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Rodrigo Torres-Castro, Luis Vasconcello-Castillo, Roberto Acosta-Dighero, Nicolás Sepúlveda-Cáceres, Marisol Barros-Poblete, Homero Puppo, Roberto Vera-Uribe, Jordi Vilaró and Mario Herrera-Romero

Background: The literature is unclear as to whether children and adolescents with chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) differ from their healthy peers in physical activity (PA). Objective: To determine the PA levels measured through accelerometers in children and adolescents with CRDs. Methods: The authors conducted a systematic review using five databases. The authors included studies that assessed the PA measured by accelerometers in children and adolescents with CRDs. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. Results: From 11,497 reports returned by the initial search, 29 articles reporting on 4381 patients were included. In the sensitivity analysis, the authors found that children and adolescents with CRDs had a moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) of −0.08 hours per day (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.12 to −0.03 h/d; P = .001), which was lower than the healthy controls; the values for sedentary time (mean difference −0.47 h/d; 95% CI, −1.29 to 0.36 h/d; P = .27) and steps/d (mean difference 361 steps/d; 95% CI −385 to 1707 steps/d; P = .45) were similar for both. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with CRDs have a slight reduction in MVPA in comparison with healthy controls, but sedentary time and steps/d were similar for both.

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Luca Filipas, Davide Ferioli, Giuseppe Banfi, Antonio La Torre and Jacopo Antonino Vitale

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the single and combined effects of sleep restriction (SR) and mental fatigue (MF) on free-throw (FT) performance among adult male basketball players. Methods: A total of 19 amateur male basketball players performed, in a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover order, 2 identical experimental sessions separated by an interval of 1 week. The difference between the 2 sessions was in the quantity of sleep the night before the sessions, as follows: in one case, the participants followed their habitual sleep–wake routines; in the other session, they were forced to sleep not more than 5 hours. During the experimental sessions, the participants performed 60 basketball FTs on 2 occasions, separated by watching a basketball tactical video for 30 minutes designed to induce MF. As such, the FT test was completed in 4 different conditions: control, MF, SR, and SR and MF combined. Results: The participants registered a significantly lower total sleep time in acute SR (P < .001). The subjective rating of MF was lower in the control than in MF, SR, and SR and MF combined (P < .001). There were no differences between conditions for the subjective ratings of motivation. FT accuracy was higher in the control than in MF, SR, and SR and MF combined (P = .010), while no differences were observed between the 3 experimental conditions (all P > .05). Conclusion: The results indicate that a combined effect of MF and SR induces a small reduction in basketball FT performance, similar to MF or SR alone.

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Daniel J. McDonough, Wenxi Liu, Xiwen Su and Zan Gao

Background: The effects of school-based exergaming interventions on adolescents’ physical activity (PA) and psychosocial outcomes have been mixed. Researchers speculate this may be attributed to design issues. Therefore, this study examined differences in urban minority adolescents’ PA, enjoyment, and self-efficacy during small-groups and full-class exergaming. Methods: Forty-seven urban minority adolescents (83% black; X¯age=11.8+1.3y) completed two 15-minute exergaming sessions on the Xbox One Kinect Just Dance: (1) small groups (n = 3–4) and (2) full class (n = 23–24). Participants’ time in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA and steps were retrieved from ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers with enjoyment and self-efficacy assessed using validated surveys. Results: Participants spent significantly more time in sedentary behavior (5.9 [5.2] min vs 3.5 [2.7] min, respectively: P < .001, d = 0.57) and less time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (2.1 [2.8] min vs 5.5 [2.2] min, respectively: P < .001, d = 0.85) during the full-class versus the small-groups session. Moreover, small-groups exergaming resulted in significantly higher steps than the full-class exergaming (504.2 [132.1] vs 387.8 [122.1], respectively: P = .01, d = 0.50) and significantly greater enjoyment (3.5 [1.1] vs 3.2 [1.0], respectively: P = .02, d = 0.37). There were no significant differences between sessions for time in light PA and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Small-groups exergaming appears ideal for promoting enjoyable PA at higher intensities and lower sedentary time in underserved minority adolescents.

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Richard Tahtinen, Hafrun Kristjansdottir, Daniel T. Olason and Robert Morris

The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of specific symptoms of depression in athletes and to test differences in the likelihood of athletes exhibiting these symptoms across age, sex, type of team sport, and level of competition. A sample of Icelandic male and female team sport athletes (N = 894, 18–42 years) was included in the study. Of the athletes exhibiting clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, 37.5% did not exhibit core symptoms of depression. Compared with males, females were significantly more likely to exhibit depressed mood, feelings of worthlessness/guilt, and problems with sleep, fatigue, appetite, and concentration. Within males, differences were mostly related to neurovegetative aspects of depression (sleep and appetite), whereas in females, differences were related to cognitive/emotional aspects (e.g., depressed mood, guilt/worthlessness). The findings underline the importance of exploring specific symptoms of depression to provide a richer understanding of depressive symptomology in athletes.

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Zachary W. Arth and Andrew C. Billings

This study analyzed the frequency with which the regional broadcasts of the 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams featured traditional and modern/advanced statistics. To understand these portrayals, 60 games, two from each MLB team, were coded. The coded content consisted of any on-screen graphic featuring one or multiple baseball statistics, as well as any comment from the broadcasters about statistics. The results indicated a clear spectrum of teams, with some featuring a high level of advanced metrics in their graphics and commentary, while some were substantially more traditional. Through the lens of framing, potential ramifications for statistical knowledge within different fan bases were discussed.

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Changwook Kim, Jinwon Kim and Brijesh Thapa

Background: The examination of the longitudinal effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on mental well-being is important, but previous studies have typically been limited by their use of a cross-sectional approach. This study empirically examined how LTPA intensity was associated with changes in distinct functions of mental well-being (eg, emotional, psychological, social) over time, and vice versa. Methods: Parallel latent growth curve modeling in combination with propensity score matching analysis was conducted. Data were derived from a sample of adults from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study. Results: The results showed that the initial level of moderate LTPA at the baseline was associated with growth in psychological and social functioning over time, and vice versa. However, vigorous LTPA at the baseline was related only to growth in emotional functioning over time. Conclusion: The longitudinal association between LTPA and mental well-being had different matching mechanisms for LTPA intensities and their relation to distinct functioning for mental well-being. The findings contribute to an enhanced understanding of LTPA’s longitudinal effect on mental well-being.

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John H. Challis

The results of the 2020 review and ranking of U.S. doctoral programs in kinesiology conducted by the National Academy of Kinesiology (NAK) are presented. These results represent data collected for the  2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 calendar years for 43 programs. The rankings reflect data collected on program faculty (productivity, funding, and visibility) and program students (admissions, support, publications, and employment). The data for each assessment index were first transformed into z scores, and then the z scores converted into T-scores. Weights were applied to the T-scores of the indices and then summed to obtain a total T-score. Programs were ranked in two ways: one based on the total T-scores from the data not normalized (unadjusted) and the other with total T-scores from the data normalized with respect to the number of faculty members in each program (adjusted). In addition to program rankings, descriptive data are presented on faculty and student data.

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Rachel K. Barnett, Cory Greever, Karen Yagi, Brendan Rhoan and Sarah Kozey Keadle

Background: This study reexamines the energy cost of lower intensity activities compared to the 2011 Adult Compendium of Physical Activities. Methods: Participants (n = 32, age = 35 [13.8] y, 16 females) wore a portable metabolic system (COSMED), during 5 different conditions: sitting quietly, watching TV, sitting while working, driving, and walking at 2.0 mph. The metabolic equivalent (MET) values (VO2 mL·kg−1·min−1/3.5 mL·kg−1·min−1) were calculated. Results: The mean (SD) MET value for driving (1.46 [0.24]) was significantly lower than the Adult Compendium value of 2.5 (P < .001). Driving and slow walking have similar Adult Compendium values, but driving METs were significantly lower than slow walking (P < .001). Driving was similar to sitting while working (1.32 [0.25] METs, P > .05) and yielded significantly higher MET values than quiet sitting (1.08 [0.23] METs, P < .001) and watching TV (1.12 [0.22] METs, P < .001), both of which were lower than their respective Adult Compendium MET values. Conclusion: Existing Adult Compendium METs are significantly higher than measured METs for driving, which more closely correspond to sedentary behaviors than slow walking. The TV and quiet sitting also differed from their Adult Compendium values, which should be updated to reflect these findings, given that researchers and practitioners rely on Adult Compendium MET values to estimate energy cost.

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Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Aya Kadota, Akihiko Shiino, Akira Fujiyoshi, Takahiro Ito, Ali Haidar Syaifullah, Naoko Miyagawa, Keiko Kondo, Takashi Hisamatsu, Hiroyoshi Segawa, Ikuo Tooyama, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Katsuyuki Miura and for the SESSA Research Group

Background: To investigate the association between step counts and brain volumes (BVs)—global and 6 a priori selected cognition-related regions of interest—in Japanese men aged 40–79 years. Methods: The authors analyzed data from 680 cognitively intact participants of the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis—a population-based observational study. Using multivariable linear regression, the authors assessed cross-sectional associations between 7-day step counts at baseline (2006–2008) and BVs at follow-up (2012–2015) for age-stratified groups (<60 y and ≥60 y). Results: In the older adults ≥60 years, step counts at baseline (per 1000 steps) were associated with total BV at follow-up (β = 1.42, P = .022) while adjusted for potential covariates. Regions of interest-based analyses yielded an association of step counts with both prefrontal cortexes (P < .05) in older adults, while the left entorhinal cortex showed marginally significant association (P = .05). No association was observed with hippocampus, parahippocampal, cingulum, and cerebellum. No association was observed in younger adults (<60 y). Conclusions: The authors found a positive association between 7-day step counts and BVs, including prefrontal cortexes, and left entorhinal cortex in apparently healthy Japanese men.

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Davoud Fazeli, HamidReza Taheri and Alireza Saberi Kakhki

The simulation theory argues that physical execution, action observation, and imagery share similar underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, applying a high-level psychological variable (variability of practice) should have a similar effect on all three modes. To test this theory, a total of 90 right-handed students participated in this study and were randomly divided into variable versus constant groups in three practice conditions, including physical, observational, and imagery. After a pretest (10 random trials of the putting task), the participants completed 50 practice trials. The groups performed/observed/imagined the task in the variable (different distances to different goals) or constant (fixed distance and goal) practice conditions. Also, there was an extra variable group in the physical and observational conditions, deprived of watching the feedback from the action. The participants completed a retention test 24 hr after the training. The effect of practice variability was observed in physical and observational conditions, but was not seen in the imagery condition. The no-feedback groups did not perform significantly differently from the imagery groups. The reason could be the lack of actual visual feedback during imagery.