Mary C. Geneau, Ming-Chang Tsai, Dana Agar-Newman, Daniel J. Geneau, Marc Klimstra, and Lachlan P. James
Purpose: Ice hockey is a team invasion sport characterized by repeated high-intensity skating efforts, technical and tactical skill, physical contact, and collisions requiring considerable levels of muscular strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between lower-body vertical force–time metrics and skating qualities in subelite female ice hockey players. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort design was employed utilizing 14 athletes (body mass = 66.7 [1.8] kg; height = 171.6 [6.2] cm; age = 21.1 [1.7] y). The relationships between metrics of lower-body strength collected from a drop jump, squat jump, countermovement jump, loaded countermovement jump, and an isometric squat and 4 skating qualities collected from a linear sprint, repeated sprint test, and a multistage aerobic test were evaluated. Results: The regression models revealed a positive relationship between relative peak force in the isometric squat and skating multistage aerobic test performance (r 2 = .388; P = .017) and a positive relationship between repeated-sprint ability and eccentric mean force during the loaded countermovement jump (r 2 = .595; P = .001). No significant relationships were observed between strength metrics and skating acceleration or maximal velocity. Conclusions: These data suggest that skating ability is most affected by relative isometric strength in female ice hockey players. It is recommended that practitioners focus training on tasks that improve relative force output. It is also recommended that isometric relative peak force be used as a monitoring metric for this cohort.
Blake W. Jones, John D. Willson, Paul DeVita, and Ryan D. Wedge
Chronic exposure to high tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) contact forces can be detrimental to knee joint health. Load carriage increases TFJ contact forces, but it is unclear whether medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments respond similarly to incremental load carriage. The purpose of our study was to compare TFJ contact forces when walking with 15% and 30% added body weight. Young healthy adults (n = 24) walked for 5 minutes with no load, 15% load, and 30% load on an instrumented treadmill. Total, medial, and lateral TFJ contact peak forces and impulses were calculated via an inverse dynamics informed musculoskeletal model. Results of 1-way repeated measures analyses of variance (α = .05) demonstrated total, medial, and lateral TFJ first peak contact forces and impulses increased significantly with increasing load. Orthogonal polynomial trends demonstrated that the 30% loading condition led to a curvilinear increase in total and lateral TFJ impulses, whereas medial first peak TFJ contact forces and impulses responded linearly to increasing load. The total and lateral compartment impulse increased disproportionally with load carriage, while the medial did not. The medial and lateral compartments responded differently to increasing load during walking, warranting further investigation because it may relate to risk of osteoarthritis.
Michel Marina, Priscila Torrado, Blai Ferrer-Uris, and Albert Busquets
Purpose: To verify whether training the iron cross (IC) with assistive devices (herdos; HIC) and added external load (LHIC) to equate the moments of force developed on the rings could be considered an intermediate step between the nonoverloaded herdos situation (HIC) and the IC performed on the rings. Methods: Relative levels of surface electromyography (sEMG) activity were normalized with respect to a standing IC before comparing gymnasts who can perform the IC on the rings (achievers) and gymnast who cannot (nonachievers) in the 2 herdos conditions (HIC and LHIC). Seven muscles were chosen for sEMG analysis, namely, pectoralis major (PM), latissimus dorsi, teres major, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii. Additionally, 3 indices were calculated to measure levels of coactivation: Elbowidx, Scapulaidx, and Shoulderidx. Results: The bigger magnitude of differences in sEMG activity among situations was found for the PM and BB (F ≥ 30.7; P < .001). When comparing the global and the PM, teres major, BB, and triceps brachii activity across groups, nonachievers activated their musculature to a greater extent than the achievers independently of the herdos situation (P ≤ .046). Achievers’ Elbowidx was the only index that was significantly higher (P ≤ .005) in the IC in comparison to LHIC and HIC. Conclusion: sEMG activity of PM and BB was particularly sensitive between situations, independently of the level of achievement. We recommend training the IC by adding external load in the herdos situation to increase muscle activity to levels closer to the rings situation but avoiding the potential factor of injuries.
Marcos Quintana-Cepedal, Omar de la Calle, and Hugo Olmedillas
Clinical Scenario: Injuries that affect the groin region are among the most common in football players. To prevent this condition, studies have focused on strengthening the adductors, hip flexors, or abdominal muscles. Recent investigations have used an eccentric-biased exercise (Copenhagen Adduction Exercise [CAE]) that promotes functional and architectural adaptations in the muscle tissue, though its effect on injury risk reduction is unknown. Clinical Question: Can the Copenhagen Adduction Exercise prevent groin injuries in soccer players? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies investigating the potential groin injury risk reduction effect of the CAE. (1) Three studies met the inclusion criteria and were used for this appraisal; (2) one study observed a significantly lower injury rate ratio favoring the group that used the CAE program; and (3) 2 studies found similar or higher injury rates in the intervention groups, not supporting the inclusion of the CAE as a preventative tool. Clinical Bottom Line: There is conflicting evidence that usage of the CAE is superior to not performing adductor strengthening exercises in mitigating the risk of sustaining groin injuries. Given the evidence supporting these findings, it is advisable to exercise caution when contemplating the incorporation of the CAE into training regimens aimed at preventing groin injuries. Strength of Recommendation: There is Grade B evidence to suggest that inclusion of the CAE may not be associated with reduced injury rates.