David X. Marquez, Michelle A. Jaldin, Miguel Negrete, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover, and Crystal M. Glover
Physical activity (PA) has been associated with a multitude of beneficial mental and physical outcomes. It is well documented, however, that there are health disparities and inequities for segments of the population, especially as related to PA. Engagement of traditionally minoritized populations into research is essential for justice in health. We discuss a community engagement model that can be used for recruiting and retaining traditionally minoritized populations into PA research, and then we go into three major ethnic/racial groups in the United States: Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Americans. Background information of each group, cultural values that play a role in health for each of the groups, and research demonstrating how culture plays a role in the formation and implementation of PA interventions in these groups is presented.
Marcia L. Jerram, Dane Baker, Tiaki B. Smith, Phil Healey, Lee Taylor, and Katherine Black
Purpose: Menthol mouth swills can improve endurance performance in the heat, which is attributed to attenuations in nonthermally derived thermal sensation (TS) and perception of effort. However, research in elite team-sport athletes is absent. Therefore, this study investigated the performance and TS responses to a 0.1% menthol mouth rinse (MR) or placebo (PLA) among elite male rugby union players. Method: Twenty-seven (15 Forwards and 12 Backs) elite male Super Rugby players completed two 3-minute 15-a-side rugby-specific conditioning blocks, with MR or PLA provided at the start of training (baseline), at the start of each 3-minute block (swill 1 [S1] and swill 2 [S2]), and at the end of training (swill 3 [S3]). TS was assessed using the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers 9-point Analog Sensation Scale after each swill and at baseline (preconditioning block). Acceptability was measured after baseline swill and S3 using a 5-question Likert scale. Physical performance was measured throughout training using global positioning system metrics. Results: MR attenuated TS from baseline to S1 (P = .003, SD = 1.01) and S2 (P = .002, SD = 1.09) in Forwards only, compared with PLA. Acceptability was higher only for Forwards in MR versus PLA at baseline (P = .003, SD = 1.3) and S3 (P = .004, SD = 0.75). MR had no effect on physical performance metrics (P > .05). Conclusion: MR attenuated the rise in TS with higher acceptability at S1 and S3 (in Forwards only) with no effect on selected physical performance metrics. Longer-duration exercise (eg, a match) in hot–humid conditions eliciting markedly increased body temperatures could theoretically allow favorable changes in TS to enhance performance—these postulations warrant experimental investigation.
Maryam Marashi, Sabrina Malouka, Tahla den Houdyker, and Catherine M. Sabiston
Despite increasing access to sport and exercise opportunities, girls and women in Canada continue to face gender disparity in sport participation. Several media campaigns have emerged to address this disparity and advocate for gender equity in sport. However, there is little understanding or evaluation of the content of these media campaigns. Informed by sport participation research, the She’s Got It All campaign was designed to highlight the challenges and intersecting disadvantages that girls and women face in sport. The purpose of the current study was to assess the textual and visual content of this campaign. The posters (N = 48) were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis (text) and deductive content analysis (visual) to identify the characteristics of the images and the themes in the messages. Based on the thematic analysis, seven main themes pertaining to girls’ and women’s barriers to sport participation are identified including physiology, gendered social behaviors, intrapersonal beliefs, environmental contexts, stereotypes, female representation, and interpersonal support. Based on the content analysis, most of the models presented in the posters are perceived as White and average-sized adult women, with visible muscle definition, slightly or nonrevealing clothing, and performing an individual sport. The poster visual and text material seem to miss opportunities to highlight the experiences of girls and women identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (or sometimes questioning), and others and those classified as lower socioeconomic status. These findings provide foundational information for future research and media campaign designed to target gender equity in sport.
Nahid Pirayeh, Farshid Razavi, Amin Behdarvandan, and Neda Mostafaee
Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury scale (ACL-RSI) is used to measure athletes’ psychological readiness in terms of their emotions, confidence in performance, and risk appraisal with respect to return to sport after ACL reconstruction. Objective: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the ACL-RSI to the Persian version and evaluate the reliability and validity of this scale in patients with ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Clinical measurement study (psychometric analysis). Methods: To assess test–retest reliability, 100 participants were asked to complete the Persian version of the ACL-RSI 2 times with a 7- to 10-day interval. In the first assessment, the patients also filled the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport Questionnaire, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha, α), test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients), measurement error (standard error of measurement and minimum detectable change), and construct validity (Pearson r) were determined. Results: Our results showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = .94) and excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients = .90 (.85−.93)]. Standard error of measurement and minimum detectable change were 4.64 and 12.85, respectively. No significant bias was observed between test and retest. In addition, based on the results of correlation analysis, all hypotheses of this study were confirmed. The Persian version of the ACL-RSI had a strong correlation with Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport (I-PPR) (P < .001, r = .76) and Tampa scale of Kinesiophobia (TKS) (P < .001, r = −.68). Furthermore, a moderate correlation was observed between the Persian version of the ACL-RSI and the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (P < .001, r = .44) and between this version of the ACL-RSI and the subscales of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (P < .001, r = .30–.55). Conclusion: Given its acceptable reliability and validity, the Persian version of the ACL-RSI seems to be a suitable tool for evaluating psychological readiness to return to sport after ACL reconstruction.
Richard Norman, Daniel Sailofsky, Simon Darnell, Marika Warner, and Bryan Heal
The COVID-19 pandemic affected sport programming by restricting in-person activities. Concurrently, global outcry for racial justice for Black and racialized communities promoted calls to action to assess equitable practices in sport, including sport for development (SFD). This study critically examined SFD “return to play” programming to include perspectives from racialized persons’ lived experiences. We present findings based on data collected from Maple Leaf Sports and Entertainment Foundation’s Change the Game campaign, which explored questions of sport inequity to “build back better.” Outcomes further SFD discourses challenging (potentially) harmful structures affecting participants, including underreported effects of racialization. The study used both quantitative and qualitative analyses of survey data on youth experiences, enablers, and barriers in sport and analyzed these results within an antiracist, antioppressive, and decolonial conceptual framework.
Seok-Hyun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Chung-Hwi Yi, Ji-Hyun Lee, and Seung-Min Baik
Context: Wall push-up plus (WPP) and wall slide (WS) are commonly prescribed in early rehabilitation to increase serratus anterior (SA) muscle activity. For individuals with scapular winging (SW), synergistic muscles such as upper trapezius (UT) and pectoralis major (PM) may compensate for weak SA during scapular movement. However, no studies have applied isometric horizontal abduction (IHA) during WS in individuals with SW nor have compared it with WPP with IHA. Objectives: This study compared the effects of IHA on shoulder muscle activity during WPP and WS exercises in individuals with SW. Design: Cross-sectional study; 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of observed differences in SA, UT, PM, lower trapezius (LT), and infraspinatus (IS) muscle activities. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients: We recruited 30 individuals with SW comprising 20 men and 10 women. Interventions: The individuals performed WPP and WS exercises with and without IHA using Thera-Band. Main Outcome Measures: Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity of the SA, UT, PM, LT, and IS during the isometric phase of WPP and WS. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions were recorded to normalize electromyographic data. Results: There was no significant interaction between IHA application and exercise type for any of the shoulder muscles. IHA application increased SA (P = .008), UT (P = .001), LT (P = .009), and IS (P = .000) activities and decreased PM (P = .001) activity compared with those without IHA. WS exercises elicited higher PM (P = .017) and LT (P = .011) activities than WPP. Conclusion: WPP and WS with IHA may be effective in increasing the muscle activities of shoulder stabilizers and preventing overactivation of PM activity. WPP may be recommended for individuals with overactivated PM, whereas WS may be used to increase LT activity.
Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Matt Laurent, Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Luis Felipe Castelli Correa de Campos, and Ciro Winckler
Context: One of the primary training variables, although often overlooked, is recovery level achieved before starting subsequent training sessions. To find a more practical measurement that is consonant with the daily training routine, the Perceived Recovery Status (PRS) scale is proposed. In this perspective, the present study aimed to translate and culturally adapt the PRS scale into Brazilian Portuguese. Design: This was a clinical measurement. Methods: The cross-cultural translation was performed according to guidelines. Linguistic validation consisted of 5 stages: forward translation, translation synthesis, back translation, analysis of inconsistencies, and cognitive debriefing. Results: During forward translation, different interpretations were obtained from the 2 translators (versions V1 and V2). Supported by an expert committee, a combined version (V3) was obtained from V1 and V2. During back translation, different interpretations were obtained from the 2 translators (versions V4 and V5). Discrepancies, applicability, and cultural equivalence were documented and analyzed by the expert committee participating in the cross-cultural translation procedure. During the cognitive debriefing, a group of 5 Brazilian people from the general population were asked to participate in a cognitive debriefing to assess the comprehensibility of the translated items. Conclusions: The PRS was translated and culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (PRS-Brasil).
David J. Scott, Massimiliano Ditroilo, Samuel T. Orange, and Phil Marshall
Purpose: To compare the effects of variable-resistance complex training (VRCT) versus traditional complex training (TCT) on strength, power, speed, and leg stiffness (Kleg) in rugby league players during a 6-week mesocycle. Methods: Twenty-four rugby league players competing in the British University and Colleges Sport Premier North Division were randomized to VRCT (n = 8), TCT (n = 8), or control (CON; n = 8). Experimental groups completed a 6-week lower-body complex training intervention (2×/wk) that involved alternating high-load resistance exercise with plyometric exercise within the same session. The VRCT group performed resistance exercises at 70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) + 0% to 23% of 1RM from band resistance with a 90-second intracontrast rest interval, whereas the TCT group performed resistance exercise at 93% of 1RM with a 4-minute intracontrast rest interval. Back-squat 1RM, countermovement jump peak power, reactive strength index, sprint times, and Kleg were assessed pretraining and posttraining. Results: VRCT and TCT significantly improved 1RM back squat, countermovement jump peak power, and 5-m sprint time (all P < .05). VRCT also improved Kleg, whereas TCT improved 10- and 20-m sprint times (all P < .05). Between groups, both VRCT and TCT improved 1RM back squat compared with CON (both P < .001). Additionally, VRCT improved Kleg compared with CON (right leg: P = .016) and TCT improved 20-m sprint time compared with CON (P = .042). Conclusions: VRCT and TCT can be implemented during the competitive season to improve strength, power, and 5-m sprint time. VRCT may lead to greater improvements in reactive strength index and Kleg, whereas TCT may enhance 10- and 20-m sprint times.
Alex M. Wolfe, Maria A. Pessman, Kelly R. Laurson, Dale D. Brown, and Ryan A. Brown
Purpose: This study examined differences in measures of health-related physical fitness in adolescents before and after extended school closures due to COVID-19. Method: The sample consisted of 298 students (135 males and 163 females) from a laboratory high school. Data were collected through FITNESSGRAM assessments. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance was calculated to analyze differences in fitness before and after COVID-19 closures, including McNemar–Bowker and McNemar tests. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified for Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (−4.2%; 1.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) and curl-up (−12.5%; 7.9 repetitions). In addition, 18.8% fewer students were classified within the Healthy Fitness Zone for Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run, 4% for curl-up, 10.8% for push-up, and 6.4% for sit and reach. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrate that there was a significant decline in physical fitness for secondary students during extended school closures and social isolation as a result of COVID-19.