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Volume 17 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 19 (2024): Issue 6 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 32 (2024): Issue 3 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 18 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 46 (2024): Issue 3 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 41 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 2 (Jun 2024)

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Independent and Combined Associations of Physical Activity and Screen Time With Biomarkers of Inflammation in Children and Adolescents With Overweight/Obesity

Yijian Ding and Xi Xu

Purpose: Inflammation regulation is important for obesity management and prevention of obesity-related diseases. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the independent and combined associations of physical activity and screen time with biomarkers of inflammation in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. Method: A total of 1289 children and adolescents with overweight/obesity were included from the 2015 to 2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted for the association analyses. Results: For the independent associations, a negative dose-dependent relationship was demonstrated between physical activity and inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in adolescents with overweight/obesity (P < .001) but not children; screen time was not associated with hsCRP in both children and adolescents. No significant association was found between physical activity or screen time with other inflammatory biomarkers. For the combined associations, there was an interaction between physical activity and screen time on hsCRP in adolescents with overweight/obesity (P = .014). In addition, the negative association between physical activity and hsCRP was greater in boys compared with girls and in Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black individuals compared with non-Hispanic White individuals. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a combined association of physical activity and screen time with inflammatory biomarker hsCRP in adolescents with overweight/obesity.

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Psychological Safety in Elite Swimming: Fearful Versus Fearless Coaching Environments

Amelia B. Maughan and Sophia Jowett

Psychological safety has become a popular concept within organisational settings and recently has become a topic of interest within sport. The purpose of this paper was to explore the notion of psychological safety and its impact on athletes’ performance, as well as examine the role coaches played in creating psychologically safe environments. Semistructured interviews were conducted with five former female elite swimmers—all of whom had represented their country in Olympic Games and/or World Championships at least once. Obtained qualitative data were transcribed and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. The analysis generated three main themes: (a) fearful coaching environment,  (b) fearless coaching environment, and  (c) team environment. All participants experienced both the presence and lack of psychological safety during their athletic careers. According to the participants, their coaches played a fundamental role in creating coaching environments that either invoked or suppressed fear. Swimming teams formed by peers also contributed to experiencing psychological safety (or lack of). This study highlights that an investigation of the content and functions of psychological safety within specific sport contexts can garner insightful knowledge that can have important theoretical and practical ramifications for coaches and coaching in sport.

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Relegated to the Sidelines: A Qualitative Inquiry of Gatekeepers’ Perspectives and Values of Physical Education for Disabled Children

Scott W.T. McNamara, Patrica Craig, Megan Henly, and Jill Gravink

Several institutional aspects within the U.S. public school system impede the delivery of adapted physical education (APE) services to disabled children, including a lack of understanding and prioritization of these services by the special education team and a lack of qualified APE professionals to deliver these services. Thus, we conducted a qualitative inquiry grounded in a critical-ableism perspective to explore special education gatekeepers’ experiences and perspectives of APE. Gatekeepers included parents, physical educators, and school administrators. Using a reflexive thematic analysis, we developed four interrelated themes: (a) disregard, negative, and charity mindsets toward disability; (b) systemic challenges in valuing and prioritizing APE; (c) presence as inclusion: (un)intentional marginalization in physical education; and (d) physical education for my child was a nightmare. These findings illustrate the complexities around the provision of physical education and APE to disabled children.