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Pete Van Mullem and Chris Croft

Coaching at the collegiate level requires a varied skill set in a competitive environment, where coaching positions have a high turnover rate. Preparing to work as a coach at the collegiate level is often self-driven and aligns with how coaches learn in other contexts. Research on the career progression of collegiate coaches is scant and tends to focus on gender differences or one’s desire to become a head coach. Recently, research has expanded to examine the preparation of coach developers and their role in guiding coach development activities in a variety of contexts. Therefore, guided by the literature on coach development, the role of the coach developer in collegiate sport, and insight gleaned from a descriptive study on the career path of collegiate head coaches, this best practices article offers practical recommendations for coach developers to best serve collegiate coaches along their coaching journey.

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Blake Bennett and Glenn Fyall

Having investigated the history of rugby over the last century in Japan, a study reported that, historically, rugby participation has been underpinned by the quest to develop young males’ character. The traditional Japanese view of rugby as a medium for education and dominant cultural values has also been considered to be a contrasting view to the Westernised professional perspectives of rugby as a form of entertainment. With a focus on the role of rugby in the school-based club experience, this article presents hermeneutic interpretations of conversations held with four Japanese secondary school rugby coaches and four players, and it explores the socioculturally relevant notion of kimochi (気持ち; feeling/attitude/vitality) in players’ corporeal experiences. Furthermore, the ways in which kimochi is described by the coaches as a means to cultivate kokoro (mind/heart/spirit) and prepare players for adult life are investigated. The extent to which this idea emerged from the participants’ comments is offered as an important consideration for the International Coach Development Framework and the International Sport Coaching Framework, and we posit that the exploration of inherent sociocultural discourses must be carefully contemplated if the future conceptualisation, interpretation and utility of such frameworks is to be enduring.

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Sara M. Campbell, Ashley Fallaize and Paul Schempp

Coach developers provide education and support to coaches. Therefore, these individuals play an important role in coaching systems. However, the formal training of coach developers is a relatively new concept. Both practitioners and academics seem eager to understand how to effectively train these individuals. We had the opportunity to collect feedback from participants of an international coach developer training programme (CDTP). The primary purpose of this insights paper is to share this feedback and make recommendations for future CDTPs based on connections between participant feedback and relevant literature. A secondary purpose of this paper is to stimulate dialogue from programme participants and coordinators, who can offer additional insight regarding their experiences in CDTPs.

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Lauren Downham and Christopher Cushion

Reflection is a contested but taken for granted concept, whose meaning shifts to accommodate the interpretation and interests of those using the term. Subsequently, there is limited understanding of the concept. The purpose of this article was to consider critically the discursive complexities of reflection and their articulation through coach developers’ practice. Data were collected from a National High-Performance coach education program. Coach developers responsible for one-to-one support (n = 8) and on-program support (n = 3) participated in the research. Semistructured interviews were conducted with coach developers, and participant observations were undertaken of a coach developer forum and program workshops (n = 9). Foucault’s concepts: power, discourse, and discipline were used to examine data with critical depth. Analysis explored “Discourse of Reflection,” “Discipline, Power, and Reflection,” and “Coach Developers: Confession, ‘Empowerment,’ and Reflection.” Humanistic ideas constructed a discourse of reflection that was mobilized through coach confession. Coach developer efforts to be “critical” and “learner centered” were embroiled with intrinsic and subtle relations of power as “empowering” intent exacerbated rather than ameliorated its exercise. This article makes visible a different destabilized and problematized version of reflection, thus introducing an awkwardness into the fabric of our experiences of reflection.

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Robin D. Taylor, Howie J. Carson and Dave Collins

Although there is an established body of research on twins within the wider social science domain, scarce attention has been applied to this relationship within sport coaching practice. Specifically, this is apparent during talent development, despite a growing empirical interest toward the developmental impact of age-gapped siblings on sporting success. Accordingly, this study explored potential mechanisms through which the twin relationship may impact on talent development. Longitudinal observation of two twin sets (one monozygotic and one dizygotic) took place within a U.K. regional hockey performance center training environment. Observations were used to inform semistructured interviews with twins and their parents, which facilitated the interpretation of observations and exploration of the relationship, before a codebook thematic analysis was conducted. Findings revealed several themes (regularity of interaction, emotional interpersonal skills, rivalry, skill development, communication, and type of separation) consistent with previous studies, alongside two new themes; namely, conflict and identity. The study highlights the complex and individualized nature of the sibling subsystem, illuminating the possible impact of twin type on several themes, and highlights the potential for observations as a practice-based tool for coaches to consider when individualizing the talent development process.

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Robert T. Pearson, Timothy Baghurst and Mwarumba Mwavita

The purpose of the present study was to investigate stress and burnout among intercollegiate head swimming coaches in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Participants were 223 coaches working at NCAA institutions who completed the Coaching Issues Survey, which measures potential stressors experienced by coaches using four subscales of Win-Loss, Time-Role, Program-Success, and Athlete-Concerns. Time-Role was the most significant stressor and Win-Loss the lowest. Females reported significantly higher stress levels than their male counterparts, t(197) = −2.87, p = .01, on all subscales. Overall, levels of stress were not significant by NCAA divisions I, II, and III F(2,201) = 1.25, p = .29, suggesting that coaches across all levels experience stress. Findings highlight the importance of monitoring work–life balance across all collegiate athletic divisions and the need to understand why females report higher levels of stress and how this can be improved. Future research should consider how burnout can be avoided through coaching education and training interventions that might aid coaches who perceive their work environment as stressful.

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Alexandre M. Lehnen, Graziela H. Pinto, Júlia Borges, Melissa M. Markoski and Beatriz D. Schaan

Insulin resistance is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, and exercise training can improve insulin-mediated glucose uptake. However, few studies have demonstrated the reversibility of exercise-induced benefits. Thus, the authors examine the time–response effects of exercise training and detraining on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) content, insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscle tissues of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Thirty-two male spontaneously hypertensive rats, 4 months old, were assigned to (n = 8/group): T (exercise training: 10-week treadmill exercise, 50–70% maximum effort capacity, 1 hr/day, 5 days/week); D2 (exercise training + 2-day detraining), D4 (exercise training + 4-day detraining); and S (no exercise). The authors evaluated insulin resistance, maximum effort capacity, GLUT4 content, p-IRS-1Tyr1179, p-AS160Ser588, p-AMPKα1Thr172, and p-CaMKIIThr286 in cardiac and gastrocnemius muscle tissues (Western blot). In response to exercise training, there were improvements in insulin resistance (15.4%; p = .010), increased GLUT4 content (microsomal, 29.4%; p = .012; plasma membrane, 27.1%; p < .001), p-IRS-1 (42.2%; p < .001), p-AS160 (60.0%; p < .001) in cardiac tissue, and increased GLUT4 content (microsomal, 29.4%; p = .009; plasma membrane, 55.5%; p < .001), p-IRS-1 (28.1%; p = .018), p-AS160 (76.0%; p < .001), p-AMPK-α1 (37.5%; p = .026), and p-CaMKII (30.0%; p = .040) in the gastrocnemius tissue. In D4 group, the exercise-induced increase in GLUT4 was reversed (plasma membrane, −21.3%; p = .027), p-IRS1 (−37.1%; p = .008), and p-AS160 (−82.6%; p < .001) in the cardiac tissue; p-AS160 expression (−35.7%; p = .034) was reduced in the gastrocnemius. In conclusion, the cardiac tissue is more susceptible to exercise adaptations in the GLUT4 content and signaling pathways than the gastrocnemius muscle. This finding may be explained by particular characteristics of insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways in the muscle tissues studied.

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Jared D. Ramer, María E. Santiago-Rodríguez, Catherine L. Davis, David X. Marquez, Stacy L. Frazier and Eduardo E. Bustamante

Purpose: To examine effects of a 10-week after-school physical activity (PA) program on academic performance of 6- to 12-year-old African American children with behavior problems. Methods: Participants were randomized to PA (n = 19) or sedentary attention control (n = 16) programs. Academic records, curriculum-based measures, and classroom observations were obtained at baseline, postintervention, and/or follow-up. Mixed models tested group × time interactions on academic records and curriculum-based measures. One-way analysis of variance or Kruskal–Wallis tested for differences in postintervention classroom observations. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated a moderate effect within groups from baseline to postintervention on disciplinary referrals (PA: d = −0.47; attention control: d = −0.36) and a null moderate effect on academic assessments (PA: d = 0.11 to 0.36; attention control: d = 0.05 to 0.40). No significant group × time interactions emerged on direct academic assessments (all Ps ≥ .05, d = −0.23 to 0.26) or academic records (all Ps ≥ .05, d = −0.28 to 0.16). Classroom observations revealed that intervention participants were off-task due to moving at twice the rate of comparative classmates (F = 15.74, P < .001) and were off-task due to talking 33% more often (F = 1.39, P = .257). Conclusion: Academic outcome improvements were small within and between groups and did not sustain at follow-up. Academic benefits of after-school PA programs for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or disruptive behavior disorders were smaller than neurobiological, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes as previously reported.

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Anita M. Rivera-Brown and José R. Quiñones-González

This study determined normative data for sweat rate (SR) and whole-body (WB) sweat sodium concentration [Na+] in athletes indigenous to a tropical climate, categorized by age, gender, and sport classification. We analyzed data from 556 athletes (386 adult and 170 young) in endurance (END), team/ball (TBA), and combat (COM) sports exercising in tropical environments (wet bulb globe temperature = 29.4 ± 2.1 °C). SR was calculated from change in body weight corrected for urine output and fluid/food intake. Sweat was collected using absorbent patches, and regional [Na+] was determined using an ion selective analyzer and normalized to WB sweat [Na+]. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. SR was higher in males compared with females in both young (24.2 ± 7.7 ml·kg−1·hr−1 vs. 16.7 ± 5.7 ml·kg−1·hr−1) and adult (22.8 ± 7.4 ml·kg−1·hr−1 vs. 18.6 ± 7.0 ml·kg−1·hr−1) athletes, in END sports in girls (END = 19.1 ± 6.0 ml·kg−1·hr−1; TBA = 14.6 ± 4.5 ml·kg−1·hr−1), and in adult males (END = 25.2 ± 6.3 ml·kg−1·hr−1; TBA = 19.1 ± 7.2 ml·kg−1·hr−1; COM = 18.4 ± 8.5 ml·kg−1·hr−1) and females (END = 23.5 ± 5.6 ml·kg−1·hr−1; TBA = 14.2 ± 5.2 ml·kg−1·hr−1; COM = 15.3 ± 5.2 ml·kg−1·hr−1); p < .05. WB sweat [Na+] was higher in adult athletes than in young athletes (43 ± 10 mmol/L vs. 40 ± 9 mmol/L, p < .05). These norms provide a reference range for low, low average, average high, and high SR and WB sweat [Na+], which serve as a guide for fluid replacement for athletes who live and train in the tropics.

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Trent J. Herda, Philip M. Gallagher, Jonathan D. Miller, Matthew P. Bubak and Mandy E. Parra

Background: Skeletal muscle is overlooked in the realm of insulin resistance in children who are overweight and obese despite the fact that it accounts for the most glucose disposal. Objectives: Therefore, this study examined fasted glucose levels and muscle cross-sectional area and echo intensity (EI) via ultrasound images of the first dorsal interosseous, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris in children who are normal weight and overweight and obese aged 8–10 years. Methods: In total, 13 males (age = 9.0 [0.7] y) and 7 females (age = 9.0 [0.8] y) volunteered for this study. Independent samples t tests and effect sizes (ESs) were used to examine potential differences in skeletal muscle composition and glucose concentrations. Results: There were no significant differences between groups for glucose concentration (P = .07, ES = 0.86); however, the children who were overweight and obese had significantly greater EI (P < .01, ES = 0.98–1.63) for the first dorsal interosseous, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris and lower cross-sectional area when normalized to EI when collapsed across muscles (P < .04, ES = 0.92). Glucose concentrations correlated with EI and cross-sectional area/EI for the vastus lateralis (r = .514 to −.593) and rectus femoris (r = .551 to −.513), but not the first dorsal interosseous. Discussion: There is evidence that adiposity-related pathways leading to insulin resistance and skeletal muscle degradation are active in young children who are overweight and obese.