Sixteen men completed four trials at random as follows: (Trial A) performance of a single bout of resistance exercise preceded by placebo ingestion (vitamin C); (Trial B) ingestion of 1,500 mg L-arginine and 1,500 mg L-lysine, immediately followed by exercise as in Trial A; (Trial C) ingestion of amino acids as in Trial B and no exercise; (Trial D) placebo ingestion and no exercise. Growth hormone (GH) concentrations were higher at 30,60, and 90 min during the exercise trials (A and B) compared with the resting trials (C and D) (p < .05). No differences were noted in [GH] between the exercise trials. [GH] was significantly elevated during resting conditions 60 min after amino acid ingestion compared with the placebo trial. It was concluded that ingestion of 1,500 mg arginine and 1,500 mg ly sine immediately before resistance exercise does not alter exercise-induced changes in [GH] in young men. However, when the same amino acid mixture is ingested under basal conditions, the acute secretion of GH is increased.
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Richard R. Suminski, Robert J. Robertson, Fredric L. Goss, Silva Arslanian, Jie Kang, Sergio DaSilva, Alan C. Utter and Kenneth F. Metz
Ben D. Kern, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods and Tom Templin
Physical education teachers have been criticized for not implementing progressive or innovative instruction resulting in enhanced student knowledge and skills for lifetime participation in physical activity. Purpose: To investigate how teachers with varying dispositions toward change perceive socializing agents and teaching context as barriers to or facilitators of making pedagogical change. Methods: Thirty-two teachers completed a survey of personal dispositions toward change and participated in in-depth interviews. Results: Teachers perceived that students’ response to instructional methods and student contact time (days/week), as well as interactions with teaching colleagues and administrators influenced their ability to make pedagogical changes. Teachers with limited student contact time reported scheduling as a barrier to change, whereas daily student contact was a facilitator. Change-disposed teachers were more likely to promote student learning and assume leadership roles. Conclusion: Reform efforts should include consideration of teacher dispositions and student contact time.
Siobhán O’Connor, Róisín Leahy, Enda Whyte, Paul O’Donovan and Lauren Fortington
Camogie is one of Ireland’s most popular sports, and the full contact nature presents a high potential for injury. This study aims to present the first overview of elite and nonelite camogie injuries by examining adult players’ self-reported worst injuries from one season. At least one injury was sustained by 88.2% of camogie players during the previous season and 60.0% sustained 2+ injuries. Knee and ankle ligaments, hamstring strains and hand/fingers/thumb fractures were key injuries identified, which can lead to substantive health and economic impacts. Further research to establish the mechanism of these injuries is required in order to start shaping potential measures for their prevention.
Lubna Abdul Razak, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Jannah Jones, Sze Lin Yoong, Alice Grady, Meghan Finch, Kirsty Seward, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet, Rimante Ronto, Ben Elton and Luke Wolfenden
Background: Identifying factors influencing the implementation of evidence-based environmental recommendations to promote physical activity in childcare services is required to develop effective implementation strategies. This systematic review aimed to: (1) identify barriers and facilitators reported by center-based childcare services impacting the implementation of environmental recommendations to increase physical activity among children, (2) synthesize these factors according to the 14 domains of the “Theoretical Domains Framework,” and (3) report any associations between service or provider characteristics and the reported implementation of such recommendations. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in 6 scientific databases (eg, MEDLINE) and Google Scholar to identify studies reporting data from childcare staff or other stakeholders responsible for childcare operations. Included studies were based on childcare settings and published in English. From 2164 identified citations, 19 articles met the inclusion criteria (11 qualitative, 4 quantitative, and 4 mixed methods). Results: Across all articles, the majority of factors impacting implementation fell into the “environmental context and resources” domain (eg, time, equipment, and space; n = 19) and the “social influences” domain (eg, support from parents, colleagues, supervisors; n = 11). Conclusion: The current review provides guidance to improve the implementation of environmental recommendations in childcare services by addressing environmental, resource, and social barriers.
Blake D. McLean, Kevin White, Christopher J. Gore and Justin Kemp
Purpose: There is debate as to which environmental intervention produces the most benefit for team sport athletes, particularly comparing heat and altitude. This quasi-experimental study aimed to compare blood volume (BV) responses with heat and altitude training camps in Australian footballers. Methods: The BV of 7 professional Australian footballers (91.8 [10.5] kg, 191.8 [10.1] cm) was measured throughout 3 consecutive spring/summer preseasons. During each preseason, players participated in altitude (year 1 and year 2) and heat (year 3) environmental training camps. Year 1 and year 2 altitude camps were in November/December in the United States, whereas the year 3 heat camp was in February/March in Australia after a full exposure to summer heat. BV, red cell volume, and plasma volume (PV) were measured at least 3 times during each preseason. Results: Red cell volume increased substantially following altitude in both year 1 (d = 0.67) and year 2 (d = 1.03), before returning to baseline 4 weeks postaltitude. Immediately following altitude, concurrent decreases in PV were observed during year 1 (d = −0.40) and year 2 (d = −0.98). With spring/summer training in year 3, BV and PV were substantially higher in January than temporally matched postaltitude measurements during year 1 (BV: d = −0.93, PV: d = −1.07) and year 2 (BV: d = −1.99, PV: d = −2.25), with year 3 total BV, red cell volume, and PV not changing further despite the 6-day heat intervention. Conclusions: We found greater BV after training throughout spring/summer conditions, compared with interrupting spring/summer exposure to train at altitude in the cold, with no additional benefits observed from a heat camp following spring/summer training.
Marissa L. Mason, Marissa N. Clemons, Kaylyn B. LaBarre, Nicole R. Szymczak and Nicole J. Chimera
Clinical Scenario: Lower-extremity injuries in the United States costs millions of dollars each year. Athletes should be screened for neuromuscular deficits and trained to correct them. The tuck jump assessment (TJA) is a plyometric tool that can be used with athletes. Clinical Question: Does the TJA demonstrate both interrater and intrarater reliability in healthy individuals? Summary of Key Findings: Four of the 5 articles included in this critically appraised topic showed good to excellent reliability; however, caution should be taken in interpreting these results. Although composite scores of the TJA were found to be reliable, individual flaws do not demonstrate reliability on their own, with the exception of knee valgus at landing. Aspects of the TJA itself, including rater training, scoring system, playback speed, volume, and number of views allotted, need to be standardized before the reliability of this clinical assessment can be further researched. Clinical Bottom Line: The TJA has shown varying levels of reliability, from poor to excellent, for both interrater and intrarater reliability, given current research. Strength of Recommendation: According to the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence, there is level 2b evidence for research into the reliability of the TJA. This evidence has been demonstrated in elite, adolescent, and college-level athletics in the United Kingdom, Spain, and the United States. The recommendation of level 2b was chosen because these studies utilized cohort design for interrater and intrarater reliability across populations. An overall grade of B was recommended because there were consistent level 2 studies.
Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Sabri Gueid, Sami Hmaied, Marouen Souaifi and Riadh Khalifa
Purpose: To explore the effect of 4 different warm-up strategies using weighted vests and to determine the specific optimal recovery duration required to optimize the repeated change-of-direction (RCOD) performance in young soccer players. Methods: A total of 19 male soccer players (age 18 [0.88] y, body mass 69.85 [7.68] kg, body height 1.75 [0.07] m, body mass index 22.87 [2.23] kg·m−2, and body fat percentage 12.53% [2.59%]) completed the following loaded warm-up protocols in a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over, within-participants order and on separate days: weighted vest with a loading of 5% (WUV5%), 10% (WUV10%), 15% (WUV15%) body mass, and an unloaded condition (control). RCOD performance (total time, peak time, and fatigue index) was collected during the preintervention phase (5 min after the dynamic stretching sequence) for baseline values and immediately (at 15 min), at 4- and 8-minute postwarm-up intervention. Results: For each postwarm-up tested, recovery times (ie, 15 s, 4 min, and 8 min), of both total and peak times were faster following WUV5%, WUV10%, and WUV15%, compared with the unloaded condition (P ≤.001–.031, d = 1.28–2.31 [large]). There were no significant differences (P = .09–1.00, d = 0.03–0.72 [trivial–moderate]) in-between recovery times in both total and peak times following WUV5%, WUV10%, and WUV15%. However, baseline fatigue index score was significantly worse than all other scores (P ≤.001–.002, d = 1.35–2.46 [large]) following the loaded conditions. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that a dynamic loaded warm-up increases an athlete’s initial RCOD performance up to the 8-minute postwarm-up intervention. Therefore, strength coaches need to consider using weighted vests during the warm-up for trained athletes in order to acutely optimize RCODs.
Nicolas Hobson, Sherry L. Dupuis, Lora M. Giangregorio and Laura E. Middleton
Persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are often physically inactive, despite associated benefits. This study explored the barriers, facilitators, and preferences for exercise among persons living with MCI/early dementia. The authors conducted 2 focus groups among persons living with MCI/early dementia (n = 4, 6 participants) and 2 focus groups among care partners (n = 3, 4 participants). The transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, guided by the social-ecological model. Three themes emerged, reinforcing motivation to exercise, managing changes to cognitive and physical health, and variable perceptions of dementia, each with influences from individual, care partner, and community levels. Low intrinsic motivation, poor physical/cognitive health, and stigma restricted the exercise among persons living with MCI/early dementia. The care partners motivated their partners and provided company and transportation to exercise. People with MCI/early dementia also indicated poor access to exercise providers and exercise opportunities that met their needs and preferences was a barrier to exercise participation. Knowledge translation research should develop exercise interventions at the individual, social, and community levels.
Serkan Usgu, Günseli Usgu, Fatma Uygur and Yavuz Yakut
The clinical assessment of sport-related lower extremity injuries plays important role in diagnosis and therapeutic strategies as well as return to activity. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid and reliable self-reported outcome instrument used to detect foot and ankle disorders. The purpose of this study is to translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the FAAM questionnaire for use in Turkish-speaking athletes who have foot and ankle disorders. Fifty-one basketball, soccer and volleyball athletes volunteered to participate. Test–retest reliability analyses revealed good and excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.83–0.92). Concurrent validity was tested between the FAAM-T subscores and both the visual analog scale for pain/activity limitations and functional performance tests, yielding moderate to high correlations (r = −0.522 to −0.869, p < .05). The results of this study showed that the FAAM-T is a reliable and valid questionnaire for self-reported assessment of pain and disability in athletes suffering from foot and ankle disorders.