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Kyle L. Timmerman, Kevin D. Ballard, Michael A. Deal, Lisa C. Tagariello, Jenna M. Karrow, Gabrielle A. Volk, Adam Meisler, Ian D. Connors and Rachael E. Mott

Background: Endogenous antioxidants are critical to limiting cellular oxidative damage. Methods: The authors determined if habitual physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with skeletal muscle expression of endogenous antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and circulating oxidative stress markers (serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]; oxidized low-density lipoprotein [LDL]) in older adults. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was estimated using a validated PA questionnaire in 26 older adults (mean [SD]; M/F = 9/17, age = 68 [4] y, body mass index = 26 [3] kg·m−2). Maximal oxygen consumption was estimated using the YMCA submaximal cycle test. Skeletal muscle endogenous antioxidants and serum 8-OHdG and oxidized LDL were measured. Bivariate and partial correlations (controlling for body mass index) were utilized to determine associations among variables. Results: MVPA (1640 [1176] kcal·wk−1) was correlated with superoxide dismutase 2 (r = .55), catalase (r = .55), glutathione peroxidase 1 (r = .48), and 8-OHdG (r = −.41) (all Ps < .05), but not oxidized LDL. MVPA and 8-OHdG were not significantly correlated when controlling for body mass index (r = −.29). Estimated maximal oxygen consumption was correlated with glutathione peroxidase 1 (r = .48; P < .05). Conclusions: These data show that skeletal muscle endogenous antioxidant expression and circulating oxidative damage are associated with habitual MVPA in older adults. Thus, MVPA in older adults may be protective against reactive oxygen species damage due to higher expression of endogenous antioxidants.

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Luca Petrigna, Ambra Gentile, Diba Mani, Simona Pajaujiene, Tobia Zanotto, Ewan Thomas, Antonio Paoli, Antonio Palma and Antonino Bianco

Dual-task (DT) consists of the performance of two tasks simultaneously. An index of DT difficulty has been linked to decreased postural control. Because a wide range of DT is employed, this study aimed to evaluate its effects in static balance in older adults. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were screened, and the secondary tasks were grouped as manual, reaction time, discrimination and decision making, mental tracking, verbal fluency, working memory, or “other” tasks. A total of 66 studies have been included. The meta-analysis was conducted on 28 effects and showed a significant mean effect size of d = 0.24 (p = .02, SE = 0.10; confidence interval [0.04, 0.44]), indicating a worsening in stability during DT. In conclusion, postural control was worsened by the Stroop test and the arithmetic tasks improved it. The results do not underpin any conclusive statement on the impact of DT, and a standard operating procedure was created.

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Luca Puce, Ilaria Pallecchi, Lucio Marinelli, Maria May, Laura Mori, Piero Ruggeri and Marco Bove

Context: Kinesio Taping (KT) produces several clinical effects, including pain relief, edema absorption, and improved muscle performance. When applied in the insertion to origin mode, it is claimed to inhibit excessive muscle contractions. Objective: Investigate whether KT applied in the insertion to origin mode could reduce the exaggerated reflex contraction of spastic muscles. Design: Randomized crossover trial, with a restricted block randomization. Setting: Clinical laboratory and swimming pool. Patients: Seven para-swimmers. Intervention: KT, applied in inhibitory mode, to investigate its effect on knee extensor spasticity. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome is stretch reflex, as compared with clinical assessment of spasticity by Modified Ashworth Scale and self-perceived spasticity by numeric rating scale. Secondary outcomes were Medical Research Council for strength of knee extensor muscles and chronometric swimming performance in 100-m freestyle. Results: KT significantly decreased the amplitude of stretch reflex (P < .001), whereas the placebo treatment produced no significant effects. Scores of Medical Research Council for strength and Modified Ashworth Scale did not change after KT, whereas numeric rating scale scores for spasticity significantly decreased (P = .001). The swimming performance was significantly improved after KT treatment as compared with baseline (P < .01). Conclusions: This exploratory study performed on para-athletes suggests that KT could reduce spasticity. This outcome has 3-fold implications for clinical, rehabilitation, and sport methods.

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Breanne S. Baker, Kelsey J. Weitzel, Lisa A. Royse, Kristin Miller, Trent M. Guess, Stephen D. Ball and Dana L. Duren

Older adults are challenged with aging-related declines in skeletal muscle mass and function. Although exercise interventions of longer duration typically yield larger changes, shorter-term interventions may kick-start positive effects, allowing participants to begin engaging in more activity. This study aimed to determine whether 8 weeks of a resistance training program (Stay Strong, Stay Healthy [SSSH]) improved dynamic muscle strength, balance, flexibility, and sleep. Inactive adults aged ≥60 years were randomized into SSSH (n = 15), walking (WALK; n = 17), or control (CON; n = 14) groups. The SSSH and WALK groups met 2 times per week for 60 min. The participants completed pre/post general health, activity, and sleep questionnaires; DXA scans; and functional tasks. One-way repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine interactions and decomposed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. SSSH improved sit-to-stand performance, back scratch distance, and sleep quality and reported more auxiliary physical activity than WALK or CON (p < .05). Resistance training interventions in sedentary older adults can improve physical function and encourage additional activity in 8 weeks.

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Bruce W. Bailey, Landon S. Deru, William F. Christensen, Andrew J. Stevens, Stephen Tanner Ward, Matthew L. Starr, Ciera L. Bartholomew and Larry A. Tucker

Background: To evaluate the relationship between sleep and next-day physical activity (PA) under free-living conditions in women. Methods: Sleep and PA were measured objectively for 7 consecutive days by accelerometry in 330 young adult women (aged 17–25 y). A structural equation model was used to evaluate the relationship between the driving factor of sleep (total sleep or morning wake time) and the amount of nonsleep sedentary (SED) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) each day. Results: With sleep duration as the driving factor, the estimates of βSED and βMVPA were −0.415 and −0.093, respectively (P ≤ .05). For every hour slept, a 24.9-minute reduction in SED time and a 5.58-minute reduction in MVPA were observed. With wake time as the driving factor, the estimates of βSED and βMVPA were −0.636 and −0.149, respectively. For every wake time that was 1 hour later, a 38.2-minute decrease in SED and a 8.9-minute decrease in MVPA (P ≤ .05) were observed. Conclusions: Women who wake later or who sleep longer tend to get less MVPA throughout the day. Getting up earlier and going to bed earlier may support behaviors that improve PA and lifestyle.

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Hans Vangrunderbeek and Hans Ponnet

From an international perspective, it is indispensable to shed light on the education and certification of sports coaches within different countries in order to exchange good practices and facilitate international collaboration. This article highlights the past, present and future of coach education in Flanders, Belgium. A historical overview of the main initiatives of public, private and academic partners and their shifting relationships with regard to coach education provides insight into the establishment of the current Flemish School for Coach Education, a unique cooperative association between the public government, private sports federations and academic institutes for physical education. Key elements of the Flemish coach education system are presented: mission, organisation and partnerships, framework, competence model, learning pathways/culture and quality assurance. Important future steps involve the transition from a linear framework to a context-specific and nonlinear alternative, based on long-term athlete and coach development models, rethinking coach competences for all programs and implementing a blended learner-based approach with more focus on unmediated, nonformal mediated and internal learning situations.

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Tyler Prochnow, Thabo J. van Woudenberg and Megan S. Patterson

Background: Adolescent physical activity (PA) is widely linked to positive health outcomes. Unfortunately, 80% of adolescents do not meet recommendations, which may be due to perceived barriers to PA. Peer interactions significantly affect adolescent PA behaviors. This study aims to analyze distribution of PA barriers throughout adolescent friendship networks and barriers’ associations with PA. Methods: Adolescents (N = 383, mean = 10.77 y, SD = 1.30 y, 51.4% male) reported frequency of experiencing PA barriers (body related, social, fitness, convenience, and resource) and names of their friends. Average steps and minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA per day were measured using accelerometers. Linear network autocorrelation models determined if friends perceived barriers similarly when compared with nonfriends and analyzed relationships between barriers and objective PA measures while controlling for network effects. Results: Moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, steps per day, body-related barriers, and social barriers displayed significant network effects, suggesting significant association with the scores of their friends. Average steps per day were significantly associated with age, sex, and social barriers, while inversely associated with fitness barriers. Conclusions: This research suggests adolescents’ perceived PA barriers are significantly associated with those of their friends. Researchers and practitioners aiming to reduce barriers to PA among adolescents may wish to assess peer reinforcing effects.