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Chien-Chih Chou, Kuan-Chou Chen, Mei-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu and Chung-Ju Huang

Purpose: This study determines the effect of movement games on executive function among overweight children. Methods: Forty-four overweight children received an intervention of movement games, and 40 overweight children participated in original physical education lessons. An intervention of movement games was conducted three times a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Neuropsychological tasks and the Stroop and determination tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Results: The results indicated that movement games enhanced the children’s performance in the inhibitory control and attentional function, particularly in the interference tendency condition, whereas no performance improvement was noted in the original physical education lessons. Conclusion: The findings indicate that movement games can be utilized as a useful intervention for improving the attentional and inhibitory problems of overweight children. School authorities should consider incorporating these activities into programs related to physical and health education.

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To describe the influence of negotiations on instruction when preservice teachers taught elementary students using a skill theme approach. Methods: Participants were nine preservice teachers from one physical education teacher education program enrolled in a 9-week early field experience. They taught kindergarten, first-, and second-grade students (N = 203). Constructs from the ecology paradigm and previous research on negotiations guided data collection and analysis. Data were collected through nonparticipant observation, informal interviews, critical incident reflections, document analysis, and formal interviews. Deductive and inductive qualitative techniques were employed to code and categorize the data. Findings: A unique and mainly positive pattern of negotiations was revealed as were some new forms of negotiation. Students were also shown to initiate negative negotiations to change content they perceived as gender inappropriate. Conclusion: These findings could be used as the basis for educating preservice teachers to negotiate more effectively when teaching by skill themes.

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Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

Sport organizations, the media, and the public frequently interact. Messages conveyed by organizations and the media likely impact both groups’ communication strategies to reach target audiences and control messaging. This triad of communication—team–media–public—is often examined in segments (e.g., media framing or public reaction to media), even though the three interact. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in message themes and responses from all perspectives on a common topic. Following a major announcement from a professional sport organization, the researchers conducted a content analysis of communication from three perspectives: the team, local press, and citizens. The results showed that each of the three sources provided distinct, original content that became increasingly linked to that of the other sources over time. Sport practitioners could use the findings to better understand the influence of outside sources of communication and utilize social media in their public relations efforts.

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Wesley J. Wilson, Luke E. Kelly and Justin A. Haegele

Purpose: To examine how physical educators and adapted physical educators make decisions regarding the implementation of the least restrictive environment law and what factors influence those practices. Methods: This study utilized a descriptive survey design through an online platform. Participants included 78 teachers (30 physical educators and 48 adapted physical educators). Descriptive statistics and group comparisons through a multivariate analysis of variance were conducted. Results: A significant difference in the implementation of the law between physical educators and adapted physical educators was detected, F(44, 33) = 2.60, p = .003; Wilk’s Λ = .224, ηp2=.78. Adapted physical educators were more involved in making decisions regarding the individualized education program process and student placement. Access to qualified staff was reported as a major barrier to implementation. Discussion/Conclusion: The implementation of the least restrictive environment law and its barriers are discussed.

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Langston Clark

In this autoethnography, I utilized the concepts of otherfathering, social capital, and testimonio (i.e., testimonial) to explicate the need for and value of Black male mentors in physical education teacher education (PETE). To do so, I describe how three of my mentors operated as otherfathers by imbuing me with the social capital needed to be successful in academia. I conclude by arguing for specific intersectional efforts to support Black men and Black women in PETE, along with the establishment of organizational efforts, to meet the needs of Black professionals in PETE.

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Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and K. Andrew R. Richards

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of teacher–student negotiation that occurred when preservice teachers (PTs) taught within the teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model. Method: The participants were seven PTs enrolled in an elementary early field experience. They taught three to four mini-units of TPSR. Seven qualitative techniques were employed to collect data, and standard interpretive techniques were used to analyze them. Results: Three general patterns of negotiation were identified. In the units taught by two of the PTs, the negotiations became more positive. For three of the PTs, the rates of negotiation were constant. In the units taught by the remaining two PTs, the negotiations became more negative. Key factors influencing the patterns of negotiation were PTs’ comprehension of and comfort with the TPSR model; class size; and students’ age, gender, and skill level. Conclusion: These findings may help faculty develop more nuanced and effective training for PTs learning to teach through TPSR.

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Eric W. MacIntosh and Popi Sotiriadou

Through the lens of the theory of reasoned action and the framework of attraction, retention, transition, and nurturing of athletes, this study examined how athletes’ experiences at the Commonwealth Youth Games contributed to satisfaction with the event, while encouraging transition into higher levels of competition. A total of 244 athletes from 23 different countries who completed a survey helped identify the environment-related aspects that created positive and negative experiences. The participants noted that learning from various social and cultural experiences influenced their event satisfaction and their future intention to remain in high-performance sport. Aspects of the event service environment, including poor accommodation and nutrition, were found to negatively impact performance. This paper contributes to the role of pre-elite events as athletic development agents that aid in talent transition. The results have implications for event organizers and high-performance managers regarding the influence of athletes’ experiences on performances and intention to transition.

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Colleen English

In the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam, women officially competed in track and field for the first time. After a world-record-breaking 800-meter final, the press inaccurately reported that the runners collapsed at the finish and generally called for the race to be eliminated since it called too greatly on feminine strength. In intervening years between the 1928 and 1932 Olympics, the IOC and IAAF voted to eliminate the race from the program. A fuller understanding of 800-meter race, within a broader American cultural milieu about women’s health and sport, demonstrates how the media and sport governing bodies intersect with ideologies of femininity.

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Michal Wilk, Michal Krzysztofik, Milosz Drozd and Adam Zajac

Purpose: Resistance training is one of the key components influencing power output. Previous studies directed at power development through the use of postactivation potentiation have analyzed resistance exercises at volitional or fast tempo of movement in the entire cycle, without control of the duration of the concentric and eccentric phases of movement. To date, no scientific studies have explored the effects of varied movement tempo on the level of power output, velocity, and postactivation potentiation efficiency. Methods: During the experimental sessions, study participants performed 3 sets (Sets1–3) of the bench-press exercise using 70% 1-repetition maximum and 2 different tempos of movement: 2/0/X/0 eccentric medium tempo (ECCMED) and 6/0/X/0 eccentric slow tempo (ECCSLO). Results: Post hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences in values of peak (P PEAK) and mean (P MEAN) power between Sets1–3 measured for the ECCMED (2/0/X/0) tempo. The values of P MEAN in Set3 (492.15 [87.61] W) were significantly higher than in Set2 (480.05 [82.10] W) and Set1 (467.65 [79.18] W). Similarly, the results of P PEAK in Set3 (713.10 [132.72] W) were significantly higher than those obtained in Set2 (702.25 [129.5] W) and Set1 (671.55 [115.79] W). For the ECCSLO tempo (6/0/X/0) in Set2 (587.9 [138.48] W), the results of P PEAK were significantly higher than in Set1 (565.7 [117.37] W) and Set3 (563.1 [124.93] W). Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the postactivation potentiation effect is observed for both slow and medium tempos of movement.

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Cruz Hogan, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew Doyle, Leanne Lester and Peter Peeling

Purpose: To compare methods of monitoring and prescribing on-water exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], stroke rate [SR], and power output [PO]) during sprint kayak training. Methods: Twelve well-trained flat-water sprint kayak athletes completed a preliminary on-water 7 × 4-min graded exercise test and a 1000-m time trial to delineate individual training zones for PO, HR, and SR into a 5-zone model (T1–T5). Subsequently, athletes completed 2 repeated trials of an on-water training session, where intensity was prescribed based on individual PO zones. Times quantified for T1–T5 during the training session were then compared between PO, HR, and SR. Results: Total time spent in T1 was higher for HR (P < .01) compared with PO. Time spent in T2 was lower for HR (P < .001) and SR (P < .001) compared with PO. Time spent in T3 was not different between PO, SR, and HR (P > .05). Time spent in T4 was higher for HR (P < .001) and SR (P < .001) compared with PO. Time spent in T5 was higher for SR (P = .03) compared with PO. Differences were found between the prescribed and actual time spent in T1–T5 when using PO (P < .001). Conclusions: The measures of HR and SR misrepresented time quantified for T1–T5 as prescribed by PO. The stochastic nature of PO during on-water training may explain the discrepancies between prescribed and actual time quantified for power across these zones. For optimized prescription and monitoring of athlete training loads, coaches should consider the discrepancies between different measures of intensity and how they may influence intensity distribution.