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Abigail M. Nehrkorn-Bailey, Diana Rodriguez, Garrett Forsyth, Barry Braun, Kimberly Burke, and Manfred Diehl

The AgingPLUS program targets motivational barriers, including negative views of aging, as mechanisms to increase adult physical activity. A pilot study was conducted to test the efficacy of this new program against a generic successful aging program. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to the AgingPLUS group, and 60 participants were assigned to the active control group. Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance assessed changes in views of aging, physical activity, blood pressure, and hand-grip strength from pretest (Week 0) to delayed posttest (Week 8). The Condition × Occasion interactions were nonsignificant; however, significant main effects for condition and occasion were found. Follow-up tests showed that views of aging were more positive, and physical activity had significantly increased at Week 8 for all participants. In addition, in the treatment group, elevated blood pressure had significantly decreased and hand-grip strength had significantly increased at Week 8. Despite the nonsignificant multivariate findings, the main effect findings provided partial support for the efficacy of the AgingPLUS program.

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Filiz Başol, İlke Kara, and Tülay Çevik Saldıran

Objectives: The whole-body vibration (WBV) effects on muscle strength show inconsistent results. Moreover, there is no study about the WBV effect on stiffness, elasticity, and muscle strength. Therefore, the study aimed to examine the effect of WBV exposure with static squat posture on the stiffness, elasticity, and strength of the lower-limb extensor muscles. Material and Methods: Forty healthy untrained young adults were divided into WBV and control groups. The experimental group received WBV exposure on 2 nonconsecutive days of the week, for 6 weeks. The MyotonPRO device was used for the assessment of the knee extensor and the ankle dorsiflexors’ stiffness and elasticity. Isometric muscle strength was evaluated with a hand-held dynamometer. All measurements were done by the same assessor at baseline, and the following 6 weeks. Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the elasticity scores of the right (d = 0.84, P = .01) and left (d = 0.77, P = .02) ankle dorsiflexors. Similar to the elasticity measurements, significant group-by-time interactions were observed in the muscle strength scores of the right (d = 0.45, P = .046) and left (d = 1.25, P < .001) ankle dorsiflexors. No significant effects were observed in any of the evaluated muscle stiffness measurements (P > .05), and there was no significant group-by-time interaction in knee-extensor muscle strength and elasticity scores (P > .05). Conclusions: The study results indicate that if the ankle dorsiflexor strength and elasticity are desired to be increased, the 6-week WBV exposure in a static squat posture can be used in healthy individuals.

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Iñigo Mujika, Nicolas Bourdillon, Rafa González De Txabarri, and Gregoire P. Millet

Purpose: Oxygen uptake kinetics (VO2kinetics) is a measure of an athlete’s capacity to respond to variations in energy demands. Faster VO2kinetics is associated with better performance in endurance sports, but optimal training methods to improve VO2kinetics remain unclear. This study compared the effects of 2 high-intensity interval-training (HIIT) programs on traditional rowing performance and VO2kinetics. Methods: Twelve highly trained rowers performed one of two 6-week HIIT protocols: either 3-minute repetitions at 90% (HIIT90; n = 5) of peak aerobic power (PAP) or 90-second repetitions at 100% (HIIT100; n = 7) of PAP. Before (PRE) and after (POST) the training intervention, they performed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine the individual lactate threshold, onset of blood lactate accumulation and PAP, and two 6-minute rest-to-exercise transitions to determine VO2kinetics. Results: No significant changes (P > .05) were observed for rowing ergometer power output at individual lactate threshold (HIIT90 PRE 255 [12], POST 264 [13]; HIIT100 247 [24], 266 [28] W), onset of blood lactate accumulation (279 [12], 291 [16]; 269 [23], 284 [32] W), or PAP (359 [13], 381 [15]; 351 [21], 363 [29] W) or for any parameters of VO2kinetics. No differences were observed between HIIT interventions. Conclusion: The HIIT interventions did not induce significant performance or VO2kinetics improvements, although mean power output at individual lactate threshold, onset of blood lactate accumulation, and PAP increased by 5.7%, 5.0%, and 4.5%, respectively. This suggests that the exact intensity and duration of HIIT sessions performed in the same intensity domain may be of lesser importance than other well-established influential factors (eg, training volume progression, training intensity distribution, altitude training) to develop aerobic qualities in endurance athletes.

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Julia Hussien and Diane Ste-Marie

The focus of attention literature has shown robust findings for the benefits of providing statements that focus on the movement effect or outcome (external focus of attention [EFOA]) as opposed to focusing on the movement kinematics (internal focus of attention). Observational studies, however, have revealed that physiotherapists use fewer EFOA statements than internal focus of attention statements in their practice. Most evidence in this regard has been from non-Canadian physiotherapists working in stroke rehabilitation; consequently, we sought to examine whether Canadian physiotherapists working with various rehabilitation populations also use EFOA statements to a lesser extent than internal focus of attention statements. The “Therapists’ Perceptions of Motor Learning Principles Questionnaire (TPMLPQ)” was thus designed and data from 121 Canadian physiotherapists showed low relative frequencies of EFOA use (31.3% ± 14%) averaged across six hypothetical scenarios. A higher EFOA was reported, however, for two of the six scenarios: a functional reaching scenario (55.5% ± 37.0%) and pelvic floor task (65.6% ±32.9%). This data suggest that the findings of EFOA benefits have not been widely translated into Canadian physiotherapy settings; furthermore, the findings of the scenario-dependency warrant future investigation into factors, such as task characteristics, that may influence physiotherapists’ FOA use.

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Claire Marie Jie Lin Goh, Nan Xin Wang, Andre Matthias Müller, Rowena Yap, Sarah Edney, and Falk Müller-Riemenschneider

Background: Smartphones and wrist-worn activity trackers are increasingly popular for step counting purposes and physical activity promotion. Although trackers from popular brands have frequently been validated, the accuracy of low-cost devices under free-living conditions has not been adequately determined. Objective: To investigate the criterion validity of smartphones and low-cost wrist-worn activity trackers under free-living conditions. Methods: Participants wore a waist-worn Yamax pedometer and seven different low-cost wrist-worn activity trackers continuously over 3 days, and an activity log was completed at the end of each day. At the end of the study, the number of step counts reflected on the participants’ smartphone for each of the 3 days was also recorded. To establish criterion validity, step counts from smartphones and activity trackers were compared with the pedometers using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, mean absolute percentage error, and intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: Five of the seven activity trackers underestimated step counts and the remaining two and the smartphones overestimated step counts. Criterion validity was consistently higher for the activity trackers (r = .78–.92; mean absolute percentage error 14.5%–36.1%; intraclass correlation coefficient: .51–.91) than the smartphone (r = .37; mean absolute percentage error 55.7%; intraclass correlation coefficient: .36). Stratified analysis showed better validity of smartphones among female than for male participants. Phone wearing location also affected accuracy. Conclusions: Low-cost trackers demonstrated high accuracy in recording step counts and can be considered with confidence for research purposes or large-scale health promotion programs. The accuracy of using a smartphone for measuring step counts was substantially lower. Factors such as phone wear location and gender should also be considered when using smartphones to track step counts.

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Daniel das Virgens Chagas, Kylie Hesketh, Katherine Downing, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, and Lisa M. Barnett

Background: Understanding how or whether sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children is important considering that children spend a lot of time sedentary. The aim of this study was to examine whether sedentary behavior predicts motor competence in young children. Methods: A longitudinal study with a total of 372 children aged 3.5 years at baseline and 5 years at follow-up was conducted. Objectively measured activity patterns (i.e., using accelerometers) were conducted in a subsample with 188 children. Sedentary behavior was assessed both objectively and subjectively (parent-reported screen time). Locomotor and object control skill scores were determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition. A multivariable analysis was executed adjusting for potential confounders (such as age, sex, time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, monitor wear time, body mass index z scores, and maternal education). Results: Sedentary behavior at either time point was not significantly associated with either locomotor or object control skills after adjusting for potential confounders. Discussion: Our results did not support the assumption that sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children. Regardless, given the lack of consistency in the evidence base, we recommend to parents, educators, and health professionals that sedentary activities should be kept within government recommendations due to potential negative effects on child development.

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Harry K. Warburton and Matthew J. Slater

The present study examined the influence of an online relationship-oriented personal-disclosure mutual-sharing (ROPDMS) intervention upon diverse measures of group functioning during a national lockdown. Twelve soccer coaches and one senior member of staff from a professional female soccer academy participated by openly disclosing and sharing unknown personal stories with one another. Social identity dimensions (in-group ties, cognitive centrality, and in-group affect), friendship identity content, social support, self-esteem, and a nonequivalent dependent variable were measured across four time points, while social validation was obtained immediately and 4 weeks after ROPDMS. Quantitative data revealed significant increases for in-group ties, cognitive centrality, and friendship identity content after ROPDMS, while the nonequivalent dependent variable did not significantly change. Qualitative data revealed that the coaching staff felt the session was worthwhile and enhanced aspects of team functioning. Online ROPDMS therefore appears to be a viable team-building method for practitioners seeking to strengthen social identity dimensions and friendship identity content during a national lockdown.

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Fábio Y. Nakamura, Júlio A. Costa, Bruno Travassos, Daniel Ortuño, and José Pino-Ortega

Purpose: To investigate the internal training loads of a professional Spanish female futsal team throughout 26 weeks of training including preseason and in-season weeks and verify the impact of training period and/or training load magnitudes on heart-rate variability responses. Furthermore, we aimed to assess, intraindividually, the relationship between training load and the coefficient of variation (CV) of weekly natural log of the root mean square difference of successive normal interbeat (RR) intervals (lnRMSSDCV), obtained from ∼5 measures per week, and recorded in the seated position. Methods: A within-subject design involved 12 high-level outfield female futsal players (mean [SD] age: 23.9 [3.4] y). Results: lnRMSSD was significantly lower and lnRMSSDCV was significantly higher during the preseason (weeks 1–6) compared to in-season (weeks 7–26) (P < .001). Individually, players presented moderate to large negative correlations between lnRMSSDCV and lnRMSSD during the 26 weeks of observation. Correlations ranged between r player4 = −.41 (95% CI, −.69 to −.02) and r player12 = −.55 (−.78 to −.18). Players also presented moderate to very large positive correlations between lnRMSSDCV and session rating of perceived exertion. Correlations ranged between r player7 = .41 (.04 to .71) and r player1 = .71 (.45 to .86). Conclusion: Professional female futsal players in this study presented increased lnRMSSD and reduced lnRMSSDCV during 20 weeks into the competitive season compared to 6 weeks of preseason. Furthermore, lnRMSSDCV was negatively associated with lnRMSSD on an intraindividual basis. Finally, higher internal training loads were positively correlated with lnRMSSDCV, indicating that heart-rate variability is responsive to weekly training loads.