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Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Megan L. Forse, Evan Turner, Silvia A. González, Jakub Kalinowski, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Eun-Young Lee, Reginald Ocansey, John J. Reilly, Natasha Schranz, Leigh M. Vanderloo and Mark S. Tremblay

Background: In response to growing concerns over high levels of physical inactivity among young people, the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance developed a series of national Report Cards on physical activity for children and youth to advocate for the promotion of physical activity. This article provides updated evidence of the impact of the Report Cards on powering the movement to get children and youth moving globally. Methods: This assessment was performed using quantitative and qualitative sources of information, including surveys, peer-reviewed publications, e-mails, gray literature, and other sources. Results: Although it is still too early to observe a positive change in physical activity levels among children and youth, an impact on raising awareness and capacity building in the national and international scientific community, disseminating information to the general population and stakeholders, and on powering the movement to get kids moving has been observed. Conclusions: It is hoped that the Report Card activities will initiate a measurable shift in the physical activity levels of children and contribute to achieving the 4 strategic objectives of the World Health Organization Global Action Plan as follows: creating an active society, creating active environments, creating active lives, and creating active systems.

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Zack Pedersen and Antonio S. Williams

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Siobhán O’Connor, Noel McCaffrey, Enda F. Whyte, Michael Fop, Brendan Murphy and Kieran A. Moran

Context: Hamstring injuries are a leading cause of injury in Gaelic games. Hamstring flexibility as a risk factor for hamstring injury has not yet been examined prospectively in Gaelic games. Objective: To examine whether hamstring flexibility, using the modified active knee extension (AKE) test, and previous injury are risk factors for hamstring injury in Gaelic players and to generate population-specific AKE cutoff points. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: School and colleges. Patients (or Other Participants): Adolescent and collegiate Gaelic footballers and hurlers (n = 570). Intervention(s): The modified AKE test was completed at preseason, and hamstring injuries were assessed over the course of one season. Any previous hamstring injuries were noted in those who presented with a hamstring injury. Main Outcome Measures: Bilateral AKE scores and between-leg asymmetries were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic curves were implemented to generate cutoff points specific to Gaelic players. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were completed to predict hamstring injuries, hamstring injuries on the dominant leg, and hamstring injuries on the nondominant leg. Results: Mean flexibility of 64.2° (12.3°) and 64.1° (12.4°) was noted on the dominant and nondominant leg, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves generated a cutoff point of < 65° in the AKE on the nondominant leg only. When controlled for age, AKE on the nondominant leg was the only predictor variable left in the multivariate model (odds ratio = 1.03) and significantly predicted hamstring injury (χ2 = 9.20, P = .01). However, the sensitivity was 0% and predicted the same amount of cases as the null model. It was not possible to generate a significant model for hamstring injuries on the dominant leg (P > .05), and no variables generated a P value < .20 in the univariate analysis on the nondominant leg. Conclusions: Poor flexibility noted in the AKE test during preseason screening and previous injury were unable to predict those at risk of sustaining a hamstring strain in Gaelic games with adequate sensitivity.

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Fernando Klitzke Borszcz, Artur Ferreira Tramontin and Vitor Pereira Costa

Purpose: Functional threshold power (FTP), determined as 95% of the average power during a 20-min time trial, is suggested as a practical test for the determination of the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in cycling. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the validity of FTP in predicting MLSS. Methods: A total of 15 cyclists, 7 classified as trained and 8 as well trained (mean [SD] maximal oxygen uptake 62.3 [6.4] mL·kg−1·min−1, maximal aerobic power 329 [30] W), performed an incremental test to exhaustion, an FTP test, and several constant-load tests to determine the MLSS. The bias ± 95% limits of agreement (LoA), typical error of the estimate (TEE), and Pearson coefficient of correlation (r) were calculated to assess validity. Results: For the power-output measures, FTP presented a bias ± 95% LoA of 1.4% ± 9.2%, a moderate TEE (4.7%), and nearly perfect correlation (r = .91) with MLSS in all cyclists together. When divided by training level, the bias ± 95% LoA and TEE were higher in the trained group (1.4% ± 11.8% and 6.4%, respectively) than in the well-trained group (1.3% ± 7.4% and 3.0%, respectively). For the heart-rate measurement, FTP presented a bias ± 95% LoA of −1.4% ± 8.2%, TEE of 4.0%, and very large correlation (r = .80) with MLSS. Conclusion: Therefore, trained and well-trained cyclists can use FTP as a noninvasive and practical alternative to estimate MLSS.

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Katie J. Lyman, Michael McCrone, Thomas A. Hanson, Christopher D. Mellinger and Kara Gange

Context: Allied health care professionals commonly apply cryotherapy as treatment for acute musculoskeletal trauma and the associated symptoms. Understanding the impact of a tape barrier on intramuscular temperature can assist in determining treatment duration for effective cryotherapy. Objective: To determine whether Kinesio® Tape acts as a barrier that affects intramuscular temperature during cryotherapy application. Design: A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design in which the independent variable was tape application and the dependent variable was muscle temperature as measured by thermocouples placed 1 cm beneath the adipose layer. Additional covariates for robustness were body mass index and adipose thickness. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Nineteen male college students with no contraindications to cryotherapy, no known sensitivity to Kinesio® Tape, and no reported quadriceps injury within the past 6 months. Intervention: Topical cryotherapy: cubed ice bags of 1 kg and 0.5 kg. Main Outcome Measures: Intramuscular temperature. Results: The tape barrier had no statistically significant effect on muscle temperature. The pattern of temperature change was indistinguishable between participants with and without tape application. Conclusions: Findings suggest that health care professionals can combine cryotherapy with a Kinesio® Tape application without any need for adjustments to cryotherapy duration.

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Abbey C. Thomas, Janet E. Simon, Rachel Evans, Michael J. Turner, Luzita I. Vela and Phillip A. Gribble

Context: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) frequently develops following knee injury/surgery. It is accepted that knee injury/surgery precipitates OA with previous studies examining this link in terms of years after injury/surgery. However, postinjury OA prevalence has not been examined by decade of life; thereby, limiting our understanding of the age at which patients are diagnosed with posttraumatic knee OA. Objective: Evaluate the association between the knee injury and/or surgical history, present age, and history of receiving a diagnosis of knee OA. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Online survey. Participants: A total of 3660 adults were recruited through ResearchMatch©. Of these, 1723 (47.1%) were included for analysis due to history of (1) knee surgery (SURG: n = 276; age = 53.8 [15.3] y; and body mass index [BMI] = 29.9 [8.0] kg/m2), (2) nonsurgical knee injury (INJ: n = 449; age = 46.0 [15.6] y; and BMI = 27.5 [6.9] kg/m2), or (3) no knee injury (CTRL: n = 998; age = 44.0 [25.2] y; and BMI = 26.9 [6.6] kg/m2). Respondents were subdivided by decade of life (20–29 through 70+). Intervention: An electronic survey regarding knee injury history, treatment, and diagnosis of knee OA. Main Outcome Measures: Binary logistic regression determined the association between knee surgical status and OA by decade of life. Participants with no histories of OA or lower-extremity injury were the referent categories. BMI was a covariate in all analyses. Results: SURG respondents were more likely to report having knee OA than CTRL for all age groups (odds ratios: 11.43–53.03; P < .001). INJ respondents aged 30 years and older were more likely to have OA than CTRL (odds ratios: 2.99–14.22; P < .04). BMI influenced associations for respondents in their 50s (P = .001) and 60s (P < .001) only. Conclusions: INJ increased the odds of reporting a physician diagnosis of knee OA in adults as young as 30 to 39 years. Importantly, SURG yielded 3 to 4 times greater odds of being diagnosed with knee OA compared with INJ in adults as young as 20 to 29 years. Delaying disease onset in these young adults is imperative to optimize the quality of life long term after surgery.

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Philp Sullivan, Jessica Murphy and Mishka Blacker

Mental health literacy (MHL), the knowledge and attitudes that aid in recognition, management and prevention of mental health issues, could help maintain positive mental health within the athletic community. As coaches and athletic therapists (ATs) frequently and routinely interact with athletes, this study focused on the MHL of these individuals. Eighty participants (24 females, 54 males; 57 coaches, 18 ATs) completed an on-line version of the MHL Scale. Average MHL score was 131.48, which, is relatively equal to scores seen in university students and a general population. No significant difference was detected between coaches and ATs but females reported significantly higher MHL scores than males. There was a significant negative correlation between MHL and total experience. These results have potentially strong clinical ramifications as increased MHL in this context can affect facilitators and barriers towards seeking help in a high-risk population.

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Michael Dao

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Hannah Butler-Coyne, Vaithehy Shanmuganathan-Felton and Jamie Taylor

Equestrian media is showing an increasing interest in the impact of mental health on performance and general wellbeing of equestrian athletes. This study explores the awareness of mental health difficulties and psychological wellbeing within equestrian sport from the perspectives of equestrian athletes, instructors/coaches and parents. The exploratory nature of the research offered opportunity to use a dual approach including e-surveys and semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the qualitative data identified five key themes (Emotional Wellbeing in Balance; Emotional Wellbeing Imbalance; Wellbeing Imbalance—Impact on Equestrian Sportspeople; Impact of Equestrian Sport on Wellbeing; Regaining Balance) and 22 sub-themes. The findings determine a compelling need for education, promotion of sharing experiences, facilitation of specialist (clinical and sport) professional training and intervention as well as a review of regulations from equestrian Governing Bodies.