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Sida Chen, Zixue Tai, and Jianping Liu

Background: Tai Ji Quan (TJQ) has broad appeal to people of all ages and backgrounds. This study aimed to examine a variety of individual and environmental factors in the dissemination of TJQ to diverse practicing communities in China. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was utilized in the research design. Quantitative data were collected via an online survey using a national sample (N = 737), whereas qualitative data came from focus groups and in-depth interviews. Analysis was performed along the RE-AIM dimensions of reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Results: We divided TJQ experience into 4 distinct categories (nonlearners, current learners, quitters, and retainers) and observed significant patterns of variation along lines of occupation groups and age cohorts. A significant male/female difference was detected in TJQ experience among college students but not the general public, and having practicing family members was an important predictor of personal TJQ history. Varied TJQ experience has a significant impact on perceptions of TJQ’s miscellaneous values as well as level of satisfaction with its health outcomes. Conclusions: Both individual (personal) and environmental (settings) factors are important in shaping personal decisions in TJQ engagement. An ecological approach coordinating individual factors and settings resources is essential in promoting TJQ to the general population.

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Diane Benish, Tucker Readdy, and Johannes Raabe

There is extensive evidence illustrating the influence of coach behavior on athletes’ perceived basic psychological needs. However, much of that research has been conducted with athletes of similar developmental stages (i.e., children, adolescents, or adults). In sports such as figure skating, coach–athlete relationships often span several years and developmental stages; yet, researchers have not comprehensively investigated whether coaches consider athletes’ physical, social, self, cognitive, and emotional development in their interpersonal style. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore (a) what need-supportive and/or need-thwarting behaviors coaches use with athletes in different developmental age groups and (b) whether coaches’ use of need-supportive and need-thwarting behaviors was developmentally appropriate based on theoretical implications and empirical evidence grounded in both developmental and self-determination theory. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 coach–athlete dyads (13 coaches and 13 athletes) across four age groups: middle childhood (6–10 years), early adolescent (11–14 years), mid-adolescent (15–17 years), and early adulthood (18–25 years). Deductive reflexive thematic analysis of the 26 interviews revealed four themes highlighting (a) competence-supportive, (b) autonomy-supportive, (c) relatedness-supportive, and (d) need-thwarting behaviors. There were both consistencies and variations in coaches’ use of those behaviors across the four age groups.

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Brittany F. Drazich, Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Nayeon Kim, Rachel McPherson, Jeanette Ellis, Jasmine Phun, and Ashley Kuzmik

Older adults continue to spend little time engaged in physical activity when hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe activity among hospitalized older adults with dementia and (b) identify the association between specific factors (gender, ambulation independence, comorbidities, race, and hospital setting) and their physical activity. This descriptive study utilized baseline data on the first 79 participants from the Function Focused Care for Acute Care using the Evidence Integration Triangle. Multiple linear regression models were run using accelerometry data from the first full day of hospitalization. The participants spent an average of 83.7% of their time being sedentary. Male gender, ambulation independence, and hospital setting (the hospital in which the patient was admitted) were associated with greater activity. This study reports on the limited time spent in activity for older adults with dementia when hospitalized and highlights patient profiles that are particularly vulnerable to sedentary behavior in the hospital setting.

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Masayuki Yoshida, Mikihiro Sato, and Jason Doyle

Subjective vitality is an important, yet understudied, indicator of eudaimonic well-being. People experience subjective vitality when they engage in need-satisfying activities. We investigate two sport consumption activities (stadium attendance and sport television viewing), team identification, and subjective vitality to understand how sport consumption mediates the impact of team identification on subjective vitality. Throughout a season, data were collected from local residents (n = 618) living within the franchise area of a Japanese professional baseball team. Structural equation modeling and bootstrapping mediation analysis showed that team identification exerted both a direct and an indirect effect via attendance frequency on subjective vitality. The proposed model and the findings offer new theoretical insights into the roles of subjective vitality, team identification, and stadium attendance in spectator sport. Consequently, sport teams can leverage these insights to intensify consumer experiences when people attend games, positively contributing to their well-being.

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Sara W. Szabo, Emily C. Owen, Michael D. Kennedy, and Camilla J. Knight

The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to identify who engaged with the Keeping Girls in Sport e-learning program and, second, to evaluate coach and activity leaders’ perceptions of the program and their perceived learnings gained from completing the program. An explanatory sequential mixed-method design was adopted. First, an online survey was distributed to all individuals who had participated in the program. In total, 511 (33% response rate) completed the survey. Quantitative survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Subsequently, interviews were conducted with 20 survey respondents. A realist logic of analysis was applied to the qualitative data, and context–mechanism–outcome configurations were formed. Overall, survey findings indicated that most participants identified as women (56%), coaches (69%), and were between 40 and 49 years of age (37%). In general, participants had positive perceptions of the program. Participants perceived that the accessibility and flexibility of the program increased opportunities to engage with content and, thus, their learning. They described improvements in knowledge and perspective regarding working with female athletes. This increase in knowledge provided participants with confidence to establish trusting and positive relationships with others, specifically parents. Nevertheless, participants highlighted a need for more tailored but also more expansive programs.

Open access

Saud Abdulaziz Alomairah, Signe de Place Knudsen, Caroline Borup Roland, Ida-Marie Hergel, Stig Molsted, Tine D. Clausen, Ellen Løkkegaard, Jane M. Bendix, Ralph Maddison, Marie Löf, Jakob Eg Larsen, Gerrit van Hall, and Bente Stallknecht

Background: Activity trackers and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) measures physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED). However, none of these tools have been validated against a criterion method in pregnancy. We aimed to compare a consumer activity tracker and the Danish version of PPAQ (PPAQ-DK) and to validate them using the doubly labeled water technique (DLW) as criterion method. Methods: A total of 220 healthy pregnant women participated. Total energy expenditure (TEE), PA energy expenditure (PAEE), and PA level were determined at gestational Weeks 28–29 using DLW and a Garmin Vivosport (Garmin, Olathe, KS) activity tracker. In addition, PAEE, moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA, and SED were determined using the activity tracker and PPAQ-DK during all three trimesters. Results: TEE from the activity tracker and DLW correlated (r = .63; p < .001), but the activity tracker overestimated TEE (503 kcal/day). Also, the activity tracker overestimated PAEE (303 kcal/day) and PA level compared with DLW. Likewise, PPAQ-DK overestimated PAEE (1,513 kcal/day) compared with DLW. Compared to PPAQ-DK, the activity tracker reported lower values of PAEE and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA and higher values of SED during all three trimesters. Conclusions: When compared to DLW, we found better agreement of PAEE estimates from the activity tracker than from PPAQ-DK. TEE from the tracker and DLW correlated moderately well, but this was not the case for PAEE or PA level. The activity tracker measured lower PA and higher SED than PPAQ-DK throughout pregnancy. The consumer activity tracker performed better than the questionnaire, but both significantly overestimated PA compared to DLW.

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Monica Muti, Lisa J. Ware, Lisa K. Micklesfield, Michele Ramsay, Godfred Agongo, Palwende R. Boua, Isaac Kisiangani, Ian Cook, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Nigel J. Crowther, Chodziwadziwa Kabudula, Shane A. Norris, and Tinashe Chikowore

Background: This study aimed to explore association of self-reported physical activity domains of work, leisure, and transport-related physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in 9388 adult men and women from the Africa-Wits-INDEPTH partnership for Genomic (AWI-Gen) study in Africa. Africa-Wits-INDEPTH partnership for Genomic is a large, population-based cross-sectional cohort with participants from 6 sites from rural and urban areas in 4 sub-Saharan African countries. Methods: A sex-stratified meta-analysis of cross-sectional data from men and women aged 29–82 years was used to assess the association of physical activity with BMI. Results: Overall, meeting physical activity guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week was associated with 0.82 kg/m2 lower BMI in men (β = −0.80 kg/m2; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.14 to −0.47) and 0.68 kg/m2 lower BMI in women (β = −0.68 kg/m2; 95% CI, −1.03 to −0.33). Sex and site-specific differences were observed in the associations between physical activity domains and BMI. Among those who met physical activity guidelines, there was an inverse association between transport-related physical activity and BMI in men from Nanoro (Burkina Faso) (β = −0.79 kg/m2; 95% CI, −1.25 to −0.33) as well as work-related physical activity and BMI in Navrongo men (Ghana) (β = −0.76 kg/m2; 95% CI, −1.25 to −0.27) and Nanoro women (β = −0.90 kg/m2; 95% CI, −1.44 to −0.36). Conclusions: Physical activity may be an effective strategy to curb rising obesity in Africa. More studies are needed to assess the impact of sex and geographic location-specific physical activity interventions on obesity.

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Takuro Ohtsubo, Masafumi Nozoe, Masashi Kanai, and Katsuhiro Ueno

This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) as measured using accelerometers, and functional improvement measured using a short physical performance battery in older patients undergoing rehabilitation. After admission to the rehabilitation hospital, patients were categorized into quartile groups based on their level of PA measured using accelerometers. The primary outcome was physical function measured using the short physical performance battery at hospital discharge. A total of 204 patients were included in the analysis. After adjusting for confounding factors, light-intensity PA (p < .001) and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (p < .001) were associated with a short physical performance battery at hospital discharge. In conclusion, PA at admission is positively associated with functional improvement in older patients undergoing hospital rehabilitation.

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Heidi Stanish, Samantha M. Ross, Byron Lai, Justin A. Haegele, Joonkoo Yun, and Sean Healy

The U.S. Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth has tracked 10 physical activity (PA) indicators common to the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix since 2014. This article expands on the U.S. report cards by presenting PA indicator assessments among children and adolescents with disabilities. Grades for indicators were assigned based on a search of peer-reviewed articles presenting nationally representative data. The Global Matrix 3.0 benchmarks and grading framework guided the process. Grades for overall PA, sedentary behaviors, organized sports, and school were F, D+, D+, and D, respectively. Insufficient evidence existed to assign grades to the remaining six indicators. There is a need in the United States for targeted PA promotion strategies that are specific to children and adolescents with disabilities. Without a commitment to this effort across sectors and settings, the low grades identified in this para report card are expected to remain.

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Garrick N. Forman and Michael W.R. Holmes

With the rapid growth of both the gaming and esports industries, millions of individuals are now playing games as a hobby or career. The intense and repetitive nature of gaming can likely increase an individual’s susceptibility to musculoskeletal injuries and pain. The purpose of this study was to assess demographic information and gaming habits of gamers and determine any association with upper-body, gaming-related pain. An online survey was used to obtain demographic information and gaming habits of individuals, as well as the location and description of upper-body pain experienced when gaming. Of the 522 respondents, 77.8% (n = 406) reported experiencing gaming-related pain in the upper body. The most prevalent areas of pain were the neck (43.9%), lower back (41.4%), and the distal upper limb (37.9%). Few strong correlations were found between any demographics or gaming habits and the presence or intensity of pain in the upper body. The results of this study demonstrate that gaming-related pain is a problem; however, due to its complex nature, it is likely that a multifaceted interaction of both gaming habits and unaccounted lifestyle factors contributes to individualized pain development.