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Adapted Physical Activity Scholarship: Evolving From Corrective to Inclusion and Anti-Ableist

Karen P. DePauw

Kinesiology and adapted physical activity (APA) share a common history rooted in the medical model approach to physical activity, movement, and the human body. The evolution of APA was influenced by these early roots and later by special-education legislation, sensory-motor perspectives, inclusion movement, and the disability-rights movement. Originally identified as adapted physical education, APA emerged as a professional field and an academic discipline. Since the 1950s, the research and scholarship has increased and cuts across the specialization areas (subdisciplines) of kinesiology. The multidisciplinary nature of APA scholarship has also reached beyond the discipline of kinesiology informed by disability studies and sociology. Reflection about APA and kinesiology reveals the ableist nature of the medical model, which informed early professional practice and scholarship. Thus, it is critical that APA and kinesiology engage in anti-ableist scholarship to better understand human physical activity and movement inclusive of individuals with disabilities.

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Adherence to the Singapore Integrated 24-Hour Activity Guidelines by Infants and Toddlers and Its Association With Well-Being

Guan Yuan Loh, Terence Buan Kiong Chua, Kok Hian Tan, Benny Kai Guo Loo, Phaik Ling Quah, and Michael Yong Hwa Chia

Background: This study estimated the prevalence of Singapore infants and toddlers who met the new Singapore Integrated 24-Hour Activity Guidelines for Early Childhood and examined its association with well-being. Methods: A total of 267 parents of children aged between 0 and 2 years completed an online questionnaire that consists of the Singaporean Children Lifestyle Questionnaire and either the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory Infant Scale or the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Well-being of infants was measured through parent responses to PedsQL and that of toddlers was measured through Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Data were benchmarked against age-specific guidelines for physical activity, screen time, and sleep in the Singapore Integrated 24-Hour Activity Guidelines for Early Childhood. Results: A higher percentage of infants (37.3%) than toddlers (20.6%) had met 3 guidelines. In contrast, a lower percentage of infants than toddlers met at least one or did not meet any guidelines (3.8% and 0% for infants vs 22.4% and 1.8% for toddlers, respectively). Infants who met more guidelines had significantly higher parent-reported PedsQL total scale score than infants who met fewer guidelines (P < .05). However, the present study found that the number of guidelines met was not associated to infants’ PedsQL scale score and toddlers’ total difficulty score (P > .05). Conclusion: Adherence to this set of local guidelines should be widely publicized, so parents will have greater awareness and knowledge on cultivating good physical activity, screen time, and sleep habits for their child from a young age.

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Concussion Risk and Recovery in Athletes With Psychostimulant-Treated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Findings From the NCAA-DOD CARE Consortium

Colt A. Coffman, Brett S. Gunn, Paul F. Pasquina, Michael A. McCrea, Thomas W. McAllister, Steven P. Broglio, Robert D. Moore, and Matthew B. Pontifex

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) –related psychostimulant use in the context of concussion risk and symptom recovery. Data were obtained from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Department of Defense Grand Alliance Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (NCAA-DOD CARE) Consortium from 2014 to 2017. Relative to individuals without diagnosed ADHD (i.e., control), both ADHD diagnosis and the combination of ADHD diagnosis and psychostimulant use were associated with a greater risk of incurring a concussive injury. Following a concussive injury, ADHD diagnosis was associated with longer symptom recovery time relative to the control group. However, individuals with ADHD who use psychostimulants did not take longer to resolve symptoms than controls, suggesting that psychostimulants may have a positive influence on recovery. Regardless of time point, ADHD diagnosis was associated with an elevated number of concussion-related symptoms; however, this effect appears mitigated by having used ADHD-related psychostimulants.

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Entrepreneurial Bricolage and Innovation in Sport for Development and Peace Organizations

Fredrik O. Andersson, Per G. Svensson, and Lewis Faulk

Many sport for development and peace organizations operate with limited resources and in low-resource environments. While resource constraints impede some organizations, others demonstrate an adaptive behavior, known as bricolage, to repurpose and flexibly engage existing resources to accomplish their goals. In this study, we ask what distinguishes organizations that engage in bricolage from others. We specifically test whether sport for development and peace nonprofits that engage in bricolage are more likely to engage in social innovation, and we test those findings against organizational size, age, and characteristics of organizations’ operating environments. Using data from an international sample of 161 sport for development and peace nonprofits, we find that organizations employing greater levels of bricolage also demonstrate significantly higher levels of innovation, except for process-focused innovations, which are significantly associated with environmental turbulence. Organizational size itself does not appear to influence the use of bricolage or the relationship between bricolage and innovation.

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The Evolution of Scholarship of Biomechanics and Motor Control Within the Academy: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Kolby J. Brink, Aaron Likens, and Nick Stergiou

This essay delves into the intricate relationship between biomechanics and motor control, exploring their historical evolution and close interdependence. From the foundational works of Aristotle to the contemporary advancements achieved by esteemed members of the National Academy of Kinesiology, we describe the impactful contributions of both past and present National Academy of Kinesiology figures in the realms of motor control and biomechanics. A key theme throughout the essay is the recognition of the fundamental influence of natural laws on movement and the fundamental role of variability in unifying the realms of biomechanics and motor control. Looking ahead, we emphasize the transformative potential of strong inference as a guiding principle for substantive research in both fields, illustrating its application through our investigative endeavors. By uniting biomechanics and motor control through interdisciplinary collaboration, this pursuit of knowledge holds the promise of reshaping our comprehension of human movement and performance.

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The Learning in Action Project: Perspectives of a Sport Club’s Key Actors Who Collaborated on a Coach Development Initiative

Michel Milistetd, Pierre Trudel, Caio Corrêa Cortela, Alexandre Bobato Tozetto, Diane Culver, Claudio Olívio Vilela Lima, and Vanessa Guiherme Souza

Grounded in evidence-based literature, this “practical advances” article presents some of the results of a 24-month coach development project codeveloped by a group of researchers and key actors from a multisport club in Brazil. Documented at three moments during the project, the perspectives of 11 members of the club showed that some learning took place at the individual (Me) and group (We) levels but probably fell short of the objective of significantly changing the culture of the organization. Achieving sustainable change in coach development requires the support not only of coaches but also of leaders who need to progressively make their organization a more “deliberate developmental organization.”

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Position Paper: Rationale for a Focused Attention on Mental Health of High-Performance Sports Coaches

Göran Kenttä, Kristen Dieffenbach, Marte Bentzen, Melissa Thompson, Jean Côté, Cliff Mallett, and Peter Olusoga

High-performance (HP) coaching has been described as “a complex, social, and dynamic activity that is not easily represented as a set of tangible and predictable processes.” Coaches are not only responsible for extensive planning, monitoring, and leadership in a dynamic and complex environment but also have responsibility for supporting athlete development and safeguarding their athletes’ overall health, well-being, and psychological and physiological safety. However, HP coaching is often considered an unsustainable profession, due to the levels of stress and subsequent mental health challenges that are frequently part of the role. Therefore, this position paper will focus on the concerns, challenges, and resources needed to prevent and manage mental ill-being and support the mental well-being of sport coaching professionals in HP sport, and provide recommendations for individuals, systems, and organizations that work with HP sport coaches.

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Specialize Early and Select Late: Performance Trajectories of World-Class Finalists and International- and National-Class Swimmers

Dennis-Peter Born, Glenn Björklund, Jenny Lorentzen, Thomas Stöggl, and Michael Romann

Purpose: To investigate performance progression from early-junior to peak performance age and compare variety in race distances and swimming strokes between swimmers of various performance levels. Methods: Using a longitudinal data analysis and between-groups comparisons 306,165 annual best times of male swimmers (N = 3897) were used to establish a ranking based on annual best times at peak performance age. Individual performance trajectories were retrospectively analyzed to compare distance and stroke variety. Performances of world-class finalists and international- and national-class swimmers (swimming points: 886 [30], 793 [28], and 698 [28], respectively) were compared across 5 age groups—13–14, 15–16, 17–18, 19–20, and 21+ years—using a 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results: World-class finalists are not significantly faster than international-class swimmers up to the 17- to 18-year age group (F 2|774 = 65, P < .001, η p 2 = .14 ) but specialize in short- or long-distance races at a younger age. World-class breaststroke finalists show faster breaststroke times compared to their performance in other swimming strokes from an early age (P < .05), while world-class freestyle and individual medley finalists show less significant differences to their performance in other swimming strokes. Conclusions: While federation officials should aim for late talent selection, that is, not before the 17- to 18-year age group, coaches should aim to identify swimmers’ preferred race distances early on. However, the required stroke variety seems to be specific for each swimming stroke. Breaststroke swimmers could aim for early and strong specialization, while freestyle and individual medley swimmers could maintain large and very large stroke variety, respectively.

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Teaching in a New World: A Novice Teacher Educator’s Pursuit for Change

Alba Iara Cae Rodrigues, Risto Marttinen, and Dominique Banville

Purpose: To understand the process of an international doctoral physical education teacher education instructor instituting change during one semester of teaching a university course in the United States. Method: Data included reflexive journal entries, recordings of peer debriefing meetings with a critical friend, informal WhatsApp messages, and anonymous feedback from students. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Results: The three main themes were (a) action research as a tool for change, (b) the challenges of the first year as a doctoral physical education teacher education instructor, and (c) the power of reflection. We discuss the main challenges the first author faced and the complexities of the process of developing her pedagogical philosophies in teaching higher education for the first time in a new culture. Conclusions: Action research served as a tool to overcome challenges, develop confidence, and autonomy. The support system provided by her advisors was the main asset for achieving pedagogical change.

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University-Based Coach Education: The E-Portfolio as a Formative Assessment Tool of Student-Coaches’ Learning

Yura Yuka Sato dos Santos, Bartira Pereira Palma, Liam McCarthy, Larissa Stevanato Casline, Camila Cardoso, and Larissa Rafaela Galatti

Current research highlights the need for more studies focused on how high-quality assessment strategies can contribute to coach learning in coach education. The use of e-portfolios, as formative assessment tools, has shown to contribute to student-coaches’ learning in university-based programs, but studies on this topic are still scarce. The aim of this action research project is to investigate the potentialities and challenges of the e-portfolio as a formative learning-oriented assessment tool in an undergraduate sport coach course in Brazil. By sharing this, from the perspective of student-coaches and the assistant-professors of the course, we reflect on the evidence with the intention to both inform colleagues doing similar work and contribute to an emerging body of assessment in coach education literature.