lifestyle, an Appreciation, a Beauty”: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Masters Rowers

Jason Rich, Pamela Beach, and Heidi K. Byrne

Masters rowing has seen a measurable increase in participation, with masters rowers engaged in the sport for competition, health, and recreation reasons. Unlike other masters sports, masters rowing has a unique high level of synchronous, cooperative, and interdependent elements. To better understand the benefits and challenges of participation in competitive masters rowing, the purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of competitive masters rowers. Twelve competitive masters rowers were recruited and interviewed. Utilizing an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach to guide data collection, analysis, and interpretation, the analysis revealed four major themes: navigating community relationships, finding a reason to row, growing opportunities, and seeking considerate coaches. Utilizing self-determination theory as a framework for interpreting the findings, the identified themes illustrate the varying motivations, needs, and preferences of competitive masters rowers, as well as how their experiences are influenced by their coaches and peers. Efforts should be made by masters rowing coaches and administrators to better understand the needs of their athletes to ensure the maximum benefits of participation, commitment, and enjoyment of the sport.

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Aerobic Exercise as an Intervention for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Critically Appraised Topic

Makayla Florez, Erin Roberge, and Jennifer Ostrowski

Clinical Scenario: As of 2020, the lifetime prevalence of at least one self-reported concussion is 24.6%. Athletic trainers in all settings work with patients who are at risk of sustaining a concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and developing persistent postconcussive symptoms. Aerobic exercise is emerging as an intervention for decreasing symptoms in patients who have sustained mTBI; however, the majority of research has been performed on pediatric patients. It is of interest whether aerobic exercise is an effective intervention for adult patients with mTBI. Focused Clinical Question: In adults who have sustained mTBI, does traditional therapy decrease symptoms more than aerobic exercise? Summary of Search: A systematic search of 4 databases was performed to answer this question. Three randomized controlled trials were identified that compared aerobic exercise to traditional therapy, which consists of physical and cognitive rest. Two studies found no significant differences in symptoms between the 2 groups while 1 study found decreased symptoms in the aerobic exercise group. Clinical Bottom Line: The current evidence is clear that there is no decrease in mTBI symptoms with traditional therapy as compared with aerobic exercise, with 1 study showing decreased symptoms with aerobic exercise. Strength of Evidence: Based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine grades of evidence, the clinical bottom line is based on grade A evidence.