Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 34,833 items for

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Volume 17 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

Restricted access

Volume 19 (2024): Issue 6 (Jun 2024)

Restricted access

Volume 32 (2024): Issue 3 (Jun 2024)

Restricted access

Volume 18 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

Restricted access

Volume 46 (2024): Issue 3 (Jun 2024)

Restricted access

Volume 41 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

Restricted access

Volume 38 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

Restricted access

Physical Education Access in U.S. Public Schools: A Multistate, Multiregion Study

Ben D. Kern, Wesley J. Wilson, Chad Killian, Hans van der Mars, Kelly Simonton, David Woo, and Tristan Wallhead

Purpose: Our purpose was to gather and evaluate accurate, up-to-date information on physical education (PE) policy implementation across multiple U.S. states and regions. Methods: A U.S. Physical Education and Physical Activity Policy questionnaire was developed and completed by 4,845 public-school PE teachers from 25 U.S. states. The U.S. Physical Education and Physical Activity Policy assessed PE quantity (days per week and minutes per week), class sizes by grade level, and practices that limit PE access. Descriptive statistics and correlations of PE minutes per week with class size were calculated in aggregate and individually by state. Results: Aggregate PE quantities in elementary, middle school, high school, and for students with disabilities were well below the recommendations (150 min/week elementary and 225 min/week secondary) and varied between states. Average students/class varied by state, and significant positive correlations between weekly PE minutes and students/PE class were observed. Discussion: PE access is limited across the United States, and stronger commitment to PE policy and policy implementation is needed.

Open access

Skimmed, Lactose-Free Milk Ingestion Postexercise: Rehydration Effectiveness and Gastrointestinal Disturbances Versus Water and a Sports Drink in Physically Active People

Luis F. Aragón-Vargas, Julián C. Garzón-Mosquera, and Johnny A. Montoya-Arroyo

Postexercise hydration is fundamental to replace fluid loss from sweat. This study evaluated rehydration and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms for each of three beverages: water (W), sports drink (SD), and skimmed, lactose-free milk (SLM) after moderate-intensity cycling in the heat. Sixteen college students completed three exercise sessions each to lose ≈2% of their body mass. They drank 150% of body mass loss of the drink assigned in randomized order; net fluid balance, diuresis, and GI symptoms were measured and followed up for 3 hr after completion of fluid intake. SLM showed higher fluid retention (∼69%) versus W (∼40%; p < .001); SD (∼56%) was not different from SLM or W (p > .05). Net fluid balance was higher for SLM (−0.26 kg) and SD (−0.42 kg) than W (−0.67 kg) after 3 hr (p < .001), resulting from a significantly lower diuresis with SLM. Reported GI disturbances were mild and showed no difference among drinks (p > .05) despite ingestion of W (1,992 ± 425 ml), SD (1,999 ± 429 ml), and SLM (1,993 ± 426 ml) in 90 min. In conclusion, SLM was more effective than W for postexercise rehydration, showing greater fluid retention for the 3-hr follow-up and presenting with low-intensity GI symptoms similar to those with W and SD. These results confirm that SLM is an effective option for hydration after exercise in the heat.

Restricted access

Independent and Combined Associations of Physical Activity and Screen Time With Biomarkers of Inflammation in Children and Adolescents With Overweight/Obesity

Yijian Ding and Xi Xu

Purpose: Inflammation regulation is important for obesity management and prevention of obesity-related diseases. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the independent and combined associations of physical activity and screen time with biomarkers of inflammation in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. Method: A total of 1289 children and adolescents with overweight/obesity were included from the 2015 to 2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted for the association analyses. Results: For the independent associations, a negative dose-dependent relationship was demonstrated between physical activity and inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in adolescents with overweight/obesity (P < .001) but not children; screen time was not associated with hsCRP in both children and adolescents. No significant association was found between physical activity or screen time with other inflammatory biomarkers. For the combined associations, there was an interaction between physical activity and screen time on hsCRP in adolescents with overweight/obesity (P = .014). In addition, the negative association between physical activity and hsCRP was greater in boys compared with girls and in Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black individuals compared with non-Hispanic White individuals. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a combined association of physical activity and screen time with inflammatory biomarker hsCRP in adolescents with overweight/obesity.