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Anson B. Rosenfeldt, Amanda L. Penko, Andrew S. Bazyk, Matthew C. Streicher, Tanujit Dey and Jay L. Alberts

The aim of this project was to (a) evaluate the potential of the 2-min walk test to detect declines in gait velocity under dual-task conditions and (b) compare gait velocity overground and on a self-paced treadmill in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In total, 23 individuals with PD completed the 2-min walk test under single- and dual-task (serial 7s) conditions overground and on a self-paced treadmill. There was a significant decrease in gait velocity from single- to dual-task conditions overground (1.32 ± 0.22 to 1.10 ± 0.25 m/s; p < .001) and on the self-paced treadmill (1.24 ± 0.21 to 1.05 ± 0.25 m/s; p < .001). Overground and treadmill velocities were not statistically different from each other; however, differences approached or exceeded the minimal clinical important difference. The 2-min walk test coupled with a cognitive task provides an effective model of identifying dual-task declines in individuals with PD. Further studies comparing overground and self-paced treadmill velocity is warranted in PD.

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Joshua Twaites, Richard Everson, Joss Langford and Melvyn Hillsdon

Purpose: Physical activity classifiers are typically trained on data obtained from sensors at a set orientation. Changes in this orientation (such as being on a different wrist) result in performance degradation. This work investigates a method to obtain sensor location and orientation invariance for classification of wrist-mounted accelerometry via a technique known as domain adaption. Methods: Data was gathered from 16 participants who wore accelerometers on both wrists. Physical activity classification models were created using data from each wrist and then used to predict activities when using data from the opposing wrist. Using subspace alignment domain adaption, this procedure was then repeated to align the training and testing data before the classification stage. Results: Prediction of activity when using data where the wearer’s wrist was incorrectly specified resulted in a significant (p = .01) decrease in performance of 12%. When using domain adaption this drop in performance became negligible (M difference < 1%, p = .73). Conclusion: Domain adaption is a valuable method for achieving accurate physical activity classification independent of sensor orientation in wrist-worn accelerometry.

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Katja Krustrup Pedersen, Esben Lykke Skovgaard, Ryan Larsen, Mikkel Stengaard, Søren Sørensen and Kristian Overgaard

Accelerometers are widely used to measure physical activity, but limitations in the ability to differentiate between running intensities have been reported. This problem may relate to accelerometer placement. In this study, we compare the validity of accelerometers placed on the hip and the thigh for the measurement of walking and running speed under laboratory and field conditions. Young healthy men and women wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the hip and on the thigh while performing walking and running activities in laboratory (n = 31) and field conditions (n = 17). Vector magnitude counts per minute (VM cpm) were correlated with speed of locomotion and, during laboratory trials, with oxygen consumption (VO2, ml·min−1·kg−1). Both hip- and thigh-placed VM cpm showed strong correlations with walking speed ranging from 3 to 7 km·h−1 (r = 0.93 and r = 0.95, respectively) and VO2 (r = 0.85 and r = 0.91, respectively). Compared with the hip-placed VM cpm, thigh-placed VM cpm showed significantly stronger correlations with running speed ranging from 7 to 20 km·h−1 (r = 0.29 and r = 0.89, respectively) and the corresponding VO2 (r = 0.25 and r = 0.87, respectively). Regardless of accelerometer placement, VM cpm were similar between laboratory and field tests performed at comparable walking and running speeds. These results show that accelerometers placed on the thigh, but not on the hip, provide proportional output across a wide range of walking and running speeds. Thus, thigh-placed accelerometers are able to differentiate between running intensities in both laboratory and field conditions.

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Jonathan M. Miller, Mark A. Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa N. Laska, Toben F. Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

Background: This study tested for differences in personal, social, and environmental correlates of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) across ethnicity/race in male and female adolescents. Methods: Self-reported MVPA and 47 potential correlates of MVPA were measured in an ethnically/racially diverse cross-sectional sample of adolescents, in Minnesota, who participated in EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens). Interactions of potential correlates with ethnicity/race on MVPA were tested in linear hierarchical regression models in boys and girls. Results: Boys reported 1.7 more weekly hours of MVPA than girls. White adolescents reported 1.1 to 2.1 more weekly hours of MVPA than nonwhite adolescents. Among girls, neighborhood road connectivity was negatively correlated with MVPA among Hispanic and Asian participants. Among boys, sports participation was positively correlated with MVPA among all ethnicities/races, except Asians. Home media equipment was positively correlated with MVPA among Hispanic boys, but negatively correlated among white boys. Conclusions: A few correlates of physical activity among adolescents differed intersectionally by ethnicity/race and sex. Sports participation and home media equipment may have differing impacts on physical activity across ethnicities and races in boys, whereas neighborhood features like road connectivity may have differing impacts on physical activity across ethnicities and races in girls.

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Robin S. Vealey, Robin Cooley, Emma Nilsson, Carly Block and Nick Galli

The purpose of this study was to examine the types and perceived usefulness of questionnaires used by consultants in applied intervention work with athletes in 2003 and 2017, as well as to understand consultants’ perceptions of the advantages, limitations, and needs regarding the use of questionnaires in consulting. Sport psychology consultants in 2003 (n = 96) and 2017 (n = 106) completed a questionnaire that included Likert-scale questions as well as open-ended questions. The percentage of consultants who used questionnaires decreased from 83% in 2003 to 67% in 2017. Consultants in 2003 rated questionnaires as more useful than consultants in 2017, although the specific questionnaires used by consultants did not change extensively over the 14-year period. Advantages in using questionnaires included efficiency, structure of assessment, consensual validation, and credibility, while limitations included lack of relevance, undermining of athlete-consultant relationship, interpretive problems, and cost and lack of access.

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Morgan N. Clennin and Russell R. Pate

Background: Growing evidence suggests that the broader neighborhood socioeconomic environment is independently associated with cardiometabolic health. However, few studies have examined this relationship among younger populations. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to (1) investigate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (SED) and cardiorespiratory fitness and (2) determine the extent to which physical activity mediates this relationship. Methods: Data from 312 youth (aged 12–15 y) were obtained from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a standard submaximal treadmill test, and maximal oxygen consumption was estimated. Physical activity was self-reported time spent in moderate to vigorous activity. Neighborhood SED was measured by a composite index score at the census tract of residence. Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between neighborhood SED, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness, adjusting for individual-level characteristics and the complex sampling design. Results: Neighborhood SED was not significantly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness or physical activity among youth in the study sample. Conclusions: While not significant, cardiorespiratory fitness levels were observed to decrease as neighborhood SED increased. Future research is needed to better understand this relationship and to identify underlying mechanisms beyond fitness or physical activity that may drive the relationship between neighborhood SED and health.

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Deise J.A. Faleiro, Enaiane C. Menezes, Eduardo Capeletto, Felipe Fank, Rafaela M. Porto and Giovana Z. Mazo

Objective: To analyze the scientific evidence on the association of physical activity with urinary incontinence in older women. Design: Searches were performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and ScienceDirect. Observational studies were included. The following search terms were used: urinary incontinence, older adult, and physical activity. Methodological quality was assessed using the checklist proposed by Downs and Black. Results: Ten articles were included. Sedentary lifestyle and <150 min/week of physical activity are at risk of developing urinary incontinence. Walking (at least 30 min) and physical activities (600–1,500 and 600 METs/min per week) prevent urinary incontinence. Seven of the 10 studies indicated a good level of methodological quality. Conclusions: Sedentary lifestyle is at risk of urinary incontinence, and walking, moderate and vigorous physical activities are associated with prevention of urinary incontinence.

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Xiaolin Yang, Irinja Lounassalo, Anna Kankaanpää, Mirja Hirvensalo, Suvi P. Rovio, Asko Tolvanen, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Harri Helajärvi, Sanna H. Palomäki, Kasper Salin, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari and Tuija H. Tammelin

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine trajectories of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and television-viewing (TV) time and their associations in adults over 10 years. Methods: The sample comprised 2934 participants (men, 46.0%) aged 24–39 years in 2001 and they were followed up for 10 years. LTPA and TV time were assessed using self-report questionnaires in 2001, 2007, and 2011. Longitudinal LTPA and TV-time trajectories and their interactions were analyzed with mixture modeling. Results: Three LTPA (persistently highly active, 15.8%; persistently moderately active, 60.8%; and persistently low active, 23.5%) and 4 TV time (consistently low, 38.6%; consistently moderate, 48.2%; consistently high, 11.7%; and consistently very high, 1.5%) trajectory classes were identified. Persistently highly active women had a lower probability of consistently high TV time than persistently low-active women (P = .02), whereas men who were persistently highly active had a higher probability of consistently moderate TV time and a lower probability of consistently low TV time than their persistently low-active counterparts (P = .03 and P = .01, respectively). Conclusions: Maintaining high LTPA levels were accompanied by less TV over time in women, but not in men. The associations were partially explained by education, body mass index, and smoking.

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Karl Spiteri, David Broom, Amira Hassan Bekhet, John Xerri de Caro, Bob Laventure and Kate Grafton

Identifying the difference in the barriers and motivators between middle-aged and older adults could contribute toward the development of age-specific health promotion interventions. The aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on the barriers and motivators for physical activity in middle-aged (50–64 years) and older (65–70 years) adults. This review examined qualitative and quantitative studies using the theoretical domain framework as the guiding theory. The search generated 9,400 results from seven databases, and 55 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The results indicate that the barriers are comparable across the two age groups, with environmental factors and resources being the most commonly identified barriers. In older adults, social influences, reinforcement, and assistance in managing change were the most identified motivators. In middle-aged adults, goal-setting, the belief that an activity will be beneficial, and social influences were identified as the most important motivators. These findings can be used by professionals to encourage engagement with and adherence to physical activity.

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Lubna Abdul Razak, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Jannah Jones, Sze Lin Yoong, Alice Grady, Meghan Finch, Kirsty Seward, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet, Rimante Ronto, Ben Elton and Luke Wolfenden

Background: Identifying factors influencing the implementation of evidence-based environmental recommendations to promote physical activity in childcare services is required to develop effective implementation strategies. This systematic review aimed to: (1) identify barriers and facilitators reported by center-based childcare services impacting the implementation of environmental recommendations to increase physical activity among children, (2) synthesize these factors according to the 14 domains of the “Theoretical Domains Framework,” and (3) report any associations between service or provider characteristics and the reported implementation of such recommendations. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in 6 scientific databases (eg, MEDLINE) and Google Scholar to identify studies reporting data from childcare staff or other stakeholders responsible for childcare operations. Included studies were based on childcare settings and published in English. From 2164 identified citations, 19 articles met the inclusion criteria (11 qualitative, 4 quantitative, and 4 mixed methods). Results: Across all articles, the majority of factors impacting implementation fell into the “environmental context and resources” domain (eg, time, equipment, and space; n = 19) and the “social influences” domain (eg, support from parents, colleagues, supervisors; n = 11). Conclusion: The current review provides guidance to improve the implementation of environmental recommendations in childcare services by addressing environmental, resource, and social barriers.