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J. Luke Pryor, Brittany Christensen, Catherine G. R. Jackson and Stephanie Moore-Reed

Background: Yoga is a popular alternative to walking, but the tempo at which asanas must be performed to elicit comparable metabolic and cardiorespiratory demands is unknown. Therefore, the authors aim to compare the metabolic demands of moderate-intensity walking to Surya Namaskar yoga performed at varying tempos. Methods: Inactive obese adults with limited prior yoga experience (n = 10) completed 10 minutes of treadmill walking at a self-selected pace (rating of perceived exertion = 12–13) and three, 10-minute bouts of yoga at a low (6 s/pose; LSUN), medium (4 s/pose; MSUN), and high (3 s/pose; HSUN) tempo with 10-minutes rest between exercise bouts. Results: Mean metabolic equivalents observed in MSUN (3.64 [0.607]), HSUN (4.22 [0.459]), and treadmill (5.29 [1.147]) were greater than 3.0 (P ≤ .01), but not LSUN (3.28 [0.529], P = .13). Treadmill elicited greater caloric and kilocaloric expenditure (1.36 [0.23] L·min−1; 64 [11] kcal) than LSUN (0.87 [0.24] L·min−1; 39 [11] kcal) and MSUN (1.00 [0.29] L·min−1; 45 [13] kcal) (P ≤ .01). Absolute V˙O2 between yoga tempos were not different, but relative V˙O2 was higher in HSUN (14.89 [1.74] mL·min−1·kg) versus LSUN (11.39 [1.83] mL·min−1·kg) (P = .02). Conclusions: Yoga can meet (LSUN) or exceed (MSUN and HSUN) moderate-intensity exercise recommendations. For unfit or obese populations, varying tempos of yoga practice may serve as a lower-impact option for beginning an exercise program.

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Robin C. Puett, Dina Huang, Jessica Montresor-Lopez, Rashawn Ray and Jennifer D. Roberts

Background: Sociodemographic and environmental factors play important roles in determining both indoor and outdoor play activities in children. Methods: The Built Environment and Active Play Study assessed neighborhood playability for children (7–12 y), based on parental report of their children’s active play behaviors, neighborhood characteristics, and geographic locations. Simple logistic regression modeling tested the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the frequency of and access to venues for indoor and outdoor play. Results: Children of higher socioeconomic status were almost 3 times more likely to live more than a 30-minute walk from indoor recreational facilities compared with their less affluent peers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–6.8). Non-Hispanic black children were less likely to live more than 30 minutes from indoor facilities (OR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08–0.57) and more were likely to engage in indoor activity (OR = 3.40; 95% CI, 1.17–9.88) than were white children. Boys were substantially more likely to play outdoors at a playing fields compared with girls (OR = 5.37; 95% CI, 2.10–13.69). Conclusions: Findings from this study could be used to enhance indoor and outdoor activity spaces for children and to reduce disparities in access to such spaces.

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Katherine Raw, Emma Sherry and Katie Rowe

Despite recent advances in sport-for-development (SFD) literature, few scholars have empirically examined organizational hybridity in SFD contexts. This is despite hybrid organizational approaches becoming increasingly common in the delivery of SFD initiatives. Opportunities exist for researchers to build knowledge regarding SFD hybrids, particularly those which operate in professional sport contexts. In this research, we examine an SFD organization, delivered by a professional sport team, which operates under a hybrid structure. A longitudinal qualitative case study design was employed, and findings demonstrate how the SFD organization, which presents a practical example of organizational hybridity, evolved over time. Drawing upon Svensson typologies of SFD hybrids, results illustrate how the organization transformed from a differentiated hybrid into a dysfunctional hybrid, under the influence of funding opportunities and institutional logics. Through the present study, we build upon theoretical understandings of SFD hybrids and offer practical insight into the nuances of SFD hybrids delivered in professional sport contexts.

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Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze

Multilevel examinations of sport policy institutionalization are scarce in sport management scholarship. As sport policies diffuse across geographic boundaries, there is often variation in the timing of adoption. In this study, the authors used event history analysis to examine the effect of institutional factors, within and between states, on the speed of youth sport concussion legislation adoption. Our quantitative analyses show that a series of intrastate factors—state norms, disruptive events, and local advocacy—had a significant influence on the timing of state policy adoption, but interstate social networks did not. Supporting qualitative data provide additional insight about the relationship between disruptive events and local advocacy in the adoption of concussion legislation. This study contributes to a better understanding of institutional factors in the diffusion of sport policy across geographic boundaries and offers an approach for future research examining variation in sport policy or practice adoption.

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Jessica L. Chandler, Keith Brazendale, Clemens Drenowatz, Justin B. Moore, Xuemei Sui, Robert G. Weaver and Michael W. Beets

Background: The primary purpose of this study was to determine which physical activity (PA) opportunity elicits the most moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) in after-school programs. This study used a 3-group cross-over design in which participants were exposed to 3 variations of activity structures: free play, organized, or a mixture. Methods: PA was measured using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. All data were transformed into percentage of time spent sedentary or in MVPA. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models were used to examine differences in MVPA and sedentary among the 3 activity sessions. Participants included 197 unique children, aged 5–12 years, and were 53% male and 55% white. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the percentage of time boys spent in MVPA during free play and mixed compared with organized only sessions (35.8% and 34.8% vs 29.4%). No significant difference was observed in the percentage of time girls spent in MVPA during free play compared with organized or mixed (27.2% and 26.1% vs 26.1%). Both boys and girls experienced ∼10% less time sedentary during free play compared with the others. Conclusion: Offering free play during PA opportunities can help children attain as much if not more MVPA compared with only offering organized, adult-led games.

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Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse and Sebastian Ludyga

While there is evidence that acute bouts of aerobic and coordinative exercise positively affect attention and executive functions, no study has focused on the impact of acute exercise on facial-emotion processing. A total of 106 adolescents (mean age 13.0 years) were randomly assigned to a group performing either an aerobic exercise session (AER), an aerobic exercise session with coordinative demands (AER+C), or stretching. Before and after the 35-min experimental session, participants completed computerized facial-emotion labeling and emotion-matching tasks. Facial-emotion labeling, but not emotion matching, increased over time, but more so in AER and AER+C conditions. When aerobic exercise is combined with coordinative demands, greater benefits seem to be elicited for some aspects of facial-emotion recognition. Results suggest a new direction for the influence of exercising on dimensions of psychological functioning, namely on emotion processing and social cognition.

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Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith and Louis Passfield

Perfectionism predicts cognitions, emotions, and behaviors in sport. Nonetheless, our understanding of the factors that influence its development is limited. The authors sought to address this issue by examining the role of coach and parental pressure in the development of perfectionism in sport. Using 3 samples of junior athletes (16–19 years; cross-sectional n = 212, 3-month longitudinal n = 101, and 6-month longitudinal n = 110), the authors examined relations between coach pressure to be perfect, parental pressure to be perfect, perfectionistic strivings, and perfectionistic concerns. Mini meta-analysis of the combined cross-sectional data (N = 423) showed that both coach pressure and parental pressure were positively correlated with perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. In contrast, longitudinal analyses showed that only coach pressure predicted increased perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns over time. Overall, our findings provide preliminary evidence that coaches may play a more important role in the development of junior athletes’ perfectionism than parents.

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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

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Sachi Ikudome, Kou Kou, Kisho Ogasa, Shiro Mori and Hiroki Nakamoto

This study examines whether the positive effect of choice on motor learning in a dart-throwing task varies by intrinsic motivation. Participants were allocated to a highly motivated or less-motivated group based on measured task motivation and randomly to a Choice or No Choice group. In Experiment 1, participants in the Choice group chose their dart color. In Experiment 2, they chose when to observe a model demonstration. Results showed that the effect of choice on motor learning differed between highly and less-motivated participants in Experiment 1 (i.e., interaction between motivation and choice) but not Experiment 2 (i.e., main effects of motivation and choice). Specifically, motor learning was enhanced in less-motivated but not highly motivated participants when choosing dart color, while it was enhanced regardless of initial intrinsic motivation when choosing model-demonstration time. Therefore, external provision of choice in a motor-learning situation may not be equally effective across learners.

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Thomas Hausegger, Christian Vater and Ernst-Joachim Hossner

Research on martial arts has suggested that gaze anchoring is functional for optimizing the use of peripheral visual information. The current study predicted that the height of gaze anchoring on the opponent’s body would depend on the potential attacking locations that need to be monitored. To test this prediction, the authors compared high-level athletes in kung fu (Qwan Ki Do), who attack with their arms and legs, with Tae Kwon Do fighters, who attack mostly with their legs. As predicted, the results show that Qwan Ki Do athletes anchor their gaze higher than Tae Kwon Do athletes do before and even during the first attack. In addition, gaze anchoring seems to depend on 3 factors: the particulars of the evolving situation, crucial cues, and specific visual costs (especially suppressed information pickup during saccades). These 3 factors should be considered in future studies on gaze behavior in sports to find the most functional, that is, cost-benefit-optimized, gaze pattern.