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Jeffrey Martin

The overarching purpose of the current article was to examine the status of sport psychology as a profession in 4 ways. First, the author characterizes the profession of sport psychology as an illusion because there is so little demand for sport psychology services and because there are so few full-time practicing sport psychologists. Second, paradoxically, it appears that many people assume that applied sport psychology is a healthy and viable profession, so the author comments on why this is the case. Sidestepping the lack of jobs does a disservice to graduate students who believe they can easily become practicing sport psychologists. Third, it is clear that few athletes or teams want to pay for sport psychology services, so some reasons why this is the case are presented. Fourth, the author speculates about the future of the sport psychology profession, followed by some recommendations that would rectify his claim that the field’s relative silence on this issue does a disservice to students.

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Andressa Silva, Fernanda V. Narciso, Igor Soalheiro, Fernanda Viegas, Luísa S.N. Freitas, Adriano Lima, Bruno A. Leite, Haroldo C. Aleixo, Rob Duffield and Marco T. de Mello

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between sleep quality and quantity and injuries in elite soccer players and to compare sleep–wake variables and injury characteristics. Methods: The current investigation was a prospective cohort study of 23 elite male soccer players competing for 2 teams over 6 mo in the highest-level Brazilian competition. The players’ sleep behavior was monitored for 10 d in the preseason using self-reporting sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors to determine sleep duration and quality. Furthermore, injuries were recorded by the respective club’s medical teams into a specific database. Details of injuries recorded included the type, location, and severity of each injury. The results were expressed as descriptive statistics, and the significance level was set at 5%. The Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare the sleep variables between groups. Spearman correlation coefficient and linear-regression analysis were used. Results: The results indicated a moderate negative correlation between sleep efficiency and particular injury characteristics, including absence time, injury severity, and amount of injuries. The linear-regression analysis indicated that 44% of the total variance in the number of injuries can be explained by sleep efficiency, 24% of the total variance in the absence time after injury (days) can be explained by sleep efficiency, and 47% of the total variance in the injury severity can be explained by sleep efficiency. Conclusions: Soccer players who exhibit lower sleep quality or nonrestorative sleep show associations with increased number and severity of musculoskeletal injuries.

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Derek T. Smith, Tannah Broman, Marcus Rucker, Cecile Sende and Sarah Banner

Effective academic advising in kinesiology is paramount to student success, contribution of the discipline to global health, and preparation of the workforce’s future leaders. Enrollment growth in kinesiology and its curricular breadth impose challenges that are unique from many other academic majors. The American Kinesiology Association convened a preworkshop titled “Advising in Kinesiology: Challenges and Opportunities” in January 2019 to begin dialogue related to advancing effective advising practices in kinesiology. Twenty-six attendees, all of whom were engaged in advising in different roles, participated in presentations and group discussions. This paper summarizes the preworkshop primary findings and offers some best-practice considerations. While it is clear that effective advising is positioned to advance the quality of kinesiology programs and our graduates, there is a dearth of supporting evidence, and addressing this through research is a needed priority.

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Kelsey Lucca, David Gire, Rachel Horton and Jessica A. Sommerville

Every day, young learners are confronted with challenges. The degree to which they persist in overcoming those challenges, and the different ways they persist, provides critical insights into the various cognitive, motoric, and affective processes that drive behavior. Here, we present a systematic overview of the methodologies that have been traditionally used to study persistence, and offer suggestions for new approaches to the study of persistence that will make strides in moving the field forward. We argue that automated measures of force and motion, which have long been used in the study of infants’ motoric behavior, can provide a means to unravel the psychological processes that guide infants’ trying behavior. To illustrate this, we present a case study that highlights the novel lessons to be learned by the use of automated measures of force and motion regarding infants’ persistence, along with an analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of this approach, as well as detailed instructions for application. In sum, we conclude that these measures, when used in conjunction with more traditional approaches, will provide creative new insights into the nature and development of early persistence.

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Quinn Malone, Steven Passmore and Michele Maiers

Different techniques used to analyze and reduce accelerometer data may impact its interpretation. To determine which variables were impacted by changing analysis parameters, the authors performed a secondary analysis of data gained from a clinical trial conducted on older adults (aged ≥65 years; M = 71.1 and SD = 5.3; n = 100) with neck and back disabilities and compared the effects of two different cut- point sets (Matthews and Freedson sets) commonly used to analyze older adult accelerometry data. The Matthews set was found to assign significantly greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day than the Freedson set in all comparisons. This suggests that, if moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per unit time is a primary outcome measure, the choice of which analysis method is used should be carefully considered. Further results from analyses of dependent variables, time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity bouts of >10 min/day, mean bout length, and number of bouts per day are discussed.

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Orges Lena, Jasemin Todri, Ardita Todri, José Luis Martínez Gil and Maria Gomez Gallego

Context: One of the main reasons why athletes with a high physical condition suffer from low back pain disease is because they often participate in sports that involve disc compression movements during flexion, lifting loads, or torsion movement. Objectives: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the postural treatment of the Mézières method on elite rhythmic gymnastics athletes with low back pain. Design: Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting: The sports hall of “Puente Tocinos,” Murcia, Spain. Participants: Ninety gymnastics athletes were randomized into 2 parallel groups (intervention: n = 39; control: n = 51), of whom 98.9% were women (women = 89; man = 1). Intervention: The Mézières method postural therapy was implemented. It lasted about 60 minutes in repeated sessions of 2 to 3 meetings per week by counting in overall 60 sessions during a 24-week period. Main Outcome Measures: Visual analog scale of pain, sit and reach flexibility test, Runtastic (pedometer performance android application), Roland–Morris Questionnaire for the physical disability, and the Health Status Questionnaire were used. Results: The univariate analysis of variance and independent sample t test revealed a significant improvement in the intervention group concerning the visual analog scale pain assessment scale (P < .05, ηp2=.625), and, also, the between-groups effect size was high during the 24 sessions of treatment (d > 0.8) compared with the control one. The same situation persists even for Roland–Morris Questionnaire (P < .05, ηp2=.802), physical score (P < .05, ηp2=.613), mental score (P < .05, ηp2=.736), sit and reach flexibility test (P < .05, ηp2=.666), and Runtastic performance (P < .05, ηp2=.790), where the between-groups effect size was high during the 24 sessions of treatment (d > 0.8). Conclusion: The Mézières method treatment performed on athletes with low back pain has caused positive effects on all the outcomes analyzed compared with the ones of control group.

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Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers and Brendan S. Lay

Purpose: To examine the effects of precooling via crushed ice ingestion on cognitive function during exercise in the heat. Methods: Eleven active men ingested either 7 g·kg−1 of crushed ice (ICE) or thermoneutral water (CON) 30 minutes before running 90 minutes on a treadmill at a velocity equivalent to 65% VO2peak in hot and humid conditions (35.0°C [0.5°C], 53.1% [3.9%] relative humidity). Participants completed 3 cognitive tasks to investigate decision making (8-choice reaction time [CRT]), working memory (serial seven [S7]), and executive control (color multisource interference task [cMSIT]) on arrival, after precooling, and after running. Results: Precooling significantly decreased preexercise core (T core) and forehead skin temperature in ICE compared with CON, respectively (T core 0.8°C [0.4°C], –0.2°C [0.1°C]; T head –0.5°C [0.4°C], 0.2°C [0.8°C]; P ≤ .05). Postrun, ICE significantly reduced errors compared with CON for CRT (P ≤ .05; d = 0.90; 90% confidence interval, 0.13–1.60) and S7 (P ≤ .05; d = 1.05; 90% confidence interval, 0.26–1.75). Thermal sensation was lower after precooling with ICE (P ≤ .05), but no significant differences were recorded between conditions for cMSIT errors, skin temperature, heart rate, or ratings of perceived exertion or perceived thirst (P > .05). Conclusions: Precooling via ICE maintained cognitive accuracy in decision making and working memory during exercise in the heat. Thus, ICE may have the potential to improve sporting performance by resisting deleterious effects of exercise in a hot and humid environment on cognitive function.

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Philip E. Martin, Mary E. Rudisill, Bradley D. Hatfield, Jared Russell and T. Gilmour Reeve

One of the most important and yet more challenging and stressful tasks completed by a department chair is evaluating faculty. Regardless of its importance, though, department chairs often receive little or no training for this critical task. This paper contains three sections, all of which focus on faculty annual evaluations. The first section discusses a number of recommendations for conducting thorough and meaningful annual evaluations. The second section highlights a real case scenario at Auburn University in which all university departments were tasked with changing their evaluation procedures, criteria, and expectations for faculty performance to better align with the revised strategic goals and mission of the university. The third section highlights an innovative peer-based faculty performance-evaluation system employed in the department of kinesiology at the University of Maryland that is designed to engage all tenure-track faculty in the evaluation process.

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Edward Hebert

Faculty morale plays an important role in academic life. Morale influences faculty behavior, productivity, and quality of teaching; ultimately affects student learning and program quality; and is predictive of faculty turnover. It is an often overlooked but worthy challenge for academic leaders. This article examines faculty morale, its meaning, and factors that influence it and explores strategies for promoting it in a university department. Faculty morale is a cognitive, emotional, and motivational approach toward the work of the department and may be reflected by a sense of common purpose, group cohesion, and a sense of personal value in the organization. Research shows that faculty morale is affected by various aspects of work life including workload, supportive resources, and recognition. However, evidence also suggests that 2 of the strongest variables influencing morale are relationships with colleagues and perceptions of the abilities and actions of the department leader. Strategies are suggested for promoting faculty morale that are derived from the research, a survey of department chairs, and experience.

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Marcie Fyock, Nelson Cortes, Alex Hulse and Joel Martin

Clinical Scenario: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common knee injury in recreational adult runners, possibly caused by faulty mechanics. One possible approach to reduce this pain is to retrain the runner’s gait. Current research suggests that no definitive gold standard treatment for PFP exists. Gait retraining utilizing visual feedback may reduce PFP in both the short and long term. Clinical Question: In adult runners diagnosed with PFP, does gait retraining with real-time visual feedback lead to a decrease in pain? Summary of Key Findings: A literature search was performed; 3 relevant studies utilizing gait retraining with visual feedback, pain level as an outcome measure, and follow-up measures of at least 1 month after the intervention were included. All the included studies reported a decrease in short- and long-term pain for participants following visual feedback gait retraining. In addition, biomechanical measures related to PFP, including peak hip adduction angle and the angle of contralateral pelvic drop, improved after the completion of the intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: There is level 2 evidence supporting the implementation of 8 sessions over 2 weeks of visual feedback gait retraining as a means of treating patients diagnosed with PFP. Based on current available evidence, clinicians should identify faulty mechanics of patients and implement a protocol of increasing real-time visual feedback over the first 4 sessions and decreasing visual feedback over the final 4 sessions. Strength of Recommendation: Level 2.