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Clara Teixidor-Batlle, Carles Ventura Vall-llovera, Justine J. Reel and Ana Andrés

The study purpose was to validate the psychometric properties of a Spanish-language version of the weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes. The weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes assesses risk factors associated with sport-specific weight pressures from coaches, peers, and team uniform. The scale was back translated and administered to 407 Spanish male college athletes. The sample was randomly split to perform the exploratory and confirmatory analysis. After item analysis, three items were removed. The exploratory analysis identified two latent constructs (referring to coaches and teammates pressures, and pressures due to uniform), and the confirmatory analysis produced a two-factor model (comparative fit indexSB = .946, Tucker–Lewis indexSB = .925, root mean square of approximationSB = .071, standardized root mean square residualSB =.068). The overall scale showed adequate internal consistency (α = .82) and demonstrated adequate convergent validity with the other questionnaires. The Spanish-language version of the weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes can be used to measure weight-related pressures among male athletes in sport psychology and clinical settings.

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Fernando S. Lobo, Andreia C.C. Queiroz, Natan D. Silva Junior, Fabio L. Medina, Luiz A.R. Costa, Tais Tinucci and Claudia L.M. Forjaz

Background: Drinking water is recommended before and after exercise to avoid dehydration. However, water ingestion may mitigate or prevent postexercise hypotension. This study investigated the effects of intentional hydration on postaerobic exercise hemodynamics and autonomic modulation. Methods: A total of 18 young men randomly underwent 4 experimental sessions as follows: (1) control with intentional hydration (1 L of water in the previous night, 500 mL 60 min before the intervention, and 1 mL for each 1 g of body mass lost immediately after the intervention); (2) control without intentional hydration (ad libitum water ingestion before the intervention); (3) exercise (cycle ergometer, 45 min, 50% of VO2peak) with intentional hydration; and (4) exercise without intentional hydration. Hemodynamic and autonomic parameters were measured before and after the interventions and were compared by 3-way analysis of variance. Results: Intentional hydration did not change any postexercise hemodynamic nor autonomic response. Exercise decreased systolic blood pressure and stroke volume (−4.1 [0.8] mm Hg and −4.9 [1.5] mL, P < .05), while increased cardiac sympathovagal balance (0.3 [0.3], P < .05) during the recovery. In addition, it abolished the increase in diastolic blood pressure and the decrease in heart rate observed in the control sessions. Conclusion: Intentional hydration does not modify the hypotensive effect promoted by previous aerobic exercise and did not alter its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms.

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Stephen Hunter, Valerie Carson, Anna Timperio, Jo Salmon, Alison Carver and Jenny Veitch

Background: Increased physical inactivity and sedentary behavior among children are a global health concern. Purpose: Examine associations between parents’ perceived neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity, outside time, and screen time, and whether these associations were moderated by age and socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods: Parents (N = 1212) completed a survey during the Recording and EValuating Activity in a Modified Park study. The neighborhood perceptions (social and physical environment), children’s age, physical activity, outside time, and screen time were parent-reported. The SEP was derived from the Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed with age and SEP interactions. Results: Favorable perceptions of opportunities to be active and exercise were associated with a higher likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines. Favorable perceptions of neighborhood ease for walking and a larger social network were also associated with more outdoor time. Moderation analyses revealed that favorable perceptions of several physical and social neighborhood environment features were associated with a higher likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines in the high-SEP group and were negatively associated with preschoolers’ weekday screen time. Conclusion: Future neighborhood environment initiatives and interventions aiming to promote active living communities should consider differences in age and SEP.

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Jason A. Bennie, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Jan Seghers, Stuart J.H. Biddle and Katrien De Cocker

Background: Muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) is a component of the World Health Organization’s “2010 Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health.” However, its participation trends are seldom examined in physical activity surveillance. This study describes the prevalence, trends, and correlates of MSE among a large sample of US adults. Methods: The data were analyzed from the 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Self-reported MSE participation was assessed using the same validated survey item. Population-weighted proportions were calculated for (1) “insufficient” (0–1 time/wk) or (2) “sufficient MSE” (≥2 times/wk). Prevalence ratios of those reporting sufficient MSE across sociodemographic characteristics were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression. Results: The data were available for 1,735,626 participants (≥18 y). Over the 7-year monitoring period, the prevalence of sufficient MSE showed a small (1.2%) but statistically significant increase (2011 = 29.1%; 2013 = 29.4%; 2015 = 30.2%; and 2017 = 30.3%, P < .001 for linear trend). Older adults, women, and those with lower education/income were consistently less likely to report sufficient MSE, compared with their counterparts. Conclusions: From 2011 to 2017, between 69.7% and 70.9% of US adults did not meet the MSE guidelines. Consistently low participation levels highlight the need to provide support for uptake of or adherence to MSE at the population level.

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Cody D. Neshteruk, Deborah J. Jones, Asheley Skinner, Alice Ammerman, Deborah F. Tate and Dianne S. Ward

Background: Parents are influential in supporting children’s physical activity, but relatively little is known about the role of fathers in children’s physical activity. Methods: Semi-structured interviews (n = 24) were conducted with low-active and active fathers of children 3–11 years old. Deductive thematic analysis was used to identify fathers’ physical activity practices and understand how fathers interact with their children around physical activity. Results: All fathers demonstrated coparticipation in physical activity with their children. Other physical activity practices commonly used by fathers included as follows: facilitation of active opportunities, modeling, involvement through coaching or teaching, and encouragement. In addition, fathers viewed physical activity as an opportunity to spend time with their children to bond and develop shared interests. Finally, fathers perceived their role in children’s physical activity to be different compared with mothers. Regarding father activity level, active fathers discussed modeling more frequently and tended to engage in a variety of different activities compared with low-active fathers. Conclusions: Fathers play an important role in their children’s physical activity, suggesting that physical activity may be one context in which to prompt paternal involvement, foster father–child relationships, and strengthen paternal parenting.

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Susan Park, Lindsay P. Toth, Scott E. Crouter, Cary M. Springer, Robert T. Marcotte and David R. Bassett

Purpose: To examine the effect of activity monitor placement on daily step counts when monitors are worn at different positions on the wrist/forearm and the hip. Methods: Participants (N = 18) wore eight different models (four wrist and four hip models) across four days. Each day, one hip and one wrist model were selected, and four identical monitors of each model were worn on the right hip and the non-dominant wrist/forearm, respectively, during all waking hours. Step counts of each monitor were compared to the same model worn in the referent position (wrist: proximal to ulnar styloid process; hip: midline of thigh). Percent of referent steps and mean difference between observed and referent positions were computed. Significant differences in steps between positions for each method were determined using one-way repeated measures ANOVAs. For significant main effects, pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni corrections were used to determine which positions were significantly different. Results: All wrist methods showed a significant main effect for placement (p < .05) and alternate positions were 1–16% lower than the referent position. For hip methods, only the Omron HJ-325 differed across positions (p < .05), but differences were among non-referent positions and all were within ±2% of steps recorded by the referent position. Conclusions: Researchers should be aware that positions that deviate from the manufacturer’s recommended position at the wrist could influence step counts. Of all hip methods examined, the Omron had a significant placement effect which did not constitute a practical difference.

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Jemima C. John, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna Hoelscher, Michael D. Swartz and Chuck Huber

Introduction: Associations across self-efficacy, social support, and multiple measures of physical activity (PA) have not been thoroughly explored in hospital employees. Methods: Validated surveys assessed psychosocial factors; the IPAQ-long assessed PA, and mixed-effects analyses examined relations between psychosocial variables and PA in 920 employees from 6 Texas hospitals. Results: At P <.05, self-efficacy was significantly associated with light (β = 1.67), moderate (β = 1.63), and vigorous (β = 2.78) leisure PA; with domestic PA (β = 1.64); and with moderate commute PA (β = 0.03). At P < .05, family social-support was significantly associated with light (β = 0.94), moderate (β = 0.63), and vigorous (β = .74) leisure PA; with moderate (β = 0.46) and vigorous (β = 1.24) occupation PA; with light (β = 0.58) and moderate (β = 0.20) commute PA; and with domestic PA (β = 1.18). At P < .05, social support from friends was significantly associated with light (β = 0.74), moderate (β = 0.58), and vigorous (β = .91) leisure PA; with moderate commute (β = 0.21); and with domestic PA (β = 0.82). Conclusion: Interventions must emphasize self-efficacy–building strategies and the role of family support to meaningfully impact PA behaviors in uniquethis unique population.

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Diego de Alcantara Borba, Eduardo da Silva Alves, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Lucas Alves Facundo, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Aldo Coelho Silva, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Andressa Silva and Marco Túlio de Mello

Background: Physical exercise plays an important role in metabolic health, especially in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of a single endurance and resistance exercise session on IGF-1 serum. Methods: The systematic review was performed in SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. All analyses are based on random-effect models. The study identified 249 records of which 21 were included. Results: There was an effect of endurance exercise on total IGF-1 (P = .01), but not for free IGF-1 (P = .36). Resistance exercise similarly only affected total IGF-1 (P = .003) and not free IGF-1 (P = .37). The effect size indicated that total IGF-1 is more affected (ES = 0.81) by endurance than by resistance exercise (ES = 0.46). The present study showed that IGF-1 serum concentrations are altered by exercise type, but in conditions which are not well-defined. Conclusions: The systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no determinant in serum IGF-1 changes for the exercise load characteristic. Therefore, physical exercise may be an alternative treatment to control changes in IGF-1 metabolism and blood concentration.

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Ivan A. Trujillo-Priego, Judy Zhou, Inge F. Werner, Weiyang Deng and Beth A. Smith

Wearable sensors are being used to measure intensity of infant physical activity across full days. The variability of infant activity intensity within and across days is important to study given the potential impact of physical activity on developmental trajectories. Using retrospective data, we analyzed the intensity of leg movements in 10 typically developing infants pre- and post-naptimes. Leg movement data were captured from 20 minutes before and after multiple events of naps across seven days for each infant. We hypothesized that leg movement intensity would be lower before a nap than after a nap potentially due to lower arousal and increased fatigue prior to attaining sleep. However, our results showed that leg movement intensity was not significantly different when comparing the 20-minute period pre- and post-naps (F(1,7) = 3.91, p = .089, ηp2=0.358). Our results are a first step in describing patterns of infant activity across days and highlights the need for further research regarding infant energy expenditure and physical activity.

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Irene Torres-Sánchez, Araceli Ortiz-Rubio, Irene Cabrera-Martos, María Granados-Santiago, Isabel López-Torres and Marie Carmen Valenza

Background: Growing evidence demonstrates the negative health impact of physical inactivity. Our aim was to examine the influence of previous-year physical activity (PA) on the cognition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients during exacerbation. Methods: Observational study. One hundred and fifty-one patients with COPD exacerbation were recruited over a period of 3 years and divided in 2 groups according to their previous activity level. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables were collected. Our main outcome measures were previous-year PA level, measured using the Modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire and cognitive status measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Results: The cognitive variables that exhibited significant differences (P < .05) according to PA level were the visuoconstructional skills subscore, attention subscore, language subscore, orientation subscore, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment total score, with worse results in the sedentary group. Based on the relationships between total scores, the Baecke score was positively correlated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment total score (r = .457). Conclusions: The cognitive status of COPD patients during an exacerbation is related to previous-year PA level. Previous-year PA level should be taken into consideration when patients with a COPD exacerbation are evaluated.