Objective: To assess the diagnostic validity of an isokinetic testing to detect partial injuries on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Design: Prospective diagnostic study. Settings: Orthopedic clinic, physiotherapy clinic, orthopedic hospital, and diagnostic/image clinic. Participants: Consecutive patients (n = 29) with unilateral knee complaint submitted to physical examination, magnetic resonance images (MRIs), and isokinetic testing prior to surgery of ACL reconstruction. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: The isokinetic torque curves data from extensor and flexor muscles were converted to frequency domain by fast Fourier transformation and compared with healthy contralateral limb. Differences were categorized as unstable knees and these conclusions were compared with patient’s physical examinations (doctor’s conclusion on ACL integrity) and MRIs (as the radiologist conclusions on ACL integrity). After surgery, all intraoperatively confirmed partial injured patient’s data were collected. The diagnostic accuracy measures to compare the conclusions of all 3 professionals included sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, disease prevalence, positive likelihood ratio, and accuracy—all using a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Compared with MRI, the sensitivity of isokinetic test for an ACL partial injury was 90.00%, specificity 83.33%, positive predictive value 52.94%, negative predictive value 97.56%, and accuracy 84.48%. Compared with physical examination, the sensitivity of isokinetic test for an ACL partial injury was 85.71%, specificity 78.43%, positive predictive value 35.29%, negative predictive value 97.56%, and accuracy 79.31%. Conclusions: This method of isokinetic data analysis through fast Fourier transformation can be used to improve diagnostic accuracy of a difficult detection injury. Even present, a partial ACL injury can produce a stable knee during isokinetic testing and could be used to detect candidates for conservative treatment based on strengthening exercises, reducing surgery risks, and financial and social impact on patient’s life.
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Robson Dias Scoz, Cesar F. Amorim, Bruno O.A. Mazziotti, Rubens A. Da Silva, Edgar R. Vieira, Alexandre D. Lopes and Ronaldo E.C.D. Gabriel
Christopher A. Bailey, Maxana Weiss and Julie N. Côté
Aging affects fatigability and is a risk factor for incurring a fatigue-related injury in the neck/shoulder region. Age-related changes in the electromyographical features of motor control may be partly responsible. Young (N = 17) and older (N = 13) adults completed a reach-and-lift task at their self-selected speed, before and after a fatiguing task targeting the neck/shoulder. Electromyography amplitude (root mean square), amplitude variability (root mean square coefficient of variation [CV]), functional connectivity (normalized mutual information [NMI]), and functional connectivity variability (NMI CV) were extracted from several muscles and analyzed for effects and interactions of age using general estimating equation models. Root mean square CV and deltoid NMI CV increased from pre- to postfatigue (ps < .05). Upper trapezius–deltoid NMI decreased for young, but increased for older adults, while the opposite response was found for lower trapezius–deltoid NMI (ps < .05). Older adults seem to adapt to fatigue in reach-and-lift movement with a cranial shift in control of the scapula.
Kurtis Pankow, Amber D. Mosewich and Nicholas L. Holt
The overall purpose of this study was to explore athletes’ perceptions of pragmatic leadership in award-winning Canadian youth football coaches. Using a qualitative description methodology, semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 men who had been coached by 5 award-winning youth football coaches. The coaches were classified as pragmatic leaders. Participants’ perceptions of the coaches’ leadership were grouped into 3 main themes: individualized consideration, accountability/responsibility, and solving problems by valuing unique contributions. Because leadership is a process of interpersonal influence, on a practical level these themes may account for key features of the coach–athlete relationship that arise from pragmatic leadership.
Rachel Cholerton, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt and Helen Quirk
Adults aged 55 and older are least likely to play sport. Despite research suggesting this population experiences physical and psychological benefits when doing so, limited research focuses on older adult sport initiation, especially in “adapted sports” such as walking football. The aim of this study was to explore initiation experiences of walking football players between 55 and 75 years old. Semistructured interviews took place with 17 older adults playing walking football for 6 months minimum (M age = 64). Inductive analysis revealed six higher order themes representing preinitiation influences. Eight further higher order themes were found, relating to positive and negative experiences during initiation. Fundamental influences preinitiation included previous sporting experiences and values and perceptions. Emergent positive experiences during initiation included mental development and social connections. Findings highlight important individual and social influences when initiating walking football, which should be considered when encouraging 55- to 75-year-old adults to play adapted sport. Policy and practice recommendations are discussed.
Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson
Despite a growing emphasis on self-compassion in sport, little research has focused exclusively on men athletes. The purpose of this research was to explore the interaction of self-compassion and diverse versions of masculinity on the psychosocial well-being of men athletes. The authors sampled 172 men athletes (M age = 22.8 yr) from a variety of sports, using descriptive methodology with self-report questionnaires. Self-compassion was related to most variables (e.g., psychological well-being, fear of negative evaluation, state self-criticism, internalized shame, reactions to a hypothetical sport-specific scenario) in hypothesized directions and predicted unique variance beyond self-esteem across most of those variables, as well as moderated relationships between masculinity and both autonomy and attitudes toward gay men. In addition, self-compassion was differentially related to inclusive and hegemonic masculinity. Our findings support self-compassion as a promising resource for men athletes to buffer emotionally difficult sport experiences.
Christian A. Clermont, Andrew J. Pohl and Reed Ferber
Context: The risk of experiencing an overuse running-related injury can increase with atypical running biomechanics associated with neuromuscular fatigue and/or training errors. While it is important to understand the changes in running biomechanics within a fatigue-inducing run, it may be more clinically relevant to assess gait patterns in the days following a marathon to better evaluate the effects of inadequate recovery on injury. Objective: To use center of mass (CoM) acceleration patterns to investigate changes in running patterns prior to (PRE) and at 2 (POST2) and 7 (POST7) days following a marathon race. Design: Pre–post intervention study. Setting: A 200-m oval track surface. Participants: Seventeen recreational marathon runners (10 females, age = 34.2 [5.67] y; 7 males, age = 47.41 [15.32] y). Intervention: Marathon race. Main Outcome Measures: An inertial measurement unit was placed near the CoM to collect triaxial acceleration data during overground running for PRE, POST2, and POST7 sessions. Twenty-two features were extracted from the acceleration waveforms to characterize different aspects of running gait. Lower-limb musculoskeletal pain was also recorded at each session with a visual analog scale. Results: At POST2, runners reported higher self-reported pain and exhibited elevated peak mediolateral acceleration with an increased mediolateral ratio of acceleration root mean square compared with PRE. At POST7, pain was reduced and more similar to PRE, with runners demonstrating increased stride regularity in the vertical direction and decreased peak resultant acceleration. Conclusions: The observed changes in CoM motion at POST2 may be associated with atypical running biomechanics that can translate to greater mediolateral impulses, potentially increasing the risk of injury. This study demonstrates the use of an accelerometer as an effective tool to detect atypical CoM motion for runners due to fatigue, recovery, and musculoskeletal pain in real-world environments.
Neal R. Glaviano, Ashley N. Marshall, L. Colby Mangum, Joseph M. Hart, Jay Hertel, Shawn Russell and Susan Saliba
Context: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a challenging condition, with altered kinematics and muscle activity as 2 common impairments. Single applications of patterned electrical neuromuscular stimulation (PENS) have improved both kinematics and muscle activity in females with PFP; however, the use of PENS in conjunction with a rehabilitation program has not been evaluated. Objective: To determine the effects of a 4-week rehabilitation program with PENS on lower-extremity biomechanics and electromyography (EMG) during a single-leg squat (SLS) and a step-down task (SDT) in individuals with PFP. Study Design: Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients of Other Participants: Sixteen females with PFP (age 23.3 [4.9] y, mass 66.3 [13.5] kg, height 166.1 [5.9] cm). Intervention: Patients completed a 4-week supervised rehabilitation program with or without PENS. Main Outcome Measures: Curve analyses for lower-extremity kinematics and EMG activity (gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and adductor longus) were constructed by plotting group means and 90% confidence intervals throughout 100% of each task, before and after the rehabilitation program. Mean differences (MDs) and SDs were calculated where statistical differences were identified. Results: No differences at baseline in lower-extremity kinematics or EMG were found between groups. Following rehabilitation, the PENS group had significant reduction in hip adduction between 29% and 47% of the SLS (MD = 4.62° [3.85°]) and between 43% and 69% of the SDT (MD = 6.55° [0.77°]). Throughout the entire SDT, there was a decrease in trunk flexion in the PENS group (MD = 10.91° [1.73°]). A significant decrease in gluteus medius activity was seen during both the SLS (MD = 2.77 [3.58]) and SDT (MD = 4.36 [5.38]), and gluteus maximus during the SLS (MD = 1.49 [1.46]). No differences were seen in the Sham group lower-extremity kinematics for either task. Conclusion: Rehabilitation with PENS improved kinematics in both tasks and decreased EMG activity. This suggests that rehabilitation with PENS may improve muscle function during functional tasks.
Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Nicholas M. Watanabe
A paradox exists between the ways sport organizations evaluate their economic impact, compared with their environmental impact. Although the initial sustainability and corporate social responsibility efforts of sport organizations should be celebrated, it is appropriate to call for the next advancement concerning the assessment and measurement of environmental sustainability efforts in sport organizations. Specifically, there is a need for improved and increased monitoring and measurement of sustainable practices that include negative environmental externalities. To usher this advancement, the authors first reviewed the extant research and current industry practice involving environmental impact reporting in sport. Second, the authors proposed a conceptual framework that expands the scope of environmental assessment to be more comprehensive. As such, this expanded, yet more accurate, assessment of environmental impact can identify specific aspects of the event and the inputs and outputs of the before and after event phases that can be curtailed or modified to reduce environmental impacts of sport events.
Liam D. Harper, Adam Field, Liam D. Corr and Robert J. Naughton
The aim of this investigation was to profile the physiological, physical, and biomechanical responses during walking football. A total of 17 male participants (aged 66 ± 6 years) participated. Heart rate; blood lactate; accelerometer variables (biomechanical load [PlayerLoad™], changes of direction); and rating of perceived exertion were measured. Participants mean percentage of maximum heart rate was 76 ± 6% during the sessions, with rating of perceived exertion across all sessions at 13 ± 2. Blood lactate increased by ∼157% from presession (1.24 ± 0.4 mmol/L) to postsession (3.19 ± 1.7 mmol/L; p ≤ .0005). PlayerLoad™ values of 353 ± 67 arbitrary units were observed, as well as ∼100 changes of direction per session. In conclusion, walking football is a moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity. The longitudinal health benefits of walking football remain to be elucidated, particularly on bone health, cardiovascular fitness, and social and mental well-being.
Megan Q. Beard, Samantha A. Boland and Phillip A. Gribble
Decreased hip strength is often present in patients with chronic overuse lower extremity injuries. The hand-held dynamometer (HHD) can be used in a clinical setting to quantify hip strength; however, reliability of the device remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the interexaminer and intersession reliability of a HHD when measuring isometric hip abduction (HABD) and external rotation (HER) strength, both with and without a fixed strap. The HHD had good to high reliability regardless of examiner, session, or stabilization when measuring HABD (ICC = 0.885–0.977) and HER (ICC = 0.879–0.958) isometric strength. HHD is an appropriate instrument for measuring isometric hip strength.