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Danilo Fernandes da Silva, Shuhiba Mohammad, Taniya Singh Nagpal, Sara Carolina Scremin Souza, Rachel C. Colley, and Kristi Bree Adamo

Background: The authors examined whether or not ≤3 days wearing Actical® accelerometers provided acceptable results in comparison with the recommendation of ≥4 days in women across gestation. Methods: A total of 26, 76, and 57 participants at early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively, were assessed. Participants were instructed to wear the device for 7 days and women who wore it for ≥4 days were included. For each participant, 3, 2, and 1 day(s) were randomly selected. Paired comparisons, intraclass correlations coefficients, and kappa statistics were performed for ≥4 days (criterion) versus 3, 2, and 1 day(s). Averages (in minutes per day) of sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) and steps per day were examined. Results: When 3 valid days were compared with the criterion, no significant differences were found for any gestational period. The intraclass correlations coefficients were “high” for all PA-related variables. The k values varied from .819 to .838 across pregnancy (“strong”). Two and 1 valid day(s) versus the criterion showed significant differences in some PA intensities, reduced intraclass correlations coefficients, “moderate” k values for 2 valid days (.638–.788) and “minimal-to-moderate” k values for 1 valid day (.367–.755). Conclusion: In pregnant women during early, mid, and late pregnancy, PA data obtained from 3 valid days of wear was equivalent and agreed with ≥4 valid days.

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Laura Prieto, Michael L. Norris, and Luis Columna

The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of people with Parkinson’s (PwP) and their care partners (CPs) who participated in a Parkinson’s-focused community dance class in a northeastern state of the United States. In this qualitative inquiry, participants included five PwP and their respective CPs (n = 5). Three major, recurrent, and interrelated themes emerged from the data. These themes were (a) keep moving, (b) compassion in action, and (c) acceptance and freedom in dance. These themes captured personal and environmental factors that influenced the participation of PwP and their CPs in a dance class and how they perceived that dance influenced their quality of life. The themes described the obstacles, motives, and perceived outcomes of participating in dance. The findings emphasize the need for future dance interventions and programs that consider the CPs’ role in promoting participation for PwP in dance classes.

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Kyoungyoun Park-Braswell, Sandra J. Shultz, and Randy J. Schmitz

Context: Greater anterior knee laxity (AKL) is associated with impaired sensory input and decreased functional knee stability. As functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for understanding brain function, methods to load the anterior cruciate ligament in the MRI environment could further our understanding of the ligament’s sensory role in knee joint stability. Objective: To design and validate an MRI-compatible anterior knee joint loading device. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University laboratory study. Participants: Sixteen healthy and physically active females participated (age = 23.4 [3.7] y; mass = 64.4 [8.4] kg). Interventions: The AKL was assessed by a commercially available arthrometer. The AKL was also assessed with a custom-made, MRI-compatible device that produced anterior knee joint loading in a manner similar to the commercial arthrometer while obtaining dynamic structural MRI data. Main Outcome Measurements: The AKL (in millimeters) at 133 N of loading was assessed with the commercial knee arthrometer. Anterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur obtained at 133 N of loading was measured from dynamic MRI data obtained during usage of the custom device. Pearson correlations were used to examine relationships between the 2 measures. The 95% limits of agreement compared the absolute differences between the 2 devices. Results: There was a 3.2-mm systematic difference between AKL (6.3 [1.6] mm) and anterior tibial translation (3.2 [1.0] mm) measures. There was a significant positive correlation between values obtained from the commercial arthrometer and the MRI-compatible device values (r = .553, P = .026). Conclusions: While systematic differences were observed, the MRI-compatible anterior knee joint loading device anteriorly translated the tibia relative to the femur in a similar manner to a commercial arthrometer design to stress the anterior cruciate ligament. Such a device may be beneficial in future functional magnetic resonance imaging study of anterior cruciate ligament mechanoreception.

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Elnaz Emadirad, Brad W.N. Temple, Stephanie C. Field, Patti-Jean Naylor, and Viviene A. Temple

Background: Beyond the often examined perceptions of competence and motor skill proficiency, perceived value and children’s expectations for success are thought to affect engagement in physical activities. We used parallel mediation models to examine the direct effect of motor skill proficiency on participation in physical activities, as well as whether children’s beliefs and value for physical activities mediated this relationship. Methods: The participants in this cross-sectional study were a total of 398 grade 3 children (201 girls) from 8 schools. Motor skills were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the Value Expectancy Questionnaire measured the psychological variables, and the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment measured physical activities. Results: Motor skill proficiency predicted all 3 psychological constructs for the boys and the girls, and boys’ participation in physical activities. However, the psychological variables did not mediate the relationship between motor skills and participation among the boys. For the girls, task value mediated the relationship between motor skills and physical activity participation. Conclusion: It is possible that the girls are further along in their ability to reflect on their competence, successes, and failures; it is also possible that the lower motor skill levels of girls had a deleterious effect on their feelings about participating.

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Adesola C. Odole, Olawale T. Agbomeji, Ogochukwu K.K. Onyeso, Joshua O. Ojo, and Nse A. Odunaiya

Background: Athletes’ perceptions toward physiotherapy services have an impact on their general attitude toward these services and their willingness to work together with physiotherapists for rehabilitation. The study investigated athletes’ perspectives of physiotherapy services in sports injury management. Methods: A mixed-study design of a cross-sectional survey that involved 178 conveniently sampled athletes and an explanatory qualitative study (8 purposively-selected athletes) was used. The authors assessed the participants’ knowledge and perception of physiotherapy services using the modified versions of the Athletes’ Level of Knowledge Questionnaire, Matsuno Athletes Perception Scale, and focus group discussion. The data were analyzed using chi-square, Spearman correlation at P ≤ .05, and deductive reasoning thematic analysis. Results: The age of the participants for the cross-sectional survey (131 men and 47 women) was 22.50 (7.51) years. Our results showed that the majority (91.6%) of them had adequate knowledge and (78.7%) positive perception about the role physiotherapists play in sports injury management. The participants’ knowledge of physiotherapy services had a significantly positive correlation with age (ρ = .12; P = .01), sporting years (ρ = .17; P = .02), and duration in sports council (ρ = .19; P = .01), while their perception showed a negative correlation with age (ρ = −.15; P = .05), sporting years (ρ = −.16; P = .03), and duration in sports council (ρ = −.08; P = .02). However, no significant correlation existed between the participants’ knowledge; perception and level of education; level of competition; type of sport; and type, nature, and severity of sport injury. Seven themes were generated from the focus group discussion. Conclusion: The participants reported adequate knowledge and a positive perception of physiotherapy services. The correlates of participants’ knowledge and perception of physiotherapy services are age, sporting years, and duration in the sports council. From the qualitative component of the study, the authors identified the need to provide more physiotherapy services to athletes and more facilities for physiotherapy services.

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Luca Cavaggioni, Athos Trecroci, Damiano Formenti, Luke Hogarth, Massimiliano Tosin, and Giampietro Alberti

The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in breathing pattern, trunk muscle stabilization, and upper-body muscular power in Paralympic swimmers throughout a competitive season over three time points: October (T1), March (T2), and August (T3). Six top-level Paralympic swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. The Friedman test, the Bonferroni–Dunn multiple comparison post hoc analysis, and Kendall’s W concordance coefficient for the measure of effect were used. A significant difference was found in the breathing pattern, trunk stability, and upper-body power variables from the T1 to T3 season (p < .05). However, no significant changes were found in the T2 season. A long-term assessment of these fitness parameters may be of practical importance for better tailoring the training programs of top-level Paralympic swimmers.

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Gopal Nambi, Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, Saud F. Alsubaie, Ayman K. Saleh, Anju Verma, Mohamed A. Abdelaziz, and Abdulaziz A. Alkathiry

Objective: To find the short-term psychological and hormonal effects of virtual reality training on chronic low back pain in American soccer players. Design, Setting, Participants: The 3-block random sampling method was used on 54 university American soccer players with chronic low back pain, and they were allocated into 3 groups: virtual reality training (VRT; n = 18), combined physical rehabilitation (n = 18), and control (n = 18) groups at University Hospital. They underwent different balance training exercises for 4 weeks. The participants and the therapist who is assessing the outcomes were blinded. Psychological (pain intensity and kinesiophobia) and hormonal (glucose, insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol) values were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks, and after 6 months. Results: The baseline demographic, psychological, and hormonal data between the VRT, combined physical rehabilitation, and control groups show no statistical difference (P ≥ .05). Four weeks following training, the VRT group shows more significant changes in pain intensity and kinesiophobia than the combined physical rehabilitation and control groups (P < .001), and the improvement was noted in the 6-month follow-up. All the hormonal variables (glucose, insulin, growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol) show significant changes at 4-week training (P < .001), except for the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (P = .075) between the 3 groups. At 6-month follow-up glucose, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol show more significant difference in the VRT group than the other 2 groups (P < .001). At the same time, insulin (P = .694), Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (P = .272), and growth hormone (P = .145) failed to show significant changes between the groups. Conclusion: Training through virtual reality is an effective treatment program when compared with conventional exercise training programs from a psychological and hormonal analysis perspective in American soccer players with chronic low back pain.

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Rachel K. Straub, Adam J. Barrack, Jordan Cannon, and Christopher M. Powers

Context: A limitation of previous studies on squatting mechanics is that the influence of trunk and shank inclination on the knee-extensor moment (KEM) has been studied in isolation. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of segment orientation on the KEM during freestanding barbell squatting. Design: Repeated-measures cross sectional. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Sixteen healthy individuals (8 males and 8 females). Intervention: Each participant performed 8 squat conditions in which shank and trunk inclinations were manipulated. Main Outcome Measures: 3D kinematic and kinetic data were collected at 250 and 1500 Hz, respectively. Regression analysis was conducted to identify the individual relationships between the KEM and the trunk and shank inclination at 60° and 90° of knee flexion. To identify the best predictor(s) of the KEM, stepwise regression was implemented. Results: Increased shank inclination increased the KEM (P < .001, R 2 = .21–.25). Conversely, increased trunk inclination decreased the KEM (P < .001, R 2 = .49–.50). For the stepwise regression, trunk inclination entered first and explained the greatest variance in the KEM (all P < .001, R 2 = .49–.50). Shank inclination entered second (all P < .010, R 2 = .53–.54) and explained an additional 3% to 5% of the variance. Conclusions: Our results confirm that inclination of the trunk and shank have an opposing relationship with the KEM. Increased forward shank posture increases the KEM, while increased forward trunk posture decreases the KEM. However, when viewed in combination, the trunk was the superior predictor of the KEM, highlighting the fact that increased quadriceps demand created by a forward shank can be offset by trunk inclination.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Shelby E. Ison, and Chad M. Killian

Purpose: To examine the workplace experience of physical education teacher educators while accounting for gender and institution type. Method: Participants included 286 U.S. faculty members (151 females and 135 males). Data were collected using an online survey that included measures of negative (i.e., marginalization, isolation, role stress, emotional exhaustion) and positive (i.e., perceived mattering, perceived organizational support) workplace experiences. Primary analyses began with a multivariate analysis of covariance followed up by univariate analyses of covariance to examine the differences in study variables based on gender and institution type. Results: Doctoral institution faculty members reported higher marginalization and lower perceived mattering and organizational support. Female faculty members reported higher role overload and emotional exhaustion. Discussion: Results highlight differences in the faculty experience across institution types as well as gender disparities. Recommendations are provided for improving the faculty experience as well as for future research in the area.

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Guan-Bo Chen, Che-Wei Lin, Hung-Ya Huang, Yi-Jhen Wu, Hung-Tzu Su, Shu-Fen Sun, and Sheng-Hui Tuan

Because of a shortage of health care providers, providing rehabilitation in health care facilities is difficult. Virtual reality–based rehabilitation is effective in older populations. There are only a few studies among patients with sarcopenia. This is a quasi-experimental, single-group, pretest–posttest design evaluating the clinical effectiveness of virtual reality–based progressive resistance training among residents aged over 60 years with sarcopenia in rural care facilities. The authors used Oculus Rift with headsets to provide the virtual reality–based progressive resistance training. The authors administered the program twice per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes were dominant handgrip strength, walking speed, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index. Data from 30 participants were analyzed. Significant improvements in handgrip strength and walking speed were observed. Although an increasing trend in appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was observed, it did not reach statistical significance. The authors concluded that the virtual reality–based progressive resistance training is partially effective in older sarcopenic adults in health care facilities.