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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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INTERNATIONAL SPORT COACHING JOURNAL

DIGEST, VOLUME 11 ISSUE 1

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Volume 11 (2024): Issue 2 (May 2024)

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 3 (May 2024)

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Volume 36 (2024): Issue 2 (May 2024)

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Contaminants in Dietary Supplements: Toxicity, Doping Risk, and Current Regulation

Jesús Zapata-Linares and Guillermo Gervasini

Athletes, both amateur and professional, often resort to the consumption of nutritional supplements without professional supervision and without being aware of the risks they may entail. We conducted an exhaustive literature search to determine the most common substances found as contaminants in dietary supplements. For each substance, we analyzed its mechanism of action, clinical indication, health risk, and putative use as doping agent. In addition, we evaluated the current regulation of these supplements. Contamination of nutritional supplements (accidental or intentional), especially with steroids and stimulants, is a hazardous situation. The prolonged consumption of these products without being aware of their composition can cause serious health risks and, in the case of professional athletes, a possible sanction for doping.

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Effect of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Hormonal Contraceptives on Resting Metabolic Rate and Body Composition

Megan A. Kuikman, Alannah K.A. McKay, Clare Minahan, Rachel Harris, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Trent Stellingwerff, Ella S. Smith, Rachel McCormick, Nicolin Tee, Jessica Skinner, Kathryn E. Ackerman, and Louise M. Burke

The cyclical changes in sex hormones across the menstrual cycle (MC) are associated with various biological changes that may alter resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition estimates. Hormonal contraceptive (HC) use must also be considered given their impact on endogenous sex hormone concentrations and synchronous exogenous profiles. The purpose of this study was to determine if RMR and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition estimates change across the MC and differ compared with HC users. This was accomplished during a 5-week training camp involving naturally cycling athletes (n = 11) and HC users (n = 7 subdermal progestin implant, n = 4 combined monophasic oral contraceptive pill, n = 1 injection) from the National Rugby League Indigenous Women’s Academy. MC phase was retrospectively confirmed via serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations and a positive ovulation test. HC users had serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations assessed at the time point of testing. Results were analyzed using general linear mixed model. There was no effect of MC phase on absolute RMR (p = .877), relative RMR (p = .957), or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition estimates (p > .05). There was no effect of HC use on absolute RMR (p = .069), relative RMR (p = .679), or fat mass estimates (p = .766), but HC users had a greater fat-free mass and lean body mass than naturally cycling athletes (p = .028). Our findings suggest that RMR and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition estimates do not significantly differ due to changes in sex hormones in a group of athletes, and measurements can be compared between MC phases or with HC usage without variations in sex hormones causing additional noise.

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Effect of Neurofeedback Training Along With Swimming Exercise on the Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Severity of Dependence, and Craving in Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients

Atefeh Fadaei, Mahmoud Najafi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji, Mohammad Ali Tajik-Mansoury, and Mohammad Afkar

This study investigated whether neurofeedback (NFB) training and swimming exercise (Swim) would reduce the stress, anxiety, depression, severity of dependence, and cravings in patients addicted to methamphetamines. Participants were allocated randomly to four groups: control group, NFB, Swim, and NFB/Swim. All groups completed the study questionnaire before and after treatment. The NFB, Swim, and NFB/Swim groups reported significantly less stress, cravings, and severity of dependence than the control group. The Swim and NFB/Swim groups had significantly lower depression scores than the control group. Also, the NFB/Swim group experienced less anxiety than the control group. However, the NFB/Swim group had lower levels of stress than the Swim group, and lower levels of anxiety and severity of dependence than the NFB group. These findings suggest that NFB training along with swimming exercise was effective in managing methamphetamine-related behavioral disturbances, which may help patients to manage their cravings.

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Effectiveness of a Preschool Motor Skill Intervention on Body Mass Index and Movement Behavior: 6-, 18-, and 30-Month Findings From a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Line Grønholt Olesen, Anders Grøntved, Jan Christian Brønd, Lise Hestbæk, and Peter Lund Kristensen

Purpose: To study the effectiveness of a preschool staff-delivered motor skills intervention on body composition and physical activity over a 2.5-year time frame. Methods: In this pragmatic parallel cluster randomized controlled trial (16 preschools), outcome data were collected after 6 (body composition only), 18, and 30 months of intervention. The main physical activity outcomes were accelerometer behavior measures summarizing the total percentage of child daily movement (walk, run, cycle, and standing that included minor movements) and preschool movement during preschool attendance. To estimate between-group mean differences in outcomes, mixed-linear regression analyses including baseline value of the selected outcome and a treatment × time interaction term as a fixed effect were applied. In addition, the baseline preschool and child were included as a random effect. Results: For body mass index, a total of 437 children (90%) had at least one valid baseline and one follow-up assessment. The corresponding numbers for preschool movement and daily movement were 163 (55%) and 146 (49%), respectively. No significant between-group mean difference was identified for body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, or any physical activity outcomes. Conclusion: Overall, this preschool motor skills intervention had no effect on either child anthropometry or physical activity, consistent with previous studies.

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The Relationship Between Childhood Trauma, Exercise Addiction, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Basic Psychological Needs in Türkiye

Sema Gultekin Arayici and Serap Tekinsav Sutcu

Exercise addiction manifests as a behavioral compulsion where physical activity becomes excessively pursued, leading to potential harm to both physical and mental well-being, as well as interpersonal connections. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of basic psychological needs and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between childhood trauma and exercise addiction. The study sample consisted of 386 regular exercisers who completed several questionnaires, including the Childhood Trauma Scale, Exercise Dependence Scale, Basic Need Satisfaction Scale, and Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale. The results of the analyses revealed that basic psychological needs and emotion regulation difficulties were significant predictors of exercise addiction symptoms, and they mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and exercise addiction. The findings contribute to the understanding of the factors that may lead to exercise addiction and have implications for prevention and treatment. In this context, the results and limitations are discussed in light of the relevant literature.