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Rasmus T. Larsen, Christoffer B. Korfitsen, Carsten B. Juhl, Henning Boje Andersen, Henning Langberg and Jan Christensen

Aim: To investigate the concurrent validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) and the Nordic Physical Activity Questionnaire-short (NPAQ-short) when compared with objectively measured daily steps among older adults. Methods: Spearman’s ρ between IPAQ-SF and NPAQ-short and objectively measured steps using Garmin Vivofit 3 physical activity monitors. Results: A total of 54 participants were included. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ moderate physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time showed little or no correlation with daily steps. The NPAQ-short subscales’ vigorous PA, moderate PA, and MVPA showed little or no correlation. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ vigorous PA and walking showed fair correlation. Only the IPAQ-SF metabolic equivalent of task minutes showed moderate to good correlation with daily steps. The IPAQ-SF categories and NPAQ-short categorization of World Health Organization compliance were significantly different, but the magnitudes were small and distributions indicated problems with the categorization. Conclusion: The concurrent validity is low, as the scores did not reflect objectively measured daily steps.

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Richard J. Paulsen

This paper uses Major League Baseball data to examine the relationship between years remaining on player contracts and player performance. There is a potential for moral hazard to arise in this principal–agent relationship as the player may choose a less than optimal level of effort from the perspective of team management when the player has many guaranteed years remaining. A player fixed-effects estimation strategy, which finds a significant negative relationship between years remaining and performance, is employed. The primary contribution of this work is to show that this relationship is due to shirking. Alternative explanations for this relationship, such as teams signing improving players to multiyear contracts or players facing an adjustment process when joining a new team, are addressed. Additional evidence which is consistent with shirking behavior shows that shirking occurs on offense, not defense, and for position players, not pitchers.

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Yoke Leng Ng, Keith D. Hill, Pazit Levinger and Elissa Burton

The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of outdoor exercise park equipment on physical activity levels, physical function, psychosocial outcomes, and quality of life of older adults living in the community and to evaluate the evidence of older adults’ use of outdoor exercise park equipment. A search strategy was conducted from seven databases. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria. The study quality results were varied. Meta-analyses were undertaken for two physical performance tests: 30-s chair stand test and single-leg stance. The meta-analysis results were not statistically significant. It was not possible to conclude whether exercise parks were effective at improving levels of physical activity. The review shows that older adults value the benefits of health and social interaction from the use of exercise parks. Findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample sizes and the limited number of studies.

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Angela T. Burge, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Anne E. Holland, Michael J. Abramson, Christine F. McDonald, Ajay Mahal, Catherine J. Hill, Annemarie L. Lee, Narelle S. Cox, Aroub Lahham, Rosemary Moore, Caroline Nicolson, Paul O’Halloran, Rebecca Gillies and Sebastien F.M. Chastin

Background: Physical activity levels are low in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and there is limited knowledge about how pulmonary rehabilitation transforms movement behaviors. This study analyzed data from a pulmonary rehabilitation trial and identified determinants of movement behaviors. Methods: Objectively assessed time in daily movement behaviors (sleep, sedentary, light-intensity physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity) from a randomized controlled trial (n = 73 participants) comparing home- and center-based pulmonary rehabilitation was analyzed using conventional and compositional analytical approaches. Regression analysis was used to assess relationships between movement behaviors, participant features, and response to the interventions. Results: Compositional analysis revealed no significant differences in movement profiles between the home- and center-based groups. At end rehabilitation, conventional analyses identified positive relationships between exercise capacity (6-min walk distance), light-intensity physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity time. Compositional analyses identified positive relationships between a 6-minute walk distance and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity time, accompanied by negative relationships with sleep and sedentary time (relative to other time components) and novel relationships between body mass index and light-intensity physical activity/sedentary time. Conclusion: Compositional analyses following pulmonary rehabilitation identified unique associations between movement behaviors that were not evident in conventional analyses.

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Leila Hedayatrad, Tom Stewart and Scott Duncan

Introduction: Accelerometers are commonly used to assess time-use behaviors related to physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep; however, as new accelerometer technologies emerge, it is important to ensure consistency with previous devices. This study aimed to evaluate the concurrent validity of the commonly used accelerometer, ActiGraph GT3X+, and the relatively new Axivity AX3 (fastened to the lower back) for detecting physical activity intensity and body postures when using direct observation as the criterion measure. Methods: A total of 41 children (aged 6–16 years) and 33 adults (aged 28–59 years) wore both monitors concurrently while performing 10 prescribed activities under laboratory conditions. The GT3X+ data were categorized into different physical activity intensity and posture categories using intensity-based cut points and ActiGraph proprietary inclinometer algorithms, respectively. The AX3 data were first converted to ActiGraph counts before being categorized into different physical activity intensity categories, while activity recognition models were used to detect the target postures. Sensitivity, specificity, and the balanced accuracy for intensity and posture category classification were calculated for each accelerometer. Differences in balanced accuracy between the devices and between children and adults were also calculated. Results: Both accelerometers obtained 74–96% balanced accuracy, with the AX3 performing slightly better (∼4% higher, p < .01) for detecting postures and physical activity intensity. Error in both devices was greatest when contrasting sitting/standing, sedentary/light intensity, and moderate/light intensity. Conclusion: In comparison with the GT3X+ accelerometer, AX3 was able to detect various postures and activity intensities with slightly higher balanced accuracy in children and adults.

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John F.T. Fernandes, Kevin L. Lamb, Jonathan P. Norris, Jason Moran, Benjamin Drury, Nattai R. Borges and Craig Twist

Aging is anecdotally associated with a prolonged recovery from resistance training, though current literature remains equivocal. This brief review considers the effects of resistance training on indirect markers of muscle damage and recovery (i.e., muscle soreness, blood markers, and muscle strength) in older males. With no date restrictions, four databases were searched for articles relating to aging, muscle damage, and recovery. Data from 11 studies were extracted for review. Of these, four reported worse symptoms in older compared with younger populations, while two have observed the opposite, and the remaining studies (n = 6) proposed no differences between age groups. It appears that resistance training can be practiced in older populations without concern for impaired recovery. To improve current knowledge, researchers are urged to utilize more ecologically valid muscle-damaging bouts and investigate the mechanisms which underpin the recovery of muscle soreness and strength after exercise in older populations.

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Anna M.J. Iveson, Malcolm H. Granat, Brian M. Ellis and Philippa M. Dall

Objective: Global positioning system (GPS) data can add context to physical activity data and have previously been integrated with epoch-based physical activity data. The current study aimed to develop a framework for integrating GPS data and event-based physical activity data (suitable for assessing patterns of behavior). Methods: A convenience data set of concurrent GPS (AMOD) and physical activity (activPAL) data were collected from 69 adults. The GPS data were (semi)regularly sampled every 5 s. The physical activity data output was presented as walking events, which are continuous periods of walking with a time-stamped start time and duration (to nearest 0.1 s). The GPS outcome measures and the potential correspondence of their timing with walking events were identified and a framework was developed describing data integration for each combination of GPS outcome and walking event correspondence. Results: The GPS outcome measures were categorized as those deriving from a single GPS point (e.g., location) or from the difference between successive GPS points (e.g., distance), and could be categorical, scale, or rate outcomes. Walking events were categorized as having zero (13% of walking events, 3% of walking duration), or one or more (52% of walking events, 75% of walking duration) GPS points occurring during the event. Additionally, some walking events did not have GPS points suitably close to allow calculation of outcome measures (31% of walking events, 22% of walking duration). The framework required different integration approaches for each GPS outcome type, and walking events containing zero or more than one GPS points.

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Joon Ho Lim, Leigh Anne Donovan, Peter Kaufman and Chiharu Ishida

To examine how the level of humility expressed through athletes’ social media postings and post volume is associated with the athletes’ in-game performance, the authors collected National Football League players’ social media activities throughout one season, in addition to player performance and profile information. To account for the multilevel and panel structure of the data, they conducted a series of fixed-effects panel models. In addition to a negative relationship between social media posting frequency and performance, the authors found that players who post social media content with a higher level of humility are more likely to have better performances. However, this humility–performance association follows an inverted U-shaped relationship. The results provide insight into how critical athletes’ social media activity is for in-game performance. This study also provides important implications for athletes, team coaches, staff, and managers and provides guidance for future research.

Open access

Paddy C. Dempsey, Christine M. Friedenreich, Michael F. Leitzmann, Matthew P. Buman, Estelle Lambert, Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

Background: In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) released global guidelines on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior, for the first time providing population-based recommendations for people living with selected chronic conditions. This article briefly presents the guidelines, related processes and evidence, and, importantly, considers how they may be used to support research, practice, and policy. Methods: A brief overview of the scope, agreed methods, selected chronic conditions (adults living with cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and human immunodeficiency virus), and appraisal of systematic review evidence on PA/sedentary behavior is provided. Methods were consistent with World Health Organization protocols for developing guidelines. Results: Moderate to high certainty evidence (varying by chronic condition and outcome examined) supported that PA can reduce the risk of disease progression or premature mortality and improve physical function and quality of life in adults living with chronic conditions. Direct evidence on sedentary behavior was lacking; however, evidence extrapolated from adult populations was considered applicable, safe, and likely beneficial (low certainty due to indirectness). Conclusions: Clinical and public health professionals and policy makers should promote the World Health Organization 2020 global guidelines and develop and implement services and programs to increase PA and limit sedentary behavior in adults living with chronic conditions.

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Marlene Kritz, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Barbara Mullan, Afroditi Stathi and Nikos Ntoumanis

The authors examined whether purposeful walking with peers at least once a week contributes to better behavioral and health outcomes in older adults than primarily walking alone. The authors used a longitudinal cohort design and recruited participants aged 60 years and older (N = 136) at the start of a 16-week walking intervention. Participants who walked on average at least once a week in the final 8 weeks of the intervention were included in the analysis (N = 79; 66 females, M age [SD] = 77.73 [6.91]). The authors found that autonomous motivation, walking self-efficacy, functional capacity, body fat, and physical activity improved more in the walking with peers group compared with the walking alone group, after controlling for whether participants lived alone/with others and their health status. The results extend current literature by providing longitudinal evidence for the added benefits of regular peer-accompanied walking in older adults and highlight the importance of investing in peer-supported interventions.