Sugalya Amatachaya, Pakwipa Chokphukiao, Puttipong Poncumhak, Roongnapa Intaruk, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, and Pipatana Amatachaya
Adequate body composition is essential for health, function, and independence in older adults. However, standard body composition assessments require complex and costly modalities, limiting their use for early detection of body composition changes and periodic follow-up. This study explored the ability of three practical measures—handgrip strength, five times sit-to-stand test, and upper limb loading during seated push-up test (ULL-SPUT)—to determine body composition in 109 older adults with and without sarcopenia. Participants (average age 76 years) were cross-sectionally measured for outcomes of the study. The ULL-SPUT and handgrip strength, but not the five times sit-to-stand test, significantly correlated with body composition (rs , r = .297–.827, p < .01). The ULL-SPUT, in combination with demographic data, could determine body composition up to 82%. Therefore, the ULL-SPUT may be a practical preliminary measure to identify older adults for whom standard body composition assessments and follow-up would prove timely and beneficial.
Maria Kasanen, Arto Laukkanen, Donna Niemistö, Jimi Kotkajuuri, Nanne-Mari Luukkainen, and Arja Sääkslahti
This study was conducted to determine how total fundamental movement skill (FMS) score and, separately, locomotor skill (LMS), and object control skill scores in children 3–8 years old predicted their specific-intensity physical activity 3 years later. Overall, 441 Finnish children (51.7% female, baseline mean age of 5.6 years) participated in the study. Total FMS, LMS, and object control skill scores were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, third edition. The time spent engaged in physical activity of different intensities (light, moderate, vigorous, moderate-to-vigorous, light-to-vigorous, and sedentary behavior) was determined using accelerometers. A two-level regression model was used in the analysis, considering potential covariates and interactions. The results showed that moderate physical activity, vigorous physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were predicted by the total FMS score (β = 0.177 to 0.203, p = .001–.003) and the LMS score (β = 0.140 to 0.164, p = .004–.014), but not the object control skill score. Moreover, the LMS score inversely predicted sedentary behavior (β = −0.116, p = .042). In conclusion, higher FMS and, specifically, LMS scores seem to predict more engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and less sedentary behavior over time. However, most of the variance in physical activity remains unexplained.
Steve Amireault and Mary Katherine Huffman
The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which motivational regulations influence physical activity behavior through role identity among people 55 years or older. Participants (N = 409; M age = 66.29 years [SD = 7.06]) completed online questionnaires to measure motivational regulations, role identity, and the frequency of physical activity in a typical week and in the past month. Mediation analysis using ordinary least squares path analysis revealed that autonomous forms of motivational regulation (positively) and controlled forms of motivational regulation (negatively) influenced role identity, which then positively influenced physical activity behavior. Bootstrap confidence intervals (95%) for the indirect effects (a × b) based on 5,000 bootstrap samples were entirely above or below zero. These findings point to future experimental evaluations of interventions aiming at both increasing and decreasing autonomous and controlled motivational regulations, respectively, to promote physical activity behavior through role identity.