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Kate Hovey, Diana Niland and John T. Foley

Purpose: Self-efficacy, having been identified as a factor influencing teacher effectiveness, combined with the increased prevalence of outdoor education (OE) content being taught within physical education contexts, warrants the need for physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to address OE outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if participation in an OE program increased self-efficacy to teach OE among PETE students. Methods: PETE students (N = 95) were taught OE content in multiple residential environments and were evaluated using the “Survey of Self-efficacy for Teaching Outdoor Education.” Results: Results indicated a significant increase in self-efficacy scores from pretest to posttest in all content areas (OE skills, group dynamic skills, and models and theories). Overall, the OE program had a large effect in changing self-efficacy scores. Conclusion: Participation in the program positively affected PETE students’ self-efficacy for teaching OE, which may improve their ability to ultimately teach this content in physical education settings.

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Barbara Resnick, Elizabeth Galik, Marie Boltz, Erin Vigne, Sarah Holmes, Steven Fix and Shijun Zhu

The purpose of this study was to describe physical activity and function of older adults in assisted living communities and test the association between moderate and vigorous activity and falls. This study used baseline data from 393 participants from the first two cohorts in the Function-Focused Care in Assisted Living Using the Evidence Integration Triangle study. The majority of participants were female (N = 276, 70%) and White (N = 383, 97%) with a mean age of 87 years (SD = 7). Controlling for age, cognition, gender, setting, and function, the time spent in moderate or vigorous levels of physical activity was associated with having a fall in the prior 4 months. Those who engaged in more moderate physical activity were 0.6% less likely to have a fall (OR = 0.994, Wald statistic = 5.54, p = .02), and those who engaged in more vigorous activity were 2% less likely to have a fall (OR = 0.980, Wald statistic = 3.88, p = .05).

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Bassam A. Nabil, Mariam A. Ameer, Azza M. Abdelmohsen, Abeer F. Hanafy, Ahmed S. Yamani, Naglaa M. Elhafez and Salam M. Elhafez

Context: Upper limb activities require a repetitive movement of the shoulder external rotator and abductor muscles. The malfunction of the proximal part of the upper limb kinetic chain tends to change the mechanics of the distal part and increase the risk of injuries. Objectives: To compare the normalized eccentric peak torque (NEPT) of the shoulder external rotator and abductor muscles among healthy athletes and those with tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow. Design: An experimental cross-sectional study. Setting: Isokinetic laboratory, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Participants: A total of 30 male athletes participated voluntarily in this study. Intervention: Participants were distributed into 3 groups: healthy group, tennis elbow group, and golfer’s elbow group. Main Outcome Measures: NEPT of shoulder abductors and external rotators. The Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer was used to measure the variables of interest. Results: There was a significant increase in the NEPT of shoulder abductors and external rotators in healthy control group compared with both tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow groups at an angular velocity of 60°/s (P < .05). Moreover, there was a significant increase in the NEPT of shoulder external rotators and abductors at an angular velocity of 120°/s in healthy control group compared with tennis elbow group and in golfer’s elbow group compared with tennis elbow group (P < .05). Conclusion: Tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow are associated with decreased NEPT of shoulder external rotators and abductors compared with those of healthy athletes. This tends to decrease the external stability of the shoulder joint and put high stress on the distal joints of the upper kinetic chain.

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Jennifer A. Hogg, Randy J. Schmitz and Sandra J. Shultz

Clinical femoral anteversion (Craig test) and hip range of motion (ROM) have been associated with valgus collapse, but their clinical usefulness in predicting biomechanics is unknown. Our purpose was to determine the individual and combined predictive power of femoral anteversion and passive hip ROM on 3-dimensional valgus collapse (hip internal rotation and adduction, knee rotation, and abduction) during a single-leg forward landing in females. Femoral anteversion and passive hip ROM were measured on 20 females (24.9 [4.1] y, 168.7 [8.0] cm, 63.8 [11.6] kg). Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected over 5 trials of the task. Each variable was averaged across trials. Backward, stepwise regressions determined the extent to which our independent variables were associated with valgus collapse. The combination of greater hip internal and external rotation ROM (partial r = .52 and .56) predicted greater peak knee internal rotation moment (R 2 = .38, P = .02). Less hip internal rotation ROM (partial r = −.44) predicted greater peak knee abduction moments (R 2 = .20, P = .05). Greater total hip ROM (internal and external rotation ROM) was not consistently associated with combined motions of valgus collapse but was indicative of isolated knee moments. Passive hip ROM is more associated with knee moments than is femoral anteversion as measured with Craig test.

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Laura Prior and Matthew Curtner-Smith

Purpose: Most research examining the effects of socialization on physical education teachers’ curricula is dated, has been incidental, and conducted in secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of occupational socialization on the curricula delivered by elementary teachers. Methods: Participants were 10 teachers. Data were collected with six qualitative techniques and analyzed by employing standard interpretive methods. Findings and Discussion: Three groups of teachers were identified. These were nonteachers, conservatives, and progressives. The curricula they delivered varied greatly in terms of pedagogies and quality. Each teacher group was closely aligned to orientations for teaching and coaching, and these orientations were forged by the teachers’ socialization profiles. Conclusions: The findings provided clues as to how the cycle of poor and nonteaching might be broken in U.S. elementary schools. In addition, these findings served to potentially modify occupational socialization theory pertaining to physical education.

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Bin Chen, Yichao Zhao, Xianxin Cao, Guojiong Hu, Lincoln B. Chen and Wenxin Niu

Context: One of the possible mechanisms leading to secondary impingement syndrome may be the strength imbalance of shoulder rotators which is known as functional control ratio (FCR). The FCR is a ratio dividing the eccentric peak torque of the external rotators by the concentric peak torque of the internal rotators. Previous studies have focused on the reproducibility and reliability of isokinetic assessment, but there is little information on the influence of variable shoulder positions on FCR. Objective: To compare shoulder FCR across 3 different shoulder abduction positions during isokinetic assessment. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one healthy young university students (age 22.35 [0.95] y, weight 60.52 [9.31] kg, height 168.23 [9.47] cm). Interventions: The concentric peak torque of internal rotators and eccentric peak torque of external rotators of right shoulder were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Main Outcome Measures: Concentric peak torque of the internal rotators and eccentric peak torque of the external rotators, measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Results: The concentric peak torque of internal rotators was significantly lower at 120° shoulder abduction compared with other positions (P < .001). The FCR was significantly higher at 120° shoulder abduction than 90° (P = .002) or 60° (P < .001) shoulder abduction because of the lower concentric peak torque. No significant difference was found in the FCR between the other 2 shoulder positions (P = .14). Conclusions: Shoulder position variations may influence FCR because of weakness of the internal rotators. Rehabilitation and injury prevention training programs should specifically focus on strengthening the internal rotators at more elevated angles of shoulder abduction.

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Javier Raya-González, Luis Suárez-Arrones, Archit Navandar, Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández and Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal

Context: As the number of injuries in young soccer players increases, an epidemiological study is the first step in improving preventive strategies. Objectives: To analyze the injury profile of a Spanish professional soccer club’s academy during 4 consecutive seasons and to examine the injury incidence across different chronological age groups. Design: Prospective cohort design. Setting: Aggregate injury and exposure data collected during 4 consecutive seasons. Participants: Three hundred nine elite male young soccer players. Main Outcomes Measures: Injuries that led to participation time missed from training and match play prospectively reported by medical or coaching staff of the club. Results: A total of 464 time-loss injuries were observed during this study period. The overall injury incidence was 2.93 injuries per 1000 hours, with higher incidence during matches than during training (10.16 vs 2.10 injuries/1000 h; rate ratio [RR] = 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–0.25; P < .05), with the U14 age group presenting the lowest injury rate (2.39 injuries/1000 h; RR = 1.15–1.57; P < .05). In terms of injury severity, moderate injuries were the most frequent (1.42 injuries/1000 h). Muscle injuries were the most common type of injuries (57.7%; 2.75 injuries/1000 h; RR = 1.84–13.4; P < .05), and hamstrings (93/268) were the most affected muscle group (0.58 injuries/1000 h; RR = 1.58–2.91; P < .05). Injury incidence showed a seasonal variation as indicated by peaks in August and October. In matches, specifically, the match period between 75 and 90 minutes showed the highest injury incidence (10.29 injuries/1000 h; RR = 1.89–6.38; P < .01). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that specific preventive strategies must be implemented to try to reduce the injury incidence in Spanish elite young soccer players attending to the characteristics of each age group.

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Carlos Capella-Peris, Jesús Gil-Gómez and Òscar Chiva-Bartoll

Purpose: To compare the development of teaching competency in preservice teachers of physical education (n = 96) through two different modalities of intervention from the same service-learning program. The preservice teachers provided a direct service to children with motor functional diversity, promoting their motor skills and counteracting their lack of social attention. Method: The topic was approached using mixed methods with methodological triangulation. Quantitative evidence was gathered through a quasi-experimental design of two nonequivalent experimental groups implementing the following instrument: the Teaching Competency while performing Motor Skills and Body Language Games Rubric. Meanwhile, qualitative analysis was undertaken by elaborating upon 12 life histories of multiple crossed stories. Results: The quantitative results provided significant evidence regarding the academic effect of service-learning on preservice teachers, while the qualitative interpretation complemented this view, reflecting on how this learning was developed. Discussion/Conclusion: The authors provided the original findings of the service-learning effects on the teaching competency of preservice teachers as well as the promotion of additional academic and social learning.

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Athanasios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Milosis and Christos Gotzaridis

Purpose: This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects on students’ autonomous motivation and satisfaction from a program integrating physics concepts in physical education. Method: A total of 487 students (age 13 ± 1) participated in the study. The participants were students participating in physical education classes divided into intervention (n = 183), comparison, and control condition (n = 150 and n = 154, respectively). Before the intervention and three times during its implementation, the students responded on measures of situational motivation with good construct validity. Results: The intervention increased the students’ autonomous motivation and satisfaction in physical education and decreased the students’ amotivation. Conclusion: An effective integration of physics concepts and physical activities can promote meaningful learning, a holistic education perspective, autonomous motivation, and wellness in physical education.

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Nicholas S. Washburn, K. Andrew R. Richards and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

Purpose: Despite being linked with motivationally supportive instruction, little research has investigated antecedents to physical educators’ psychological need satisfaction. This study examined relationships between physical educators’ perceived mattering, role stress, and psychological need satisfaction. Method: The participants included 472 in-service physical educators (232 males and 240 females) from the eastern United States who completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a conceptual model detailing the relationships among study variables. Results: The conceptual model was a good fit for the data, χ2(358) = 657.16, p < .001, root mean square error of approximation = .042 (90% confidence interval [.037, .047], p = .996), standardized root mean residual = .051, nonnormalized fit index = .949, comparative fit index = .955. Generally, perceived mattering influenced role ambiguity and relatedness satisfaction. Role overload and role ambiguity are negatively associated with competence satisfaction, and role conflict is negatively associated with autonomy satisfaction. Discussion: The findings indicate that elevating physical education teachers’ perceived mattering may reduce role stress and increase psychological need satisfaction.