Clinical Question: Do cultural-competence-based educational interventions improve the cultural competence of athletic training students, based on the constructs of the Campinha-Bacote model? Clinical Bottom Line: Athletic training programs can improve athletic training students’ cultural awareness, knowledge, skill, encounters, and desire by incorporating cultural-competence-based independent readings, lecture presentations, in-class discussions, and self-awareness activities.
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Megan N. Sears, Dani M. Moffit and Rebecca M. Lopez
Julian North, David Piggott, Alexandra Rankin-Wright and Michael Ashford
Although there have been increasing calls to recognise the “voice of the coach” in both policy and research, there has been very little work that has asked the coaches directly: “what are your main issues and problems?” and “where do you go for support?” Instead, assessments and decisions have been made on these issues by the media, policy makers, support agencies, governing bodies, and researchers with results often reflecting the perspectives and interests of the latter. This paper presents new research with a reasonably representative sample of over 1,000 U.K. coaches that considers the issues and problems, and support networks from the perspective of the coaches themselves. The results suggest that coaches experience a wide range of problems but that they can be broken down into 17 main categories with places to play sport (e.g., facilities), problems with player–coach interaction, and problems with coaching knowledge and skills, being most frequently mentioned. In terms of support networks, the coaches tended to look “closest to home”: to themselves, their family/friends, participants and parents, and local coaching networks. Governing bodies and coaching associations tend to be less well used. Some implications for policy and practise are discussed.
Michael D. McAdie, Monica R. Lininger and Meghan Warren
Focused Clinical Question: In an individual who is physically active in recreation or sport, can the tuck jump assessment be reliably scored? Clinical Bottom Line: Current evidence regarding the reliability of the original tuck jump assessment and modified tuck jump assessment are conflicting.
Melissa Jack, Ryan Tierney, Jamie Mansell and Anne Russ
Focused Clinical Question: In patients with myofascial trigger point pain, does dry needling result in greater decreases in pain compared to sham needling? Clinical Bottom Line: The evidence supporting dry needling as more effective than sham needling in reducing patients’ pain is mixed.
Nicole J. Chimera, Monica R. Lininger, Bethany Hudson, Christopher Kendall, Lindsay Plucknette, Timothy Szalkowski and Meghan Warren
A novel technique of short message service (SMS), or text message, has examined injuries in elite handball and female football and community Australian football with a response rate of over 75%. The purpose of this study was to determine if text message is a feasible method of prospectively collecting injury density data in club sports teams in the United States. Participants received a weekly text message with four questions asking about pain and participation in the past week. If the participant indicated pain in the past week, a follow-up phone interview was conducted to determine the nature of the pain/injury. The overall text message response rate was 89.8%; there were 281 responses out of 313 participant contacts over the 12-week study period. Semi-structured follow-up phone interviews were completed for 37 of the 55 reports of pain that were indicated through text message response, resulting in further injury information for 65.5% of injuries. Incidence density of reporting pain over the 12-week study was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.68–1.15) per 1,000 min of activity. In this sample, text message response rates were similar to previous studies; however, we did lose nine (25.7%) participants to follow-up.
Federico Jose Villalba and Melina Soledad Martínez
A 59-year-old male was referred to physical therapy due to shoulder pain. Computed axial tomography reveled a previous sternoclavicular injury, consistent with fracture-dislocation. This report describes the rehabilitation process of the patient with shoulder pain and a history of sternoclavicular joint fracture-dislocation. Thoracic mobility exercises, glenohumeral mobilizations, muscle strengthening, neuromuscular reeducation, and pain science education were used. The patient exhibited improvement in regard to pain, mobility, muscle strength, and self-reported questionnaires.
Mark L. Howard
Jimmy Sanderson, Matthew Zimmerman, Sarah Stokowski and Alison Fridley
This research explored maladaptive parasocial interaction (PSI) expressed toward Chicago Bears kicker Cody Parkey after he missed a potential game-winning field goal in the 2019 NFL (National Football League) playoffs. Using a sample of 512 tweets posted during the week after the game, qualitative analysis revealed that maladaptive PSI manifested in the following ways: criticism, threats, anger, and support. The results help better illuminate the nature of virtual abuse and maltreatment of athletes that is increasing in online spaces. Results also suggest that maladaptive PSI expressed online creates friction among fans who have to reconcile defeat with problematic behavior from other group members. Implications for sport organizations are discussed, including the need to support and protect athletes against virtual abuse and maltreatment.
Michael J. Panza, Scott Graupensperger, Jennifer P. Agans, Isabelle Doré, Stewart A. Vella and Michael Blair Evans
Sport may protect against symptoms of mental disorders that are increasingly prevalent among adolescents. This systematic review explores the relationship between adolescent organized sport participation and self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. From 9,955 records screened, 29 unique articles were selected that included 61 effect sizes and 122,056 participants. Effects were clustered into four categories based on the operationalization of sport involvement: absence or presence of involvement, frequency of involvement, volume of involvement, and duration of participation. Results from the random-effects meta-analyses indicated that symptoms of anxiety and depression were significantly lower among sport-involved adolescents than in those not involved in sport, although this effect size was small in magnitude. Meta-regression was used to identify how age and sex explained heterogeneity in effects. Although these results do not signify a causal effect, they do support theorizing that sport participation during adolescence may be a protective environment against anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Leslie K. Larsen, Leslee A. Fisher, Terilyn C. Shigeno, Matthew P. Bejar and Melissa N. Madeson
While the policies National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletic departments have in place regarding social media and drug abuse have been empirically investigated, research on the full battery of rules implemented by NCAA teams is scant. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the written team rules of 41 NCAA Division I women’s basketball teams to better understand the types of rules that are in place and to hypothesize the effects these rules might have on the development of an autonomy-supportive environment. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, the research team constructed seven domains with multiple categories to represent the data. The domains included the following: (a) program expectations, (b) controlled communication, (c) controlled relationships, (d) controlled appearance/attire, (e) controlled social behavior, (f) recommendations for optimal physical performance, and (g) academic expectation. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that NCAA Division I women’s basketball coaches use team rules as a tool for domination rather than a strategy for developing the autonomy of student-athletes. We offer practical suggestions for coach educators, coach developers, and coaches on best practices when creating team rules to develop an autonomy-supportive environment that strengthens organizational loyalty and improves the experiences of student-athletes.