Force–time characteristics obtained during isometric strength tests are significantly correlated to various sporting movements. However, data on the relationship between isometric force–time characteristics and sprint kayaking performance are lacking in the literature. Purpose: The purpose of the study was, therefore, to investigate the relationship between sprint kayaking performance with ergometer performance and measures from 3 isometric strength tests: isometric squat, isometric bench press, and isometric prone bench pull. Methods: A total of 23 sprint kayaking athletes performed all 3 tests, at 90° and 120° knee angles for isometric squat and at elbow angles for isometric bench press and isometric prone bench pull, and a 200-m sprint on-water to attain the fastest time-to-completion (OWTT) possible and on a kayak ergometer to attain the highest mean power (LABTT) possible. Results: There was a significant inverse correlation between OWTT and LABTT (r = −.90, P < .001). The peak forces achieved from all isometric strength tests were significantly correlated with time-to-completion for OWTT and mean power for LABTT (r = −.44 to −.88, P < .05 and .47 to .80, P < .05, respectively). OWTT was significantly correlated with the peak rate of force development during all isometric tests except for the isometric squat at a 120° knee angle (r = −.47 to −.62, P < .05). LABTT was significantly correlated with peak rate of force development from the isometric bench press and isometric prone bench pull (r = .64–.86, P < .01). Conclusion: Based on the observed strong correlations, the mean power attained during LABTT is a good predictor of OWTT time-to-completion. Furthermore, upper- and lower-body maximum strength and peak rate of force development are equally important for on-water and ergometer sprint kayaking performance.
Danny Lum and Abdul Rashid Aziz
Alex S. Ribeiro, Ademar Avelar, Witalo Kassiano, João Pedro Nunes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Andreo F. Aguiar, Michele C.C. Trindade, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino
The authors aimed to compare the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation combined with resistance training on skeletal muscle mass (SMM), total body water, intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) in resistance-trained men as well as to determine whether the SMM/ICW ratio changes in response to the use of this ergogenic aid. Twenty-seven resistance-trained men received either Cr (n = 14) or placebo (n = 13) over 8 weeks. During the same period, subjects performed two split resistance training routines four times per week. SMM was estimated from appendicular lean soft tissue assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total body water, ICW, and ECW were determined by spectral bioelectrical impedance. Both groups showed improvements (p < .05) in SMM, total body water, and ICW, with greater values observed for the Cr group compared with placebo. ECW increased similarly in both groups (p < .05). The SMM/ICW ratio did not change in either group (p > .05), whereas the SMM/ECW ratio decreased only in the Cr group (p < .05). A positive correlation was observed (p < .05) between SMM and ICW changes (r = .71). The authors’ results suggest that the increase in muscle mass induced by Cr combined with resistance training occurs without alteration of the ratio of ICW to SMM in resistance-trained men.
Marcelo Danillo Matos dos Santos, Felipe J. Aidar, Raphael Fabrício de Souza, Jymmys Lopes dos Santos, Andressa da Silva de Mello, Henrique P. Neiva, Daniel A. Marinho and Mário C. Marques
Purpose: To verify the effects of using different grip widths in bench press performance in Paralympic powerlifting athletes. Methods: Twelve experienced Paralympic powerlifting male athletes (25.40 [3.30] y, 70.30 [12.15] kg) participated in the study. Maximal dynamic strength and maximal isometric strength (MIS) were determined. Then, mean propulsive velocity (MPV) using 25%, 50%, and 100% of maximal dynamic strength load and time to achieve 30%, 50%, and 100% of MIS were assessed with 4 different grip widths, specifically the biacromial distance (BAD: 42.83 [12.84] cm), 1.3 BAD (55.68 [16.70] cm), 1.5 BAD (63.20 [18.96] cm), and 81 cm. Electromyographic analysis was performed during MIS assessment in the pectoralis major sternal portion, anterior deltoid, triceps brachii long head, and pectoralis major clavicular portion. Results: Large differences were found between MPV performed with different grip widths using 25% of maximal dynamic strength load (P = .02,
Keely Shaw, Jyotpal Singh, Luke Sirant, J. Patrick Neary and Philip D. Chilibeck
Dark chocolate (DC) is high in flavonoids and has been shown to increase nitric oxide in the blood. Increased nitric oxide has the potential to improve delivery of oxygen to muscle, especially in hypoxic conditions, such as altitude. Our aim was to assess the impact of DC supplementation on cycling performance at altitude. Twelve healthy, trained cyclists (n = 2 females, n = 10 males; age = 35  years; height = 177  cm; mass = 75.2 [11.0] kg; VO2max = 55  ml·kg−1·min−1) were randomized to supplement with 60 g of DC or placebo twice per day for 14 days in a double-blind crossover study. After the 2 weeks of supplementation, the participants attended a laboratory session in which they consumed 120 g of DC or placebo and then cycled for 90 min at 50% peak power output, followed immediately by a 10-km time trial (TT) at simulated altitude (15% O2). The plasma concentration of blood glucose and lactate were measured before and at 15, 30, 60, and 90 min during the steady-state exercise and post TT, while muscular and prefrontal cortex oxygenation was measured continuously throughout exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy. DC resulted in a higher concentration of blood glucose (5.5 [0.5] vs. 5.3 [0.9] mmol/L) throughout the trial and lower blood lactate concentration following the TT (7.7 [1.92] vs. 10.0 [4.6] mmol/L) compared with the placebo. DC had no effect on the TT performance (19.04 [2.16] vs. 19.21 ± 1.96 min) or oxygenation status in either the prefrontal cortex or muscle. The authors conclude that, although it provided some metabolic benefit, DC is not effective as an ergogenic aid during TT cycling at simulated altitude.
Jay A. Collison, Jason Moran, Inge Zijdewind and Florentina J. Hettinga
Purpose: To examine the differences in muscle fatigability after resistance exercise performed with fast tempo (FT) compared with slow tempo (ST). Methods: A total of 8 resistance-trained males completed FT and ST hexagonal-barbell deadlifts, consisting of 8 sets of 6 repetitions at 60% 3-repetition maximum, using a randomized crossover design. Each FT repetition was performed with maximal velocity, while each repetition during ST was performed with a 3-1-3 (eccentric/isometric/concentric) tempo (measured in seconds). Isometric maximal voluntary contraction, voluntary muscle activation, and evoked potentiated twitch torque of the knee extensors were determined using twitch interpolation before, during (set 4), and after exercise. Displacement–time data were measured during the protocols. Results: The mean bar velocity and total concentric work were higher for FT compared with ST (995  W vs 233  W; 0.87 [0.05] m/s vs 0.19 [0.05] m/s; 4.8 [0.8] kJ vs 3.7 [1.1] kJ). Maximal voluntary contraction torque, potentiated twitch, and voluntary muscle activation were significantly reduced after FT (−7.8% [9.2%]; −5.2% [9.2%], −8.7% [12.2%]) and ST (−11.2% [8.4%], −13.3% [8.1%], −1.8% [3.6%]). Conclusion: The decline in maximal voluntary force after both the FT and ST hexagonal-barbell deadlifts exercise was accompanied by a similar decline in contractile force and voluntary muscle activation.
Miranda Rudnick and Brian Wallace
Ankle supports have been shown to reduce ankle injury incidence. Athletes’ use of them may be related to their sport coaches’ beliefs. The purpose of this study was to examine Wisconsin high school boys’ and girls’ basketball coaches’ beliefs regarding ankle support practices. Additional aims were to estimate the percentage of the players who either tape or brace, reveal which sources were used to form coaches’ beliefs about ankle supports, and gain insights regarding how long players are out of play after being injured if they tape, brace, or do not use ankle supports. Chi-squared tests of independence revealed that most coaches neither encouraged nor discouraged ankle supports for their players. A majority of coaches were found to use resources other than scientific-based sources to form their opinions on ankle supports. They also reported that they believed ankle injury return-to-play time was reduced in players who wore ankle supports and that supports did not hinder performance. Coaches should be provided educational opportunities regarding ankle supports so they may provide valid information to help their players make informed decisions.
Anita Navin, Don Vinson, Alison Croad, Jennifer Turnnidge and Jean Côté
This Participatory and Appreciative Action and Reflection (PAAR) investigation illustrates a leader’s first steps in a “values-to-action” journey. Drawing on the interface between transformational leadership and organizational culture, this study focused on the birth of the Severn Stars—a professional netball club in the United Kingdom. In particular, this PAAR investigation explored how the leader’s values were operationalized through the club’s inaugural year. Fourteen operational managers, coaches, and players were individually interviewed in order to gain an appreciative gaze and subsequently reframe their lived experience. Results demonstrated how transformational leadership was manifested through the pragmatic deployment of club values and how the organizational culture was, in part, characterized by individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and inspirational motivation. These behaviors and the organizational culture were shown to enhance prosocial relationships and social connections across the club, the influence of the Super Stars, and stakeholders’ perceptions of autonomy.
Johannes Raabe, Andrew D. Bass, Lauren K. McHenry and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek
Approximately 90% of players in Minor League Baseball will be released at some point in their career. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the role of individuals’ basic psychological needs during the release from professional baseball and throughout their subsequent transition to a new career. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 former Minor League Baseball players. Thematic analysis generated four themes: (a) The release resulted in immediate but temporary basic psychological need thwarting, (b) the “liberating experience” of the release allowed individuals to perceive autonomy in the transition out of affiliated baseball, (c) perceptions of competence served as the foundation for a positive transition to a new career, and (d) meaningful connections fostered individuals’ perception of relatedness in the transition out of affiliated baseball. The findings suggest that need fulfillment might act as a buffer between potential stressors in the transition process and athletes’ cognitive, emotional, and behavioral response.
Judit Balogh and Gabriella Trzaskoma-Bicsérdy
Sports coaching is traditionally a male-dominated profession all over the world, though there is no explicit evidence that either gender outperforms the other in this profession. The current paper aimed to uncover the differences between female and male coaches regarding their pedagogical and professional beliefs. A total of 357 basketball coaches (30.8% women and 69.2% men) working in Hungary responded to an online questionnaire. A background analysis of the sample revealed that most of the coaches manage youth teams and that women coach younger age groups than men. Female coaches proved to be more educated than their male counterparts, both in general and on a professional level. The results showed that, regardless of gender, the coaches were well aware of their pedagogical functions. Significant differences were found in terms of relationships, personal development, motivation, and discipline; the women reported higher values in all cases. Female coaches were also more concerned about factors that help gain respect and appreciation. Based on the results, education, qualifications, and pedagogical and professional views of coaches do not justify the underrepresentation of women in sports coaching. Club managers, sports federation boards, and other decision makers should promote programs that are aimed at engaging more women in sports coaching.
Nicholas A. Koemel, Christina M. Sciarrillo, Katherine B. Bode, Madison D. Dixon, Edralin A. Lucas, Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins and Sam R. Emerson
The consumption of a high-fat meal can induce postprandial lipemia and endothelial dysfunction. The authors assessed the impact of age and physical activity on metabolic and vascular outcomes following meal consumption in healthy adults. The authors recruited four groups: younger active (age 22.1 ± 1.4 years; n = 9), younger inactive (age 22.6 ± 3.7 years; n = 8), older active (age 68.4 ± 7.7 years; n = 8), and older inactive (age 67.7 ± 7.2 years; n = 7). The metabolic outcomes were measured at the baseline and hourly for 6 hr post high-fat meal consumption (12 kcal/kg; 63% fat). Flow-mediated dilation was measured at the baseline, 2 hr, and 4 hr postmeal. The total area under the curve for triglycerides was significantly lower in the more active groups, but did not differ based on age (younger active = 6.5 ± 1.4 mmol/L × 6 hr, younger inactive = 11.7 ± 4.8, older active = 6.8 ± 2.7, older inactive = 12.1 ± 1.7; p = .0004). After adjusting for artery diameter, flow-mediated dilation differed between groups at the baseline (younger active = 4.8 ± 1.6%, younger inactive = 2.5 ± 0.5, older active = 3.4 ± 0.9, older inactive = 2.2 ± 0.4; p < .001) and decreased significantly across groups 4 hr postmeal (mean difference = 0.82; 95% CI [0.02, 1.6]; p = .04). These findings highlight the beneficial effect of regular physical activity on postprandial lipemia, independent of age.