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Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi and Popi Sotiriadou

Many Nations are increasingly investing public money in elite sport on the belief that this will trigger a range of benefits for the population. However, there is lack of insight into how the population perceives elite sport’s impact on society. This study developed and tested a measurement scale assessing the publics’ beliefs of the positive and negative societal impacts that could potentially flow from elite sport. A sample of the Belgian population (N = 1,102) was surveyed. A 32-item scale was built using principal component and confirmatory factor analysis procedures for which the goodness-of-fit indices were excellent. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Belgian population perceived elite sport to have mostly positive societal impacts. The study findings can serve researchers wanting to measure the perceived potential positive and negative societal impacts of elite sport.

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Jared A. Russell, Sheri Brock and Mary E. Rudisill

Bias, an automatic—usually unconscious and unintentional—inclination, preference, or favoring of an individual or group over another, is an inherent aspect of an individual’s academic leadership and decision-making processes. Bias alone is not a detriment to building an inclusive and supportive environment for faculty. However, oftentimes an academic unit leader’s biases result in the justification, rationalization, and facilitation of exclusionary processes and practices toward faculty, particularly those from diverse and underrepresented backgrounds. This article discusses the impact of bias, specifically implicit bias, on academic leadership. Moreover, the impact of a leader’s biases toward diversity attributes (e.g., gender, sexual orientation/affinity, age, ethnicity, race) of faculty are highlighted. Specifically, key areas of academic leadership are explored: faculty recruitment (hiring), retention (evaluation), and advancement (promotion and tenure). Recommendations, promising practices, and strategies for minimizing the impact of implicit bias are provided.

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Terry L. Rizzo, Penny McCullagh and Donna Pastore

This paper offers direction and guidance to help departments develop fair and equitable search, evaluation, and retention strategies for their faculty. Included is how to attract a diverse candidate pool and successfully recruit diverse candidates. In addition, the paper provides guidelines about evaluating faculty members, emphasizing the need for formative evaluation that offers faculty ample opportunities, resources, and support systems for improving their performance before any summative evaluations administered by a department or college. Finally, the paper presents retention stratagems as guidelines to help departments support and retain their high-quality faculty members. Achieving the goals of recruitment, retention, and advancement requires the involvement and leadership of university officers, school deans, department chairs/heads, and faculty.

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Shelley Lucas

The Red Zinger Bicycle Classic, later renamed the Coors International Bicycle Classic, is renowned for its influence on the development of men’s and women’s cycle racing in the United States. Recent efforts to create a United States Cycling Monument in Boulder, Colorado, centered on commemorating what is commonly referred to as the Coors Classic. I use the proposed monument as a starting point for exploring how the Coors Classic is being remembered, particularly with respect to the women’s competition. Where do women cyclists and their contests fit into the commemoration of this race? My analysis illuminates gendered aspects of this race and what I refer to as re-cycled narratives. I conclude with a concern about the impact of re-cycled narratives on present-day women’s cycling and consider historian Beverly Southgate’s call for thinking about histories for the future.

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Jean-François Loudcher

La soule, aussi dénommée choule, sole ou chole selon les lieux et les époques en France, peut être assimilée à un jeu d’affrontement rural déployant une certaine « violence » entre deux groupes d’individus. Il s’agit de porter une « balle », par presque tous les moyens, dans une grange, un étang ou, plus généralement, dans un lieu désigné à l’avance. Le jeu se déroule alors à certains jours « marqués » (dimanche, Pâques, Noël…). Toutefois, il décline entre le XVIIIe et le XIXe siècle alors qu’il était fortement pratiqué dans certaines régions au point de s’éteindre presque complètement. Par contre, il continue à être pratiqué outre-Manche et, de surcroît, ouvre sur le rugby et le football. Pourquoi cette pratique traditionnelle ne s’est-elle pas sportivisée en France? Á partir de l’étude d’un certain nombre de sources originales, bien que rares et éparses, il est possible d’avancer l’idée que ce jeu, malgré certaines diversités locales, ne s’est pas « sportivisée » dans ce pays parce qu’une forme particulière de pratique s’est répandue développant des caractéristiques peu favorables à une transformation « sportive ». Dès lors, et par comparaison avec sa consœur britannique, quelques raisons spécifiques au contexte français d’ordre géo-politique, social et culturel limitant les modifications d’une telle pratique sont avancées.

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Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze

Multilevel examinations of sport policy institutionalization are scarce in sport management scholarship. As sport policies diffuse across geographic boundaries, there is often variation in the timing of adoption. In this study, the authors used event history analysis to examine the effect of institutional factors, within and between states, on the speed of youth sport concussion legislation adoption. Our quantitative analyses show that a series of intrastate factors—state norms, disruptive events, and local advocacy—had a significant influence on the timing of state policy adoption, but interstate social networks did not. Supporting qualitative data provide additional insight about the relationship between disruptive events and local advocacy in the adoption of concussion legislation. This study contributes to a better understanding of institutional factors in the diffusion of sport policy across geographic boundaries and offers an approach for future research examining variation in sport policy or practice adoption.

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John Wong and Scott R. Jedlicka

In 1966, the National Hockey League (NHL) expanded for the first time since the 1920s, doubling its size from six teams to twelve. Although hockey was still perceived as a distinctly Canadian passion, none of the NHL’s six new teams were located in Canada. The disappointment across the country was palpable, especially in Canada’s third-largest city, Vancouver, which had applied to be one of the expansion locations. A stable presence in minor league hockey on Canada’s west coast for decades, it seemed only natural that Vancouver, as the lone bidder from the ostensible birthplace of ice hockey, would be tapped for NHL expansion. This paper examines Vancouver’s attempted entry into the NHL and argues that the forces of commercialism and national identity, combined with political maneuvering among NHL owners, not only influenced the content and trajectory of the Vancouver bid, but also contributed to its ultimate failure.

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M. Ann Hall

During the nineteenth century in North America, a small group of working-class women turned to sport to earn a living. Among them were circus performers, race walkers, wrestlers, boxers, shooters, swimmers, baseball players, and bicycle racers. Through their athleticism, these women contested and challenged the prevailing gender norms, and at the same time expanded notions about Victorian women’s capabilities and appropriate work. This article focuses on one of these professional sports, namely high-wheel bicycle racing. Bicycle historians have mostly dismissed women’s racing during the brief high-wheel era of the 1880s as little more than sensational entertainment, and have not fully understood its importance. I hope to change these perceptions by providing evidence that female high-wheel racers in the United States, who often began as pedestriennes (race walkers), were superb athletes competing in an exciting, well-attended, and profitable sport.