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Ing-Shiou Hwang, Chia-Ling Hu, Wei-Min Huang, Yi-Ying Tsai and Yi-Ching Chen

This study investigated how visual feedback of virtual error reduction (ER) modified the visuomotor performance of older adults with limited attentional capacity. Error structures of young and older adults during birhythmic force tracking were contrasted when the visualized error size was exact or half of the actual size. As compared with full-size error feedback, ER feedback improved the force tracking symmetry of older adults, but undermined that of young adults. Extended Poincaré analysis revealed that young adults presented greater short-term error variability (mean value of κ-lagged SD1 of the error signal) with ER feedback, which led to a smaller mean value of κ-lagged SD1 of the error signal for older adults. The ER-related task improvement of the older adults was negatively correlated with the size of the tracking errors with real error feedback and positively correlated with ER-related increases in force spectral symmetry and decreases in the mean value of κ-lagged SD1 of the error signal. ER feedback could advance visuomotor tasks for older adults who perform worse with full-size visual feedback by the enhancement of self-efficacy and stabilization of negative internal feedback.

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Matthieu P. Boisgontier, Dan Orsholits, Martina von Arx, Stefan Sieber, Matthew W. Miller, Delphine Courvoisier, Maura D. Iversen, Stéphane Cullati and Boris Cheval

Background: Adverse childhood experiences, depressive symptoms, and functional dependence are interrelated. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. The authors investigated the potential of depressive symptoms to mediate the effect of adverse childhood experiences on functional dependence in older age and whether physical activity moderated this mediation. Method: Data from 25,775 adults aged 62 (9) years from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe were used in adjusted linear mixed-effects models to test whether depressive symptoms mediated the associations between adverse childhood experiences and functional dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) and whether physical activity moderated these mediations. Results: The results showed a graded association between the number of adverse childhood experiences (0 vs 1 and 0 vs ≥2) and the number of functional limitations in both ADL (bs = 0.040 and 0.067) and IADL (bs = 0.046 and 0.076). These associations were mediated by depressive symptoms. Physical activity reduced the effect of adverse childhood experiences on depressive symptoms (bs = −0.179 and −0.515) and tempered the effect of depressive symptoms on functional dependence both in ADL (b = −0.073) and IADL (b = −0.100). As a result of these reductions, the effect of adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms on functional dependence in ADL (Ps > .081) and IADL (Ps > .528) was nonsignificant in physically active participants. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, after age 50, engaging in physical activity more than once a week protects functional independence from the detrimental effects of adverse childhood experiences and depression. In inactive individuals, the detrimental effects of adverse childhood experiences on functional dependence are mediated by depressive symptoms.

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Tom Clifford, Eleanor J. Hayes, Jadine H. Scragg, Guy Taylor, Kieran Smith, Kelly A. Bowden Davies and Emma J. Stevenson

Purpose: This study examined whether a higher protein diet following strenuous exercise can alter markers of muscle damage and inflammation in older adults. Methods: Using a double-blind, independent group design, 10 males and eight females (age 57 ± 4 years; mass 72.3 ± 5.6 kg; height 1.7 ± 6.5 m) were supplied with a higher protein (2.50 g·kg−1·day−1) or moderate protein (1.25 g·kg−1·day−1) diet for 48 hr after 140 squats with 25% of their body mass. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions, muscle soreness, creatine kinase, Brief Assessment of Mood Adapted, and inflammatory markers were measured preexercise, and 24 hr and 48 hr postexercise. Results: The maximal isometric voluntary contractions decreased postexercise (p = .001, ηp2=.421), but did not differ between groups (p = .822, ηp2=.012). Muscle soreness peaked at 24 hr post in moderate protein (44 ± 30 mm) and 48 hr post in higher protein (70 ± 46 mm; p = .005; ηp2=.282); however, no group differences were found (p = .585; ηp2=.083). Monocytes and lymphocytes significantly decreased postexercise, and eosinophils increased 24 hr postexercise (p < 0.05), but neutrophils, creatine kinase, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and Brief Assessment of Mood Adapted were unchanged by exercise or the intervention (p > .05). Conclusion: In conclusion, 2.50 g·kg−1·day−1 of protein is not more effective than 1.25 g·kg−1·day−1 for attenuating indirect markers of muscle damage and inflammation following strenuous exercise in older adults.

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Diana Keyhani, Bakhtyar Tartibian, Arezou Dabiri and Ana Maria Botelho Teixeira

Galectin-3 is a pro-inflammatory biomarker associated with the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). Physical-activity reduces the risk of heart-failure by modification of inflammation and fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training on a predictive factor of HF in postmenopausal women. Thirty sedentary postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to three groups. The first group performed the HIIT program at 60%–90%, and the second group performed an exercise program at 50%–65% of HR reserve. The control group maintained their normal daily regular physical activity level. The gene expressions of galectin-3 and lipid profiles were measured at the baseline and the end of Week 8. The HIIT and moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training attenuated the gene expression of galectin-3, serum low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations and enhanced high-density lipoprotein concentrations. These changes were considerably higher in the HIIT group. Our results show that HIIT is superior to moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training in improving the decrease in HF risk in postmenopausal women.

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Stephen Harvey, Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Brendon P. Hyndman

Social media sites (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, Voxer, Instagram, etc.) have become platforms for self-directed professional development and learning (PDL) for many educators, including physical educators and sports coaches. The aim of this chapter is to provide an introduction to this current monograph on physical educators’ and sports coaches’ social media use for PDL by presenting key issues and relevant literature, and previewing the chapters to follow. The chapter begins with a background discussion of social media, followed by brief literature reviews of PDL research in education and physical education and sport pedagogy, and research on social media use for PDL. Next, an overview of key theories and concepts used within the monograph is provided. The chapter concludes with individual summaries of the six empirical chapters of the monograph.

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Stephen Harvey, Obidiah Atkinson and Brendon P. Hyndman

Purpose: To investigate sports coaches’ Twitter use. Methods: Coaches (N = 310) from 22 countries and a range of sports completed an online survey. Quantitative survey data were analyzed descriptively and triangulated with qualitative data using Leximancer (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) text mining software. Results: Most participants reported using Twitter for ≥3 years and accessed the platform multiple times per day. More than half participants agreed that using Twitter had positively impacted both their own confidence as a coach and their athletes/players/team’s performance. The strongest overall themes from the qualitative data revealed that Twitter helped sports coaches improve their practices through the sharing of information, connecting with other coaches, and building positivity into their interactions when supporting players. Discussion/Conclusion: Sports coaches perceive Twitter to be a highly valuable platform to network, collaborate, gain access to information, and share ideas and resources.

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Clementine Grandou, Lee Wallace, Aaron J. Coutts, Lee Bell and Franco M. Impellizzeri

Purpose: To provide details on the nature and symptomatic profile of training maladaptation in competitive resistance-based athletes to examine whether there are symptoms that may be used as prognostic indicators of overtraining. Identifying prognostic tools to assess for training maladaptation is essential for avoiding severe overtraining conditions. Methods: A Web-based survey was distributed to a cross-sectional convenience sample of competitive athletes involved in sports with a significant resistance-training component. The 46-item anonymous survey was distributed via industry experts and social media from July to August 2019. Results: The final sample included 605 responses (completion rate: 84%). About 71% of the respondents indicated that they had previously experienced an unexplained decrease in performance. Among those, the majority reported a performance decrement lasting 1 wk to 1 mo (43.8%). General feelings of fatigue were the most frequent self-reported symptom of maladaptation. Acute training maladaptation, lasting <1 mo, was also accompanied by symptoms of musculoskeletal aches and pain. In the majority of cases (92.5%), training maladaptation was accompanied by additional nontraining stressors. A greater proportion of the respondents with more severe maladaptation (>4 mo) were training to muscle failure. Conclusion: The results from this study support the multifactorial nature of training maladaptation. The multidimensional nature of fatigue and individual variability in symptomatic responses precludes definitive prognostic symptoms or differential diagnostic factors of functional/nonfunctional overreaching or the overtraining syndrome in resistance exercise.

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Leigh M. Vanderloo, Jonathan L. Maguire, David W. H. Dai, Patricia C. Parkin, Cornelia M. Borkhoff, Mark S. Tremblay, Laura N. Anderson, Catherine S. Birken and on behalf of the TARGet Kids! Collaboration

Background: This study aimed to examine the association between physical activity (PA) and a total cardio metabolic risk (CMR) score in children aged 3–12 years. Secondary objectives were to examine the association between PA and individual CMR factors. Methods: A longitudinal study with repeated measures was conducted with participants from a large primary care practice-based research network in Toronto, Canada. Mixed effects models were used to examine the relationship between parent-reported physical activity and outcome variables (total CMR score, triglycerides, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, weight-to-height ratio, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Results: Data from 1885 children (6.06 y, 54.4% male) with multiple visits (n = 2670) were included in the analyses. For every unit increase of 60 minutes of PA, there was no evidence of an association with total CMR score (adjusted: −0.02 [−0.014 to 0.004], P = .11]. For the individual CMR components, there was evidence of a weak association between PA and systolic blood pressure (−0.01 [−0.03 to −0.01], P < .001) and waist-to-height ratio (−0.81 [−1.62 to −0.003], P < .001). Conclusion: Parent-reported PA among children aged 3–12 years was not statistically associated with total CMR, but was weakly associated with systolic blood pressure and waist-to-height ratio.

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Jill Whitall, Farid Bardid, Nancy Getchell, Melissa M. Pangelinan, Leah E. Robinson, Nadja Schott and Jane E. Clark

In Part I of this series I, we looked back at the 20th century and re-examined the history of Motor Development research described in Clark & Whitall’s 1989 paper “What is Motor Development? The Lessons of History”. We now move to the 21st century, where the trajectories of developmental research have evolved in focus, branched in scope, and diverged into three new areas. These have progressed to be independent research areas, co-existing in time. We posit that the research focus on Dynamical Systems at the end of the 20th century has evolved into a Developmental Systems approach in the 21st century. Additionally, the focus on brain imaging and the neural basis of movement have resulted in a new approach, which we entitled Developmental Motor Neuroscience. Finally, as the world-wide obesity epidemic identified in the 1990s threatened to become a public health crisis, researchers in the field responded by examining the role of motor development in physical activity and health-related outcomes; we refer to this research area as the Developmental Health approach. The glue that holds these research areas together is their focus on movement behavior as it changes across the lifespan.