As part of a coach’s informal learning process, previous athletic experience is a foundational element of an athlete’s future coaching career, determining the perspectives, beliefs, and behaviors the coach will use in their interactions with athletes. Although it is investigated more generally, previous athletic experience is rarely considered in understanding specific coaching behaviors related to supporting athletes’ needs and motivation. This study investigated 15 novice coaches’ personal athletic and coaching experiences to determine how these experiences influenced their own coaching practice with regard to the engagement in autonomy-supportive and/or controlling behaviors. The interview data revealed that novice coaches used their past experiences to inform their practice in the following three ways: (a) experienced controlling behaviors as an athlete, which transferred to a desire to be more autonomy supportive in coaching; (b) experienced controlling behaviors as an athlete, which transferred to a desire to be more controlling in coaching; and (c) experienced autonomy-supportive behaviors as an athlete, which transferred to a desire to be more autonomy supportive in coaching. These results suggest the importance of considering previous athletic experience as an antecedent to coaches’ engagement in autonomy-supportive behaviors.
Diane Benish, Jody Langdon and Brian Culp
Luciana De Martin Silva and John W. Francis
The aim of this study was twofold; first, to explore the challenges and successes faced by deaf international futsal players when using a collaborative blended learning approach in preparation for a major competition, and second, to provide a discussion of key coaching lessons learned to inspire coaches to consider how to best develop their coaching knowledge and practices. Data were collected from 12 players via six semistructured focus groups, along with 36 reflective diaries maintained by the two researchers (who held the role of “Joint Head Coach” and “Performance Analyst”), using a critical participatory action research methodological approach. Data collection and analysis were an on-going and cyclical process during the 7-month study. Four key themes were identified: “a little journey: a connected approach to learning”; “ownership, collaboration, and connection”; “communication barriers and fear of misinterpretation”; and “players’ initial ‘buy-in’ to the constructivist approach to learning.” Key coaching lessons highlighted the need for a “flexible” and “connected” approach to learning. In this study, through learning in-action and on-action, the authors often found themselves as “social” managers in trying to explore interrelational complexities and support individuals to build trust, an aspect seen by players as crucial for actively developing collaborative blended learning within the group.
Bryan A. McCullick, Ashton Dooley, Paul Schempp and Tiffany Isaac
The Coaching Model theorized that coaching consists of three primary components: (a) training, (b) competition, and (c) organization. Unfortunately, researchers’ attention to the organization component has been scant compared with the keen focus given to training and competition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the organizational: (a) structure and (b) roles and responsibilities of an elite-level basketball coaching staff. The study employed a case study approach, utilizing interviews, observations, and artifacts as data sources. Data analysis identified the organizational structure as bureaucratic, or functional, in nature as (a) there was a clear chain of command, (b) roles and responsibilities were assigned based on staff member expertise, and (c) staff members had similar skill sets that allowed for easy communication and role overlap. Organizational roles were “Delegator,” “Recruiter,” and “Promoter.” Results provide insights into the manifestation of the organizational component among a staff, an exemplar of a staff managing the complexity of coaching, and support for the contention that coaching involves more than being the traditional teacher/psychologist.
Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, Gary D. Kinchin, Peter A. Hastie, Jamie J. Brunsdon and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purposes: (a) To describe how more experienced and expert teachers interpreted and delivered sport education (SE) during their careers and (b) to discover and describe factors within their occupational socialization that sustained the teachers’ enthusiasm for and ability to deliver SE. Method: Participants were nine teachers. Primary data sources were formal interviews. Secondary supporting sources were documents and film. They were analyzed by employing standard interpretive methods. Credibility and trustworthiness were established through a search for discrepant and negative cases and member checking. Findings: At different times in their careers, the teachers delivered SE in one of four ways: watered down, through a cafeteria approach, the full version, and the full+ version. A number of factors from their acculturation, professional socialization, and organizational socialization enabled the teachers to deliver the full+ version or led to them delivering other versions of the model. Conclusions: The findings allow us to make practical suggestions for preservice and inservice teacher education that may help university faculty facilitate the teaching of SE.
Sami Yli-Piipari, Arto Gråsten, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Kasper Salin, Sanni Seppälä, Harto Hakonen and Timo Jaakkola
This study examined the predictive strength of selected physical education (PE)-centered physical literacy indicators on elementary school students’ accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (PA). The study was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 450 Finnish children (M = 11.26 [0.32]; n females = 194; n males = 256). Data on a set of predictor variables (motor competence, in-class PE moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA [MVPA], health-related fitness, and PE motivation and enjoyment) and total MVPA as a single outcome variable were collected. The entire model explained almost 30% of MVPA (R 2 adj = .298). Cardiorespiratory endurance (β = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [0.22, 0.62], p < .001) and MVPA in PE (β = 0.27, 95% confidence interval [0.09, 0.44], p = .004) were statistically significant predictors of MVPA. It can be concluded that, of all included variables, cardiorespiratory endurance and MVPA in PE were the most important factors contributing to healthy levels of total MVPA in childhood.
David Hortigüela-Alcalá, Antonio Calderón and Gustavo González-Calvo
Purpose: To compare the impact of the experience of learning to teach sport education on preservice teachers’ (from Spain, Chile, and Mexico) perceived professional competence, autonomy, and academic motivation and to explore participants’ perceptions of their country’s sociocultural and curricular aspects that may influence sport education implementation. Method: Framed by the “pedagogy of dialogue” and a “living the curriculum” approach, three consecutive miniseasons on alternative invasion games were enacted (n = 30 lessons). A quasi-experimental pre- and posttest mixed-methods design was followed, with a total of 163 preservice teachers. The quantitative data on preservice teachers’ teaching competence, autonomy, and academic motivation were collected through three validated questionnaires. Focus group interviews and field notes were used to gather qualitative information. Results: The main quantitative analysis exposed no relevant differences among the transcultural sample of preservice teachers related to the analyzed variables. Qualitative analysis showed the power of contextual factors to filter preservice teachers’ understanding of the model. Conclusions: The dialogical nature of the approach and the miniseason structure allowed the preservice teachers to achieve a better understanding of the pedagogy of sport education and to optimize their motivation to use it in the future. The rigidity of the national curriculum and the custodial nature of school reality, however, present strong barriers to this end.
Elena Pardos-Mainer, José Antonio Casajús, Chris Bishop and Oliver Gonzalo-Skok
Purpose: To examine the effects of an 8-week combined strength and power training intervention on physical performance and interlimb asymmetries in adolescent female soccer players. Methods: Thirty-seven adolescent female soccer players (age 16.1 [1.1] y) were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 18) or experimental group (n = 19). The experimental group performed combined strength and power training twice a week, which consisted of strength and power exercises that trained the major muscles of the lower body and trunk musculature. Preintervention and postintervention tests included unilateral and bilateral horizontal and countermovement jump tests, a 40-m sprint test (10- and 30-m split times), a 10-m sprint with a 180° change-of-direction (COD) test, and a multiple-COD test (V-cut test). Asymmetries were also analyzed in the unilateral tests. Results: Significant group-by-time interaction of the improvement between pretest and posttest was observed for speed (effect size [ES]: −1.30 to −1.16) and COD tests (ES: −0.62 to −0.61) but not in jumping (ES: −0.09 to 0.28) and interlimb-asymmetry tests (ES: −0.13 to 0.57). Conclusions: The short-term in-season combined strength and power training program induced greater speed and COD performance improvements than soccer training alone in adolescent female soccer players.
Evgeny B. Myakinchenko, Andrey S. Kriuchkov, Nikita V. Adodin and Victor Feofilaktov
Purpose: To compare the training-volume (TrV) distribution of Russian international-level male biathletes, female biathletes, and cross-country skiers (XC) during an annual cycle. Methods: Day-to-day TrVs were recorded and averaged for a 5-year period for male biathletes (n = 6), female biathletes (n = 8), and XC (n = 14) with VO2max values of 77.7 (3.8), 64.6 (1.9), and 79.4 (3.5) mL·min−1·kg−1, respectively. Results: The volumes of low- and moderate-intensity endurance training and all types of nonspecific endurance and strength training gradually decreased toward the competition period. However, the volumes and proportions of high-intensity endurance training and specific exercises (roller skiing, skiing, and shooting during high-intensity endurance training) increased by the time of the competition period. The total volume of training, volumes of low- and moderate-intensity endurance training, moderate- and high-load strength training (70%–95% 1RM), and power/speed loads did not increase gradually but reached their maximum immediately after a short stage of initial training. All teams employed the “pyramid” model of intensity distribution. Compared with the biathletes, XC demonstrated a larger (P < .01) annual volume of endurance training (~190 h), low-intensity endurance training (~183 h), and strength training (~818 sets). They also engaged in more upper-body and core-strength exercises (~769 sets), and they reached their maximum aerobic TrVs in June, while the biathletes reached theirs in July. Conclusions: In recent decades, the traditional model of periodization has been altered. The Russian XC and biathletes had significant differences in TrVs.
Jason Brumitt, Marcey Keefer Hutchison, Dan Kang, Zach Klemmer, Mike Stroud, Edward Cheng, Neil Patrick Cayanan and Sheldon Shishido
Context: Blood flow restriction (BFR) training utilizes a tourniquet, applied to the proximal portion of one or more extremities, to occlude blood flow during exercise. Significant gains in strength and cross-sectional area can be achieved in muscles, both distal and proximal to BFR cuff application. Purpose: To compare strength gains of the rotator cuff and changes in tendon size in subjects who performed side-lying external-rotation exercise with or without BFR. Methods: Forty-six subjects (mean age 25.0 [2.2] y) were randomized to either a BFR + exercise group or to the exercise-only group. Subjects performed 4 sets of the exercise (30/15/15/15 repetitions) at 30% 1-repetition maximum 2 days per week for 8 weeks. Results: Subjects in both groups experienced strength gains in the supraspinatus and the external rotators (P = .000, P = .000). However, there was no difference in strength gains between groups for the supraspinatus (P = .750) or the external rotators (P = .708). Subjects in both groups experienced increases in supraspinatus tendon thickness (BFR P = .041, exercise only P = .011). However, there was no difference between groups (P = .610). Conclusions: Exercise with BFR applied to the proximal upper extremity did not augment rotator cuff strength gains or tendon thickness when compared with subjects who only exercised. This study did demonstrate that performing multiple sets of high repetitions at a low load led to significant increases in rotator cuff strength and tendon size in the dominant upper extremity.
Daniel Boullosa, Marco Beato, Antonio Dello Iacono, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Kenji Doma, Moritz Schumann, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Irineu Loturco and David G. Behm
Postactivation potentiation (PAP) mechanisms and responses have a long scientific history. However, to this day there is still controversy regarding the mechanisms underlying enhanced performance after a conditioning activity. More recently, the term postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) has been proposed with differing associated mechanisms and protocols than with PAP. However, these 2 terms (PAP and PAPE) may not adequately describe all specific potentiation responses and mechanisms and can also be complementary, in some cases. Purpose: This commentary presents and discusses the similarities and differences between PAP and PAPE and, subsequently, elaborates on a new taxonomy for better describing performance potentiation in sport settings. Conclusion: The elaborated taxonomy proposes the formula “Post-[CONDITIONING ACTIVITY] [VERIFICATION TEST] potentiation in [POPULATION].” This taxonomy would avoid erroneous identification of isolated physiological attributes and provide individualization and better applicability of conditioning protocols in sport settings.