In 1966, the National Hockey League (NHL) expanded for the first time since the 1920s, doubling its size from six teams to twelve. Although hockey was still perceived as a distinctly Canadian passion, none of the NHL’s six new teams were located in Canada. The disappointment across the country was palpable, especially in Canada’s third-largest city, Vancouver, which had applied to be one of the expansion locations. A stable presence in minor league hockey on Canada’s west coast for decades, it seemed only natural that Vancouver, as the lone bidder from the ostensible birthplace of ice hockey, would be tapped for NHL expansion. This paper examines Vancouver’s attempted entry into the NHL and argues that the forces of commercialism and national identity, combined with political maneuvering among NHL owners, not only influenced the content and trajectory of the Vancouver bid, but also contributed to its ultimate failure.
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John Wong and Scott R. Jedlicka
Ibrahim M. Altubasi
The purposes of this study were first to examine the association between aging and both the magnitude and asymmetry in the femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA). The second purpose was to determine the effects of both the magnitude and NSA asymmetry on the performance of functional activities in healthy individuals. Fifty-one subjects participated in this study. The femoral NSA was measured on computed tomography scout images. The participants performed four performance tests. Four hierarchical regression models were constructed to explore the effect of each predictor on the outcomes. Aging was associated with NSA asymmetry, but not with the degree of NSA. Age contributed significantly to the variability of all functional performance tests except the 10-m walking speed. The degree of the NSA did not contribute to the prediction of the functional performance tests. However, asymmetry in the NSA added significantly to the prediction of all functional performance tests except the 10-m walking speed.
Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin and Antonio Dello Iacono
Purpose: To summarize the evidence on postactivation potentiation (PAP) protocols using flywheel eccentric overload (EOL) exercises. Methods: Studies were searched using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge. Results: In total, 7 eligible studies were identified based on the following results: First, practitioners can use different inertia intensities (eg, 0.03–0.88 kg·m2), based on the exercise selected, to enhance sport-specific performance. Second, the PAP time window following EOL exercise seems to be consistent with traditional PAP literature, where acute fatigue is dominant in the early part of the recovery period (eg, 30 s), and PAP is dominant in the second part (eg, 3 and 6 min). Third, as EOL exercises require large force and power outputs, a volume of 3 sets with the conditioning activity (eg, half-squat or lunge) seems to be a sensible approach. This could reduce the transitory muscle fatigue and thereby allow for a stronger potentiation effect compared with larger exercise volumes. Fourth, athletes should gain experience by performing EOL exercises before using the tool as part of a PAP protocol (3 or 4 sessions of familiarization). Finally, the dimensions of common flywheel devices offer useful and practical solutions to induce PAP effects outside of normal training environments and prior to competitions. Conclusions: EOL exercise can be used to stimulate PAP responses to obtain performance advantages in various sports. However, future research is needed to determine which EOL exercise modalities among intensity, volume, and rest intervals optimally induce the PAP phenomenon and facilitate transfer effects on athletic performances.
Thiago Correa Porto Gonçalves, Atila Alexandre Trapé, Jhennyfer Aline Lima Rodrigues, Simone Sakagute Tavares and Carlos Roberto Bueno Junior
The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) plays an important role in vascular smooth muscle. However, the interaction between Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu β2-AR polymorphisms, and exercise training has not yet been established. This study evaluated the influence of these β2-AR polymorphisms on body composition, aerobic capacity, blood pressure, lipid profile, nitric oxide, and redox status at baseline and in response to an exercise program in women aged 50–79 years. Genotype and haplotypes were analyzed in association with the previously mentioned variables before and after the multicomponent training (12 weeks, 2 sessions/week, 90 min/session, and exercise intensity between 13 and 15 on the Borg scale). Individuals who carry β2-AR Arg16Arg/Gln27Gln genotypes presented more improvements in blood pressure, body composition, aerobic capacity, and redox status in response to a multicomponent training program compared with individuals who do not carry this haplotype. In some years, the genetic profile may be used to predict which exercise program can induce more health benefits for each person.
Lotta Palmberg, Erja Portegijs, Taina Rantanen, Eeva Aartolahti, Anne Viljanen, Mirja Hirvensalo and Merja Rantakokko
Background: Many older people report a willingness to increase outdoor physical activity (PA), but no opportunities for it, a situation termed as unmet PA need. The authors studied whether lower neighborhood mobility and PA precede the development of unmet PA need. Methods: Community-dwelling 75- to 90-year-old people (n = 700) were interviewed annually for 2 years. Unmet PA need, neighborhood mobility, and PA were self-reported. In addition, accelerometer-based step counts were assessed among a subgroup (n = 156). Results: Logistic regression analyses revealed that lower baseline neighborhood mobility (odds ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval [1.86, 4.90] vs. daily) and PA (odds ratio 4.37, 95% confidence interval [2.62, 7.29] vs. high) were associated with the development of unmet PA need over 2 years. The participants with higher step counts had a lower risk for unmet PA need (odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval, [0.54, 0.87]). Conclusion: Maintaining higher PA levels and finding solutions for daily outdoor mobility, especially for those with declines in health, may protect from the development of unmet PA need.
Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard
Master athletes are often considered exemplars of successful aging, thanks to their capacity to maintain a high sports performance during their entire life. A high training capacity, regular participation in sporting competitions, and delayed alterations in body composition and physiological capacities have been listed among the main factors contributing to impressive master athletes’ performances. However, there is a paucity of data on the metabolism and dietary habits of master athletes, and the question of whether they need to adapt their nutrition to the aging process remains open. Herein, the authors presented a contemporary overview of the metabolic challenges associated with aging, including the risk of low energy availability, anabolic resistance, and periods of metabolic crisis due to forced immobilization. After assembling scientific evidence to show that master athletes must adapt their dietary intake, the authors proposed a summary of nutritional recommendations for master athletes and suggested the next stage of research.
Juliessa M. Pavon, Richard J. Sloane, Carl F. Pieper, Cathleen S. Colón-Emeric, David Gallagher, Harvey J. Cohen, Katherine S. Hall, Miriam C. Morey, Midori McCarty, Thomas L. Ortel and Susan N. Hastings
This study describes the availability of physical activity information in the electronic health record, explores how electronic health record documentation correlates with accelerometer-derived physical activity data, and examines whether measured physical activity relates to venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis use. Prospective observational data comes from community-dwelling older adults admitted to general medicine (n = 65). Spearman correlations were used to examine association of accelerometer-based daily step count with documented walking distance and with duration of VTE prophylaxis. Only 52% of patients had documented walking in nursing and/or physical therapy/occupational therapy notes during the first three hospital days. Median daily steps recorded via accelerometer was 1,370 (interquartile range = 854, 2,387) and correlated poorly with walking distance recorded in physical therapy/occupational therapy notes (median 33 feet/day [interquartile range = 12, 100]; r = .24; p = .27). Activity measures were not associated with use or duration of VTE prophylaxis. VTE prophylaxis use does not appear to be directed by patient activity, for which there is limited documentation.
Rajni Rai, Michelle I. Jongenelis, Ben Jackson, Robert U. Newton and Simone Pettigrew
Retirement has been identified as a life transition that is important in determining older adults’ physical activity levels. The present study examined the factors associated with retirement that affect physical activity participation among older adults. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 425 retired Australians aged 60 years and older. Physical activity was assessed objectively, using accelerometers. Two categories of factors affecting physical activity participation following retirement were identified: the various physical and psychological changes in later life that can encourage or discourage physical activity and the adaptation processes undertaken by older people in response to these changes. The adoption of either a gain or loss approach to retirement and aging appeared to be the most influential adaptation factor affecting physical activity participation. The results suggest that intervention approaches should aim to foster more positive attitudes to aging and retirement and promote physical activity at all stages in life.
Kazuhiro Harada, Kouhei Masumoto, Ai Fukuzawa, Michiko Touyama, Koji Sato, Narihiko Kondo and Shuichi Okada
This study examined whether satisfaction with social interactions and the number of people interacted with during walking groups is associated with affective responses among older adults. Twenty-six older adults were asked to participate in five walking group sessions. The participants walked together for 40–50 min. In every session, the participants reported their affective responses to walking (positive engagement, tranquility, and negative affect), their level of satisfaction with the social interactions experienced, and the number of people interacted with during the walk. The available data were from 107 person-sessions. Multilevel models revealed that, although a higher number of people interacted with was not significantly associated with improvements in any affective responses, higher satisfaction with the interactions was significantly associated with improvements in positive engagement at both the within- and between-person levels. This study found that higher satisfaction with the interactions was associated with desirable affective responses among older adults.
Brad J. Stenner, Amber D. Mosewich and Jonathan D. Buckley
Golf is a popular sport for older adults, and is therefore an important source of physical activity. This study investigated the reasons for golf participation in an older population using the Golf Participation Questionnaire for Older Adults. The participants (N = 3,262, 82.5% male) completed the questionnaire online. The most important reasons for participation were fun, a pleasant playing environment, and competition, with reasons related to health being relatively less important. The female participants rated fun, a pleasant playing environment, and a feeling that participation made them part of a community as more important reasons for participating than males. Although health-related factors were identified as important reasons for golf participation in older adults, non-health-related factors were also more important. Strategies to promote golf participation by older adults, as a means of increasing physical activity, should emphasize aspects related to fun, a pleasant playing environment, and engagement in competition.