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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 4 (Jul 2024)

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 4 (Jul 2024)

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Gender Differences in Students’ Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity Levels During Primary School Physical Education Lessons: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Diego Arenas, Josep Vidal-Conti, and Adrià Muntaner-Mas

Purpose: We aimed to determine gender differences in students’ moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels measured in primary school by accelerometry. Methods: Our systematic search (PROSPERO: CRD42023422799) was developed using four electronic databases (from January 2013 to December 22, 2023). Our meta-analysis was conducted based on a random-effects model. Results: The search yielded 6255 manuscripts. Only 24 manuscripts were included in the systematic review, reporting 7550 participants. Finally, 19 manuscripts were meta-analyzed. Our analyses indicated that the mean percentages (95% confidence interval) of MVPA in primary school physical education lessons were 28.75 ± 13.75 for boys and 25.99 ± 12.35 for girls. In addition, the mean minutes (95% confidence interval) were 13.75 ± 9.91 for boys and 12.15 ± 8.88 for girls. Students failed to meet the 50% recommendation of MVPA lesson time. Conclusion: Boys spend significantly more time in MVPA than girls during PE lessons in primary school. The findings show the need for methodological changes in physical education to reduce this gender gap.

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Oxford Textbook of Children’s Sport and Exercise Medicine, Fourth Edition

Keith Tolfrey

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Potential Barriers and Pathways to Professional Development in Sport Management: Should Internships Be the Gold Standard?

Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove, Nicolo Russolillo, and Lorie Logan-Bennett

Due to increased industry demands for specialized experience, students and sport industry professionals alike often feel stifled during the job search process. As a result, practices have been absorbed into the curriculum to provide this link to future employability, with a distinct focus on internships. Therefore, if we seek to create a diverse workforce that more closely represents the individuals that we both see and serve, we must assess the primary practice used for professional development in sport management. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to explore both barriers and pathways that sport management students face when participating in for-credit internships. To do so, a mixed-methods, two-phased, approach was adopted. Results indicate primary barriers in the areas of lack of time and the competitive nature of the sport management internships.

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Proactive Autonomous Assignments as Pedagogical Responses to the Rise of Artificial Intelligence Solutions in Sport Management Teaching Practice

Antti Kauppinen

Introducing ChatGPT offered higher education students a chance to use artificial intelligence to automatically generate assignment texts, and some might cheat in behaviorist tasks by using generative artificial intelligence. However, the introduction of ChatGPT could also lead instructors to expect more (rather than less) academic integrity in terms of their students’ assignment preparation. That is especially crucial in sport management education, where many instructors apply experiential learning. This essay suggests theory-driven content for proactive autonomous project assignments, addressing some students applying ChatGPT when generating experiential assignment content. The target of such projects is to ensure the greatest possible academic integrity and that students perceive a satisfactory return on their resources invested in education.

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Unpacking Ableism: Perspectives From the Chilean Physical Education Discourse

Fabián Arroyo-Rojas

In this article, I reflect on the presence of ableism in the discourse surrounding physical education in Chile. The purpose of this article was to highlight three areas where ableism is ingrained. First, I examined historical actions within the Chilean physical education system that prioritize White ideals and able-bodied individuals. Second, I examined curriculum and evaluation recommendations that overlook the unique needs of disabled students. Finally, I critique pedagogical practices that, under the guise of inclusion, implicitly strive to meet normative levels of functionality. In conclusion, ableism intersects with colonialism in the Global South, specifically Latin America, leading to unreasonable expectations for all students, including disabled students, in the realm of physical education.

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Bidirectional Relationship Over Time Between Body Mass Index and Fundamental Movement Skill Domains Measured by a Process-Oriented Method in Childhood: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

Maria Kasanen, Arto Laukkanen, Donna Niemistö, Asko Tolvanen, Francisco Ortega, and Arja Sääkslahti

The worldwide increase in childhood overweight and obesity underscores the need to study variables like fundamental movement skill (FMS) levels from early childhood. This study investigated the bidirectional longitudinal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and process-oriented FMSs, including locomotor skills and object control skills in 675 Finnish children, aged 3–8 years at baseline (50.5% female, mean age 5.5 years) over 3 years. Standardized BMI-for-age SD scores (BMI SDS z-scores) followed Finnish national standards. The FMS assessment comprised four subtests from the Test of Gross Motor Development, third edition. Age-adjusted standardized residuals of FMS or skill domains and BMI SDS z-scores were used in a two-level, cross-classified, cross-lagged regression analysis, accounting for gender, and baseline value of the dependent variables. The results showed no statistically significant longitudinal relationship between BMI and FMS or its skill domains for either gender in either direction. This suggests that BMI and process-oriented FMS, encompassing locomotor skill and object control skill, develop independently, possibly influenced by unexplored variables. These findings contradict earlier results based on product-oriented measurements, which may include a physical capacity component. The outcomes further underscore the importance of monitoring weight status from early childhood, given its significant association with later-life weight conditions.

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Coordination Dynamics in Motor Learning: Acquisition and Adaptation in a Serial Stimulus Tracking Task

Matheus M. Pacheco, Natália F.A. Ambrósio, Fernando G. Santos, Go Tani, and Luciano Basso

The dynamics of mastering the degrees of freedom in motor learning are still far from being understood. The present work explored coordination dynamics in a redundant task, relating it to performance and adaptation in a serial stimulus tracking task. One hundred and sixty-three children (10–14 years of age) continuously responded to sequential stimuli (containing five stimuli) by pressing the respective sensors before the next stimulus presentation. Participants performed 120 trials with a fixed sequence (4–2–5–3–1) and a fixed interstimuli interval (800 ms) to learn the first pattern (practice phase). Then, a changed sequence (4–2–5–1–3) with a shorter interval (700 ms) was presented for 40 trials (adaptation phase). To measure coordination and its change, we calculated the correlation matrix of the stimulus–touch interval between the five sensors in blocks of 20 trials of the practice phase and classified individuals in terms of clusters. We found associations between coordination dynamics, performance curves, and adaptation in both coordination and performance. Furthermore, using network analyses, we found a tendency for all groups to increase the clustering coefficient. We discuss the possibility of this result representing a process of progressive segregation.

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In Situ Power–Cadence Relationship for 2-, 5-, and 20-Minute Duration: A Proof of Concept in Under-19 Cyclists

Yann Bertron, Maximilien Bowen, Pierre Samozino, Peter Leo, Alexandre Pacot, Jean-Baptiste Quiclet, Frédérique Hintzy, and Baptiste Morel

Background: The force–velocity relationship suggests that maximal power (P max) can only be produced in optimal torque (T opt) and cadence (C opt). However, the cadence at which mean maximal power (MMP) is produced has never been studied. This study aimed to determine the individual MMP–cadence relationship from in situ data. Method: We analyzed 1 year of data from 14 under-19 cyclists and calculated the MMP for each cadence between 50 and 120 rpm for 2-, 5-, and 20-minute durations. The MMP–cadence relationship was fit with a second-order polynomial function. The goodness of fit (r 2) and odd-day–even-day absolute and relative reliability were evaluated, respectively, for P max, T opt, and C opt. Results: The goodness of fit was very high for every duration studied. T opt and P max, but not C opt, were significantly higher for shorter durations. P max was significantly correlated only with T opt for the 3 durations (r 2 = .63, .71, and .64 for 2, 5, and 20 min, respectively). Discussion: Evaluation of the MMP–cadence relationship from in situ data is feasible and reliable for 2-, 5-, and 20-minute durations. This profiling approach would enable better detection of the strengths and weaknesses of cyclists and make it possible to design more effective training interventions. Practical Applications: The analysis makes it possible to identify the torque versus cadence component that individually limits power production. Knowing the C opt for a given duration of maximal effort could help athletes choose the right gear ratio and regulate cadence during a race in order to maximize performance.