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Carrie LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer, Gregory Greenhalgh, Chad Goebert and Jennifer Gellock

A globalized curriculum has the potential to prepare students in a way that equips them for whatever sport looks like in the future. Study abroad programs are one way to achieve this. The current study looked at two short-term study abroad programs (one to western Europe, one to South Africa), offered during the same semester at the same institution, comparing learning outcomes between students on the two trips. Utilizing a mixed methods design, students completed quantitative pre/post surveys and responded to qualitative, open-ended daily prompts while on the trips. Findings indicate that knowledge acquisition occurs in both programs; however, students traveling on a sport-focused service-based trip to South Africa had a more transformational learning experience than those traveling on a sport-business-focused trip to western Europe.

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Fabio Bertapelli, Ken Pitetti, Ruth A. Miller, Adam Jaeger, Michael Loovis, Wilson D. do Amaral-Junior, Marcos M. de Barros-Filho and Gil Guerra-Junior

Youth with intellectual disabilities (IDs) demonstrate below-criteria motor competence (MC) compared with typically developing (TD) youth. Whether differences in MC exist for youth with ID from different countries is unknown. This study examined the MC of youth with ID from Brazil (BR) and the United States (US) and compared it with norms for TD youth as established by the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2). The authors measured 19 BOT-2 test items for bilateral coordination, balance, and upper limb coordination of 502 youth (BR = 252, US = 250) with ID (6–21 years). Raw scores were converted to %ceiling (percentile of highest expected scores). For all test items, no significant differences were seen between BR and US participants in %ceiling scores. Participants from both countries demonstrated equivalent to slightly below BOT-2 norms in 14 of the 19 test items, with lowest scores seen in contralateral synchronizing bilateral coordination, balancing on one leg, and ball handling.

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Jayshree Shah, Tarushi Tanwar, Iram Iram, Mosab Aldabbas and Zubia Veqar

The objective was to investigate the electromyographic activity of the lumbar multifidus (MF) muscle and longissimus thoracis muscle, along with their activity ratio (MF longissimus thoracis ratio), during quadruped stabilization exercise performed with neutral posture and with increased lumbar lordosis in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). A total of 23 patients with CLBP (12 females and 11 males) were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criterion. Each patient performed 4 exercises in random order, with surface electromyography electrodes and an electrogoniometer attached. A cross-sectional study design was used to measure the amplitude of muscle activation (as a percentage of maximum voluntary contraction) in each patient across the 2 muscles (MF and longissimus thoracis) during quadruped stabilization exercise with neutral posture and with increased lumbar lordosis. A 2-way analysis of variance was conducted, which demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the recruitment of MF with increased lumbar lordosis in patients with CLBP during quadruped exercise. An increase of 9.7% and 16.9% maximum voluntary contraction in MF electromyographic activity was observed in lumbar lordosis posture during the quadruped leg raise and quadruped leg-arm raise exercise, respectively (P < .01), when compared to the neutral posture. The increased recruitment of MF with lumbar lordosis in the quadruped position has strong implications in the assessment and management of patients with CLBP.

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Angelica E. Lang, Soo Y. Kim, Stephan Milosavljevic and Clark R. Dickerson

Breast cancer survivors have known scapular kinematic alterations that may be related to the development of secondary morbidities. A measure of muscle activation would help understand the mechanisms behind potential harmful kinematics. The purpose of this study was to define muscle force strategies in breast cancer survivors. Shoulder muscle forces during 6 functional tasks were predicted for 25 breast cancer survivors (divided by impingement pain) and 25 controls using a modified Shoulder Loading Analysis Module. Maximum forces for each muscle were calculated, and 1-way analysis of variance (P < .05) was used to identify group differences. The differences between maximum predicted forces and maximum electromyography were compared with repeated-measures analysis of variance (P < .05) to evaluate the success of the model predictions. Average differences between force predictions and electromyography ranged from 7.3% to 31.6% but were within the range of previously accepted differences. Impingement related pain in breast cancer survivors is associated with increased force of select shoulder muscles. Both pectoralis major heads, upper trapezius, and supraspinatus peak forces were higher in the pain group across all tasks. These force prediction differences are also associated with potentially harmful kinematic strategies, providing a direction for possible rehabilitation strategies.

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Jennifer M. Jacobs, Karisa L. Kuipers, K. Andrew R. Richards and Paul M. Wright

Prior research has demonstrated the importance of engaging college students in a global curriculum that prepares them for the everchanging landscape of the sports industry. International learning experiences are one way to facilitate this type of professional preparation and often include the added benefit of having a deep personal impact. The purpose of this study was to understand university students’ experiences leading sessions for Belizean coaches as part of an international teaching experience. Participants were four university students pursuing interdisciplinary sport majors. Data sources included recorded interviews and daily group debrief sessions, reflective journals, social media-based photo journals, and observational fieldnotes. Qualitative data analysis resulted in the construction of three themes that described the participants’ experiences and learning outcomes: (a) personal and professional growth, (b) developing and maintaining relationships, and (c) engaging with culture. Results suggest that an international program designed to foster experiential, global learning was enhanced by the opportunity to teach in a new context, foster relationships with local stakeholders, and participate in pre- and posttrip training.

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Justin A. Haegele, Chunxiao Li and Wesley J. Wilson

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal/intrapersonal mindfulness, contact anxiety, and attitudes toward students with visual impairments among certified adapted physical educators. Participants included 115 certified adapted physical educators who completed a 31-item online survey, composed of a 10-item demographic questionnaire, a 14-item mindfulness in teaching scale, a four-item intergroup anxiety scale, and a three-item attitude scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that intrapersonal mindfulness was a negative predictor of contact anxiety (β = −0.26, p = .007) and contact anxiety negatively predicted attitudes (β = −0.22, p = .02). A mediation analysis revealed that intrapersonal mindfulness had an indirect effect on attitudes through contact anxiety, b = 0.09, SE = 0.05, 95% confidence interval [0.006, 0.22]. Collectively, both intrapersonal and interpersonal mindfulness appear to be responsible for the formation of attitudes, but with different underlying processes involved.

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David A. White, Erik A. Willis, Chaitanya Panchangam, Kelli M. Teson, Jessica S. Watson, Brian F. Birnbaum, Girish Shirali and Anitha Parthiban

Purpose: To quantify the differences in daily physical activity (PA) patterns, intensity-specific volumes, and PA bouts in youth with and without heart disease (HD). Methods: Seven-day PA was measured on children/adolescents with HD (n = 34; median age 12.4 y; 61.8% male; 70.6% single ventricle, 17.7% heart failure, and 11.8% pulmonary hypertension) and controls without HD (n = 22; median age 12.3 y; 59.1% male). Mean counts per minute were classified as sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and bouts of MVPA were calculated. PA was calculated separately for each hour of wear time from 8:00 to 22:00. Multilevel linear mixed modeling compared the outcomes, stratifying by group, time of day, and day part (presented as median percentage of valid wear time [interquartile range]). Results: Compared with the controls, the HD group had more light PA (33.9% [15%] vs 29.6% [9.5%]), less MVPA (1.7% [2.5%] vs 3.2% [3.3%]), and more sporadic bouts (97.4% [5.7%] vs 89.9% [9.2%]), but fewer short (2.0% [3.9%] vs 7.1% [5.7%]) and medium-to-long bouts (0.0% [1.9%] vs 1.6% [4.6%]) of MVPA. The HD group was less active in the late afternoon, between 15:00 and 17:00 (P < .03). There were no differences between groups in sedentary time. Conclusion: Children/adolescents with HD exhibit differences in intensity-specific volumes, PA bouts, and daily PA patterns compared with controls.

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Rachel S. Johnson, Kendall H. Scott and Robert C. Lynall

Context: Gait termination time (GTT) has been used to predict falls in older adults but has not been explored in the sport rehabilitation setting. The incorporation of a concurrent cognitive task as a complex measure of gait in this clinical population could lead to better health-related outcomes. Objective: To compare the effect of planned and unplanned gait termination with and without a concurrent cognitive task on reaction time (RT), gait velocity, and GTT. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Twenty young adults (females 60.0%, age 20.1 [0.9] y, height 169.5 [8.8] cm, mass 67.4 [10.8] kg). Intervention: Participants completed 6 planned and 6 unplanned gait termination trials on an instrumented gait mat with and without a cognitive task. Main Outcome Measures: The authors measured RT (s), gait velocity (m/s), GTT (s), and normalized GTT (s2/m). A 2 (motor) × 2 (cognitive) repeated-measures analysis of variance (α = .05) was used; significant interaction effects were explored using Bonferroni-corrected t tests (α < .008). Results: Participants walked more slowly during dual-task trials compared with single-task trials (F 1,19 = 4.401, P = .050). Participants walked significantly more slowly with a cognitive task during planned (P < .001, mean difference = −0.184 m/s, 95% CI, −0.256 to −0.111) and unplanned (P = .001, mean difference = −0.111 m/s, 95% CI, −0.173 to −0.050) gait termination. Participants walked significantly more slowly (P < .001, mean difference = −0.142 m/s, 95% CI, −0.210 to −0.075) when performing the most difficult task, unplanned termination with a cognitive task, than when performing the least difficult task, planned termination with no cognitive task. We observed a cognitive task main effect such that adding a cognitive task increased RT (F 1,19 = 16.375, P = .001, mean difference = −0.118 s, 95% CI, −0.178 to −0.057) and slowed normalized GTT (F 1,19 = 5.655, P = .028, mean difference = −0.167 s2/m, 95% CI, −0.314 to −0.020). Conclusions: Overall, participants displayed more conservative gait strategies and slower RT, normalized GTT, and gait velocity as task difficulty increased. More investigation is needed to truly understand the clinical meaningfulness of these measures in athletic injuries.

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Jane Jie Yu, Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-Yu Pan, Ru Li and Cindy Hui-Ping Sit

Background: To examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) and inhibition in boys and girls with motor impairments compared with children with typical development. Methods: The participants were 58 (26 motor impairments and 32 typical development) children aged 7–12 years who met the inclusion criteria. PA was assessed using accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. The time spent in PA of different intensity levels (light, moderate, and vigorous) were analyzed for weekdays and weekends. Using a visuospatial attention paradigm, inhibition was evaluated by the difference in reaction time between invalid and valid cue conditions. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine the associations of inhibition with PA and motor ability by sex. Results: Boys and children with typical development had shorter reaction times in inhibition than girls (P < .001) and children with motor impairments (P < .05), respectively. Motor ability (b = 189.98) and vigorous PA on weekdays (b = −43.18) were significant predictors of inhibition in girls only. Conclusions: The results indicate a positive relationship between vigorous PA (on weekdays) and inhibition in children (girls), moderated by sex and motor ability. Effective interventions that promote vigorous PA for children both in and out of school should be designed to foster their executive function development.