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Volume 32 (2024): Issue 3 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 18 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 41 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

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Bridging the Policy Gap: Examining Physical Education in Colorado

Xiaoping Fan, Jaimie M. McMullen, Brian Dauenhauer, and Jennifer M. Krause

Purpose: Using the social ecological model as a guiding framework, the purpose of this study was to examine the status of physical education in Colorado. Method: A sequential explanatory mixed-method approach was employed to acquire a snapshot of the status of physical education. Participants completed an initial survey followed by semistructured interviews. The quantitative survey data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were analyzed using open and axial coding. Results: The results of this study are presented in two parts: an overview of the status of physical education, followed by a detailed analysis of each component of physical education. Discussion/Conclusion: This study demonstrates a comprehensive approach to examining physical education, providing a holistic view of physical education, and serving as a valuable resource for policymakers and stakeholders.

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Cadence Paradox in Cycling—Part 2: Theory and Simulation of Maximal Lactate Steady State and Carbohydrate Utilization Dependent on Cycling Cadence

Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser

Purpose: To develop and evaluate a theory on the frequent observation that cyclists prefer cadences (RPMs) higher than those considered most economical at submaximal exercise intensities via modeling and simulation of its mathematical description. Methods: The theory combines the parabolic power-to-velocity (v) relationship, where v is defined by crank length, RPM-dependent ankle velocity, and gear ratio, RPM effects on the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS), and lactate-dependent carbohydrate oxidation (CHO). It was tested against recent experimental results of 12 healthy male recreational cyclists determining the v-dependent peak oxygen uptake (VO 2PEAKv ), MLSS (MLSS v ), corresponding power output (P MLSSv ), oxygen uptake at P MLSSv (VO 2MLSSv ), and CHO MLSSv -management at 100 versus 50 per minute, respectively. Maximum RPM (RPM MAX ) attained at minimized pedal torque was measured. RPM-specific maximum sprint power output (P MAXv ) was estimated at RPMs of 100 and 50, respectively. Results: Modeling identified that MLSS v and P MLSSv related to P MAXv (IP MLSSv ) promote CHO and that VO 2MLSSv related to VO 2PEAKv inhibits CHO. It shows that cycling at higher RPM reduces IP MLSSv . It suggests that high cycling RPMs minimize differences in the reliance on CHO at MLSS v between athletes with high versus low RPM MAX . Conclusions : The present theory-guided modeling approach is exclusively based on data routinely measured in high-performance testing. It implies a higher performance reserve above IP MLSSv at higher RPM. Cyclists may prefer high cycling RPMs because they appear to minimize differences in the reliance on CHO at MLSS v between athletes with high versus low RPM MAX .

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Effect of 6-Week Sprint Training on Long-Distance Running Performance in Highly Trained Runners

Ryosuke Ando, Chihiro Kojima, Saya Okamoto, Nobukazu Kasai, Daichi Sumi, Kenji Takao, Kazushige Goto, and Yasuhiro Suzuki

Purpose : Long-distance running performance has been reported to be associated with sprint performance in highly trained distance runners. Therefore, we hypothesized that sprint training could enhance distance running and sprint performance in long-distance runners. This study examined the effect of 6-week sprint training on long-distance running and sprint performance in highly trained distance runners. Methods : Nineteen college runners were divided into control (n = 8) and training (n = 11) groups. Participants in the training group performed 12 sprint training sessions in 6 weeks, while those in the control group performed 12 distance training sessions. Before and after the interventions, maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ), O2 cost during submaximal running (290 m·min−1 and 310 m·min−1 of running velocity), and time to exhaustion (starting at 290 m·min–1 and increased 10 m·min–1 every minute) were assessed on a treadmill. Additionally, the 100-m and 400-m sprinting times and 3000-m running time were determined on an all-weather track. Results : In the control group, no measurements significantly changed after the intervention. In the training group, the time to exhaustion, 100-m and 400-m sprinting times, and 3000-m running time improved significantly, while V ˙ O 2 max and O2 cost did not change. Conclusions : These results showed that 6-week sprint training improved both sprint and long-distance running performance in highly trained distance runners without a change in aerobic capacity. Improvement in the time to exhaustion without a change in V ˙ O 2 max suggests that the enhancement of long-distance running performance could be attributable to improved anaerobic capacity.

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Habitual Nocturnal Sleep, Napping Behavior, and Recovery Following Training and Competition in Elite Water Polo: Sex-Related Effects

Nickos G. Koutouvakis, Nickos D. Geladas, Athanasios Mouratidis, Argyris G. Toubekis, and Petros G. Botonis

Purpose: To examine nocturnal sleep patterns, napping behaviors, and subjective wellness responses of elite water polo players within an in-season week and to identify whether sleeping patterns differ between men and women. Methods: Sleep characteristics of 10 male and 17 female professional water polo players were objectively assessed during 1 week of the in-season period, including 5 training days, 1 match day, and 1 day of rest. Internal load (rating of perceived exertion × duration of training or match) was assessed 30 minutes posttraining or postmatch, and the total quality of recovery was recorded every morning. A series of multilevel models were used to analyze the data. Results: Time in bed and wake-up time were earlier on both training (P < .001) and rest days (P < .001) than on the day of the match. Internal workload did not predict any of the players’ sleeping patterns. Midday naps predicted less time in bed (P = .03) and likely less sleep time (P = .08). The total quality of recovery was predicted only by the total sleep time (P < .01). Women exhibited higher sleep efficiency (P < .001), less waking after sleep onset (P = .01), and a lower number of awakenings (P = .02) than men. Conclusions: The current results indicate that the nocturnal sleep patterns of elite water polo players are not associated with internal load and that women display better nocturnal sleep quality compared with men. As long naps interfere with nocturnal sleep, and total nocturnal sleep time predicts total quality of recovery, we suggest that athletes follow hygiene sleep strategies to facilitate adequate nocturnal sleep and next-day recovery.

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It’s Complicated: Examining Connections Between Emotions and Career Stages Among Physical Educators

Karen Lux Gaudreault, Denis Schulz, Kelly Simonton, Kevin Andrew Richards, and Kevin Mercier

Background: Physical education (PE) is a marginalized profession that is socially and emotionally demanding. PE teachers are prone to early career attrition, isolation, and burnout as a result of negative emotional experiences. While these outcomes are customary, little is known about how teachers’ emotions change across their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between PE Teacher Career Stages and their emotional experiences. Methods: Participants included 31 in-service PE teachers (M age = 44.70 years, SD = 9.48; M = 15.87 years of teaching) from the United States. Inductive and deductive analyses were used to evaluate the interview data. Results: Themes included: (a) teachers identify within multiple stages/emotions, (b) stakeholder agendas cultivate negative emotions, and (c) the aftermath of the pandemic as a catalyst for frustration. Conclusion: Teachers’ emotions are complex and multidimensional. Exploring teachers’ emotions within different career stages may help prevent early career attrition and increase job satisfaction.

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Mandating Women Board Members in Sport Organizations: Change via Coercive Institutional Pressure

Kathleen B. Wilson, Adam Karg, Emma Sherry, Kasey Symons, and Tim Breitbarth

Boosting board representation of women redresses structural unfairness and improves corporate governance and performance. The Change Our Game initiative, running over 3 years statewide in Victoria, Australia, mandated 40% representation of women on state sport boards. At the start, only 44% of state sport boards had 40% women representation; by the mandate deadline, this had increased to 93%. Using an institutional theory lens, the authors qualitatively analyzed four stakeholder groups: mandators, policy champions, operationalists, and mandate targets. Stakeholder sentiments were analyzed pre- and postmandate deadline over 3 years. Sentiments ranged from positive to equivocation to denigration. The mandate’s coercive pressure, supported by institutional legitimacy and work to accelerate changes, led to institutional change and achieved a significant increase in women board members. Change was grounded in strong ethical and cognitive support from mandate champions. Microsocial expressions of denigration and change resistance did not prevent successful change.

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Monitoring Within-Individual Dose–Response Relationships in Professional Soccer Players: The Importance of Fitness Level

Alireza Rabbani, Giorgios Ermidis, Filipe Manuel Clemente, and Liam Anderson

Purpose: To (1) examine within-individual player dose–response associations between selected training-load measures and changes in aerobic fitness level via submaximal exercise heart rate (HRex%) and (2) measure the relationships between these dose–response associations with basal HRex% (to study the influence of fitness level on dose–response relationship). Methods: During an in-season phase, selected training-load measures including total minutes, total distance, mechanical work (the sum number of accelerations and decelerations > 3 m2), high metabolic load distance, and Edwards’ training impulse were collected via Global Positioning System and heart-rate sensors for analyzing accumulated load. A submaximal warm-up test was used repeatedly before and after 9 phases to elicit HRex% and track fitness changes at an individual level. Results: Negative to positive extensive ranges of within-individual associations were found among players for different metrics (r = −.84 to .89). The relationship between pooled HRex% (basal fitness) and dose–response correlations showed inverse very large (r = −.71) and large (r = −.65) values for accumulated weekly minutes and distance. However, moderate values were found for all other measures (r = −.35 to −.42). Conclusions: Individual players show extensive different ranges of dose–response associations with training measures. The dose–response association is influenced by players’ fitness level, and players with lower fitness levels show stronger inverse relationships with accumulated minutes and total distance.