Purpose: This study determines the effect of movement games on executive function among overweight children. Methods: Forty-four overweight children received an intervention of movement games, and 40 overweight children participated in original physical education lessons. An intervention of movement games was conducted three times a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Neuropsychological tasks and the Stroop and determination tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Results: The results indicated that movement games enhanced the children’s performance in the inhibitory control and attentional function, particularly in the interference tendency condition, whereas no performance improvement was noted in the original physical education lessons. Conclusion: The findings indicate that movement games can be utilized as a useful intervention for improving the attentional and inhibitory problems of overweight children. School authorities should consider incorporating these activities into programs related to physical and health education.
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Chien-Chih Chou, Kuan-Chou Chen, Mei-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu and Chung-Ju Huang
Aiko Sakurai, Kengo Harato, Yutaro Morishige, Shu Kobayashi, Yasuo Niki and Takeo Nagura
Context: Toe direction is an important factor affecting knee biomechanics during various movements. However, it is still unknown whether toe direction will affect trunk and pelvic movements. Objective: To examine and clarify the effects of toe directions on biomechanics of trunk and pelvis as well as lower-extremities during single-leg drop landing (SLDL). Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: A total of 27 male recreational-level athletes. Intervention(s): Subjects performed SLDL under 3 different toe directions, including 0° (toe neutral), 20° (toe-in [TI]), and −20° (toe-out). SLDL was captured using a motion analysis system. Nondominant leg (27 left) was chosen for the analysis. Main Outcome Measures: Peak values of kinematic and kinetic parameters during landing phase were assessed. In addition, those parameters at the timing of peak vertical ground reaction force were also assessed. The data were statistically compared among 3 different toe directions using 1-way repeated measures of analysis of variance or Friedman χ2 r test. Results: Peak knee abduction angle and moment in TI were significantly larger than in toe neutral and toe-out (P < .001). Moreover, peak greater anterior inclination, greater inclination, and rotation of trunk and pelvis toward the nonlanding side were seen in TI (P < .001). At the timing of peak vertical ground reaction force, trunk inclined to the landing side with larger knee abduction angle in TI (P < .001). Conclusions: Several previous studies suggested that larger knee abduction angle and moment on landing side as well as trunk and pelvic inclinations during landing tasks were correlated with knee ligament injury. However, it is still unknown concerning the relationship between toe direction and trunk/pelvis movements during landing tasks. From the present study, TI during SLDL would strongly affect biomechanics of trunk and pelvis as well as knee joint, compared with toe neutral and toe-out.
Murat Tomruk, Melda Soysal Tomruk, Emrullah Alkan and Nihal Gelecek
Context: Ankle proprioception is one of the crucial components contributing to postural control. Although the effects of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement (MWM) on postural control, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM), and muscle strength in people with ankle disorders have previously been investigated, it is still unclear whether ankle MWM had ability to change postural control, DFROM, and muscle strength. Objectives: To reveal pure effects of MWM on postural control, ankle DFROM, and muscle strength in healthy individuals. Design: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled study. Setting: Musculoskeletal laboratory, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey. Participants: Forty students in good health recruited from a local university. Interventions: Mulligan’s MWM or sham application over ankle joint. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was postural control and measured using limits of stability (LOS) test. The secondary outcomes were tibialis anterior muscle strength and ankle DFROM, which were measured using handheld dynamometer and weight-bearing lunge test, respectively. All outcomes were assessed before and immediately after intervention. Results: Left and right ankle DFROM and LOS overall score showed a statistically significant improvement compared with first measurement in both groups (P < .05). However, LOS time was significantly improved only in the MWM group (P < .05). Statistical analyses of between-group mean differences showed that Mulligan’s MWM provided significant improvement in the LOS in forward–right direction compared with sham application (P = .03). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the application of Mulligan’s MWM on ankle joint might be beneficial to improve postural control in forward right direction in individuals with healthy ankles. On the other hand, both MWM and sham application were able to increase overall postural control and DFROM, and MWM had no superiority over sham application for increasing these 2 variables.
Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Purpose: To describe the influence of negotiations on instruction when preservice teachers taught elementary students using a skill theme approach. Methods: Participants were nine preservice teachers from one physical education teacher education program enrolled in a 9-week early field experience. They taught kindergarten, first-, and second-grade students (N = 203). Constructs from the ecology paradigm and previous research on negotiations guided data collection and analysis. Data were collected through nonparticipant observation, informal interviews, critical incident reflections, document analysis, and formal interviews. Deductive and inductive qualitative techniques were employed to code and categorize the data. Findings: A unique and mainly positive pattern of negotiations was revealed as were some new forms of negotiation. Students were also shown to initiate negative negotiations to change content they perceived as gender inappropriate. Conclusion: These findings could be used as the basis for educating preservice teachers to negotiate more effectively when teaching by skill themes.
Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison
Sport organizations, the media, and the public frequently interact. Messages conveyed by organizations and the media likely impact both groups’ communication strategies to reach target audiences and control messaging. This triad of communication—team–media–public—is often examined in segments (e.g., media framing or public reaction to media), even though the three interact. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in message themes and responses from all perspectives on a common topic. Following a major announcement from a professional sport organization, the researchers conducted a content analysis of communication from three perspectives: the team, local press, and citizens. The results showed that each of the three sources provided distinct, original content that became increasingly linked to that of the other sources over time. Sport practitioners could use the findings to better understand the influence of outside sources of communication and utilize social media in their public relations efforts.
Wesley J. Wilson, Luke E. Kelly and Justin A. Haegele
Purpose: To examine how physical educators and adapted physical educators make decisions regarding the implementation of the least restrictive environment law and what factors influence those practices. Methods: This study utilized a descriptive survey design through an online platform. Participants included 78 teachers (30 physical educators and 48 adapted physical educators). Descriptive statistics and group comparisons through a multivariate analysis of variance were conducted. Results: A significant difference in the implementation of the law between physical educators and adapted physical educators was detected, F(44, 33) = 2.60, p = .003; Wilk’s Λ = .224,
In this autoethnography, I utilized the concepts of otherfathering, social capital, and testimonio (i.e., testimonial) to explicate the need for and value of Black male mentors in physical education teacher education (PETE). To do so, I describe how three of my mentors operated as otherfathers by imbuing me with the social capital needed to be successful in academia. I conclude by arguing for specific intersectional efforts to support Black men and Black women in PETE, along with the establishment of organizational efforts, to meet the needs of Black professionals in PETE.
Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and K. Andrew R. Richards
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of teacher–student negotiation that occurred when preservice teachers (PTs) taught within the teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model. Method: The participants were seven PTs enrolled in an elementary early field experience. They taught three to four mini-units of TPSR. Seven qualitative techniques were employed to collect data, and standard interpretive techniques were used to analyze them. Results: Three general patterns of negotiation were identified. In the units taught by two of the PTs, the negotiations became more positive. For three of the PTs, the rates of negotiation were constant. In the units taught by the remaining two PTs, the negotiations became more negative. Key factors influencing the patterns of negotiation were PTs’ comprehension of and comfort with the TPSR model; class size; and students’ age, gender, and skill level. Conclusion: These findings may help faculty develop more nuanced and effective training for PTs learning to teach through TPSR.
Cody R. Butler, Kirsten Allen, Lindsay J. DiStefano and Lindsey K. Lepley
Clinical Scenario: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a devastating knee injury with negative long-term consequences, such as early-onset knee osteoarthritis, biomechanical compensations, and reduced physical activity. Significant reduction in physical activity is a powerful indicator of cardiovascular (CV) disease; therefore, those with a history of ACL injury may be at increased risk for CV disease compared with noninjured individuals. Focused Clinical Question: Do individuals with a history of ACL injury demonstrate negative CV changes compared with those without a history of ACL injury? Summary of Key Findings: Three articles met the inclusion criteria and investigated CV changes after ACL injury. Both cross-sectional studies compared participants with ACL injury with matched controls. Bell et al compared time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and step count, whereas Almeida et al compared maximum rate of oxygen consumption, ventilatory thresholds, isokinetic quadriceps strength, and body composition. Collectively, both quantitative studies found that individuals with a history of ACL injury had less efficient CV systems compared with matched controls and/or preoperative data. Finally, a qualitative study of 3506 retired National Football League athletes showed an increased rate of arthritis and knee replacement surgery after an ACL injury when compared with other retired National Football League members, in addition to a >50% increased rate of myocardial infarction. Clinical Bottom Line: A history of ACL injury is a source of impaired physical activity. Preliminary data indicate that these physical activity limitations negatively impair the CV system, and individuals with a history of ACL injury demonstrate lower maximum oxygen consumption, self-reported disability, and daily step count compared with noninjured peers. These complications support the need for greater emphasis on CV wellness. Strength of Recommendation: Consistent findings from 2 cross-sectional studies and 1 survey study suggest level IIB evidence to support that ACL injury is associated with negative CV health.
Eric W. MacIntosh and Popi Sotiriadou
Through the lens of the theory of reasoned action and the framework of attraction, retention, transition, and nurturing of athletes, this study examined how athletes’ experiences at the Commonwealth Youth Games contributed to satisfaction with the event, while encouraging transition into higher levels of competition. A total of 244 athletes from 23 different countries who completed a survey helped identify the environment-related aspects that created positive and negative experiences. The participants noted that learning from various social and cultural experiences influenced their event satisfaction and their future intention to remain in high-performance sport. Aspects of the event service environment, including poor accommodation and nutrition, were found to negatively impact performance. This paper contributes to the role of pre-elite events as athletic development agents that aid in talent transition. The results have implications for event organizers and high-performance managers regarding the influence of athletes’ experiences on performances and intention to transition.