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Richard R. Suminski, Gregory M. Dominick, Philip Saponaro, Elizabeth M. Orsega-Smith, Eric Plautz and Matthew Saponaro

Today’s technology could contribute substantially to measuring physical activity. The current study evaluated traditional and novel approaches for assessing park use. The traditional approach involved a trained observer performing the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) at 14 parks while wearing a point-of-view, wearable video device (WVD). The novel approach utilized computer vision to count park users in the WVD videos taken during in-person SOPARCs. Both approaches were compared to criterion counts from expert reviews of the WVD videos. In the 676 scans made during in-person SOPARCs, 293 individuals were observed while 341 were counted by experts in the corresponding WVD videos. When using scans/videos having individuals in them (84 scans/videos), intra-class correlations (ICC) indicated good-to-excellent reliability between in-person SOPARC and experts for counts of total women and men, within age groups (except seniors), of Blacks and Whites, and within intensity categories (ICCs > .87; p < 0.001). In a subsample of 42 scans/videos, 174 individuals were counted using computer vision and 213 by experts. When using 27 of the 42 WVD videos with individuals in them, ICCs indicated good reliability between computer vision and expert reviews (ICC = .83; p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed the concurrence of expert counts with both in-person SOPARC and computer vision counts decreased as the number of individuals in a scan/video increased. The results of this study support the use of a highly discrete method for obtaining point-of-view videos and the application of computer vision for automating the counting of park users in the videos.

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Susan Paudel, Alice J. Owen, Stephane Heritier and Ben J. Smith

Aim: To analyze the data from the World Health Organization Nepal STEPS survey 2013 to determine the prevalence of total and domain-specific physical activity (PA) and associated factors among Nepalese adults. Methods: A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to proportionately select participants from the 3 ecological zones (Mountain, Hill, and Terai) in Nepal. The Global PA Questionnaire was used to assess PA. The data were analyzed using quantile and ordinary least square regression. Results: Only 4% of the adults did not meet the World Health Organization PA guidelines. Age had a negative monotonic association with total PA and occupational PA, with the highest difference at the upper tails of the PA distribution. Lower total PA and occupational PA were associated with secondary or higher education, being retired or in unpaid employment, living in Terai or urban areas, and nonsmoking. Age, higher education, unpaid employment, and Terai or urban residence were negatively associated, while being currently married was positively associated with transport-related PA. Conclusion: Increasing age, higher education, unpaid employment, unemployment or retirement, and urban residence were associated with lower PA, with the stronger association at the upper tails of the distribution. The correlates had dissimilar associations across the quantiles of PA distribution.

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Willemijn M.J. van Rooij, H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons, Herwin L.D. Horemans, Malou H.J. Fanchamps, Fred A. de Laat and Johannes B.J. Bussmann

Purpose: A simple single-unit activity monitor (Activ8), which is based on a tri-axial accelerometer, measures specific body postures and movements, and has potential for research and clinical practice to monitor and optimize physical behavior of people with chronic conditions. However, the validity of the Activ8 in people with lower-limb amputation is unknown. Studying validity in this specific group is needed because they often have postures and movements that differ from the normal population, and which might affect validity. Therefore our study aimed to validate the Activ8 to measure body postures and movements in people with a lower-limb amputation. Methods: Thirty people with a unilateral lower-limb amputation and who are able to walk with a prosthesis completed two activity protocols in a simulated home setting: one with basic activities (only one posture or movement) and one with functional activities from daily living. Outcomes of the Activ8 (used in thigh-fixed position and pocket position) were compared to outcomes of video observation (the reference method). Primary analyses focused on the agreement in duration of merged measures of physical activity (walking, running, cycling, standing) and sedentary behavior (lying/sitting) with the Activ8 used in thigh-fixed position. Additional analyses included the detection of specific types of physical activity, the effects of amputation level and cause, and the validity of the Activ8 in pocket position. Results: Overall percentage time differences between Activ8 (thigh-fixed position) and video observation for merged measures of physical activity and sedentary behavior outcomes were −2.7% and 2.3%, respectively. These percentages were −1.6% and 1.3% for the basic protocol, and −3.9% and 3.6% for the functional protocol, respectively. For specific postures and movements, differences were larger (ranging from −12.6% to 7.1%). Conclusion: The Activ8 activity monitor has acceptable validity to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with a unilateral lower-limb amputation.

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Andrea Stewart, Barbara Sternfeld, Brittney S. Lange-Maia, Kelly R. Ylitalo, Alicia Colvin, Carrie A. Karvonen-Gutierrez, Sheila A. Dugan, Robin R. Green and Kelley Pettee Gabriel

Purpose: To examine racial/ethnic differences in participant-reported and device-based estimates of sedentary and physical activity behaviors and correlations between measurement methods in midlife and young-old women. Methods: Data are from 1,257 Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation participants, aged 60–72 who agreed to participate in an accelerometer protocol and had valid wear time (46% White, 26% Black, 12% Chinese, 10% Japanese, 6% Hispanic). Measures from the Kaiser Physical Activity Scale (KPAS) and ActiGraph wGT3X-BT were summarized overall and by race/ethnic groups. Partial Spearman rank order correlation coefficients between the KPAS and accelerometer were computed overall and by race/ethnic groups. Fisher’s z transformation-derived confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate differences in observed correlations in the various race/ethnic groups, compared to White women. Results: Participants spent an average of 7.5 ± 2.1 h·d−1 in sedentary behaviors, 4.5 ± 1.1 h·d−1 and 2.3 ± 0.8 h·d−1 in low or high light intensity physical activity, respectively, and 56 ± 35 min·d−1 in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Time spent in each category differed by race/ethnic group. Overall, correlation coefficients comparing the KPAS domain-specific and total physical activity scores with accelerometry were low to moderate (range: 0.062–0.462), and few statistically significant differences in correlations were noted for race/ethnic groups, compared to White women. Conclusions: Study findings complement prior studies describing sedentary and physical activity behaviors using multi-methods in a diverse population of older women, and provide additional evidence on the convergent validity of the KPAS by race/ethnic groups.

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Gregory A. Hand, Robin P. Shook, Daniel P. O’Connor, Madison M. Kindred, Sarah Schumacher, Clemens Drenowatz, Amanda E. Paluch, Stephanie Burgess, John E. Blundell and Steven N. Blair

Background: The present study examined, among weight-stable overweight or obese adults, the effect of increasing doses of exercise energy expenditure (EEex) on changes in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), total body energy stores, and body composition. Methods: Healthy, sedentary overweight/obese young adults were randomized to one of 3 groups for a period of 26 weeks: moderate-exercise (EEex goal of 17.5 kcal/kg/wk), high-exercise (EEex goal of 35 kcal/kg/wk), or observation group. Individuals maintained body weight within 3% of baseline. Pre/postphysical activity between-group measurements included body composition, calculated energy intake, TDEE, energy stores, and resting metabolic rate. Results: Sixty weight-stable individuals completed the protocols. Exercise groups increased EEex in a stepwise manner compared with the observation group (P < .001). There was no group effect on changes in TDEE, energy intake, fat-free mass, or resting metabolic rate. Fat mass and energy stores decreased among the females in the high-exercise group (P = .007). Conclusions: The increase in EEex did not result in an equivalent increase in TDEE. There was a sex difference in the relationship among energy balance components. These results suggest a weight-independent compensatory response to exercise training with potentially a sex-specific adjustment in body composition.

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Kim Gammage, Desi McEwan, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

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Narelle Eather, Mark R. Beauchamp, Ryan E. Rhodes, Thierno M.O. Diallo, Jordan J. Smith, Mary E. Jung, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael Noetel, Nigel Harris, Emily Graham and David R. Lubans

This study involved the design and evaluation of the High-Intensity Interval Training Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (HIIT-SQ). Phase 1: Questionnaire items were developed. Phase 2: Australian adolescents (N = 389, 16.0 ± 0.4 years, 41.10% female) completed the HIIT-SQ, and factorial validity of the measurement model was explored. Phase 3: Adolescents (N = 100, age 12–14 years, 44% female) completed the HIIT-SQ twice (1 week apart) to evaluate test–retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of the final six items (mean = 3.43–6.73, SD = 0.99–25.30) revealed adequate fit, χ2(21) = 21, p = .01, comparative fit index = .99, Tucker–Lewis index = .99, root mean square of approximation = .07, 90% confidence interval [.04, .11]. Factor loading estimates showed that all items were highly related to the factor (estimates range: 0.81–0.90). Intraclass coefficients and typical error values were .99 (95% confidence interval [.99, 1.00]) and .22, respectively. This study provides preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of scores derived from the HIIT-SQ in adolescents.

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Aynollah Naderi, Fatemeh Shaabani, Hassan Gharayagh Zandi, Luís Calmeiro and Britton W. Brewer

The authors tested the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based program in reducing sport-injury incidence. A total of 168 young male elite soccer players were randomly assigned to mindfulness and control groups. The mindfulness group consisted of seven sessions based on the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment approach, while the control group consisted of seven presentations on sport-injury psychology. Athlete exposure and injury data were recorded during one season. State and trait mindfulness, sport anxiety, stress, and attention control of participants were assessed. Number of injuries, average of injuries per team, and days lost to injury in the mindfulness group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Mindfulness and attention control were lower and sport anxiety and stress were higher in injured players than in noninjured players. Psychological variables were associated with injury. Mindfulness training may reduce the injury risk of young soccer players due to improved mindfulness and attention control and reduced sport anxiety.

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Ciarán P. Friel and Carol Ewing Garber

Wearable physical activity (PA) monitors are widely promoted as a means to motivate people to be more active, but the motivational profile of users has never been assessed. This study’s purpose was to classify adult users by their motivational regulation scores and examine how these profiles were associated with moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Current users (N = 320) recruited across the United States completed a Web-based survey. Motivational regulations were measured using the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire, and associations with MVPA were explored using bivariate correlations. MVPA was more highly correlated with autonomous rather than controlling regulations. A cluster analysis was conducted using the respondents’ motivational regulation scores. Five motivational profiles emerged from this analysis, and they differed significantly across motivation and MVPA scores. PA monitor users characterized by more autonomous motives presented with higher MVPA. As technology use increases, assessing the multidimensionality of PA monitor users’ motivation may add value when researching PA behaviors.