Traditional physical activity tracking tools, such as self-report questionnaires, are inherently subjective and vulnerable to bias. Physical activity tracking technology, such as activity tracking wristbands, is becoming more reliable and readily available. As such, researchers are employing these objective measurement tools in both observational- and intervention-based studies. There remains a gap in the literature on how to properly select activity tracking wristbands for research, specifically for the older adult population. This paper outlines considerations for choosing the most appropriate wrist-worn wearable device for use in research with older adults. Device features, outcome measures, population, and methodological considerations are explored.
Alanna Weisberg, Alexandre Monte Campelo, Tanzeel Bhaidani and Larry Katz
Sascha Ketelhut, Sebastian R. Ketelhut and Kerstin Ketelhut
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based exercise intervention on endurance performance (EP), blood pressure (BP), and arterial stiffness in children. Methods: A total of 105 students (mean age = 8.2 [0.6] y; 51% girls; body mass index = 17.8 [3.0] kg/m2) were randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 51) and control group (CG, n = 54). During a 37-week experimental period, the IG received an exercise intervention (2 × 45 min/wk) in addition to their regular school physical education class (3 × 45 min/wk). EP, peripheral and central BP, pulse pressure, augmentation pressure, augmentation index, and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed. Results: Following the intervention, significant changes (P < .05) in EP, peripheral and central systolic BP, pulse pressure, augmentation pressure, augmentation index, and aortic pulse wave velocity were found in the IG. Children in the CG displayed significant changes in peripheral and central diastolic BP. An analysis of the baseline-to-post changes revealed significant between-group differences in EP (P < .001), pulse pressure (P = .028), augmentation pressure (P = .007), and aortic pulse wave velocity (P = .037) that favored the IG and in peripheral and central diastolic BP that favored the CG. Conclusion: The school-based exercise intervention had beneficial effects not only on EP but also on different hemodynamic parameters.
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla and Amador García-Ramos
Objective: To compare the short-term effect of power- and strength-oriented resistance-training programs on the individualized load–velocity profiles obtained during the squat (SQ) and bench-press (BP) exercises. Methods: Thirty physically active men (age = 23.4 [3.5] y; SQ 1-repetition maximum [1RM] = 126.5 [26.7] kg; BP 1RM = 81.6 [16.7] kg) were randomly assigned to a power- (exercises: countermovement jump and BP throw; sets per exercise: 4–6; repetitions per set: 5–6; load: 40% 1RM) or strength-training group (exercises: SQ and BP; sets per exercise: 4–6; repetitions per set: 2–8; load: 70%–90% 1RM). The training program lasted 4 wk (2 sessions/wk). The individualized load–velocity profiles (ie, velocity associated with the 30%–60%–90% 1RM) were assessed before and after training through an incremental loading test during the SQ and BP exercises. Results: The power-training group moderately increased the velocity associated with the full spectrum of % 1RM for the SQ (effect size [ES] range: 0.70 to 0.93) and with the 30% 1RM for the BP (ES: 0.67), while the strength-training group reported trivial/small changes across the load–velocity spectrum for both the SQ (ES range: 0.00 to 0.35) and BP (ES range: −0.06 to −0.33). The power-training group showed a higher increase in the mean velocity associated with all % 1RM compared with the strength-training group for both the SQ (ES range: 0.54 to 0.63) and BP (ES range: 0.25 to 0.53). Conclusions: The individualized load–velocity profile (ie, velocity associated with different % 1RM) of lower-body and upper-body exercises can be modified after a 4-wk resistance-training program.
Roland van den Tillaar, Erna von Heimburg and Guro Strøm Solli
Purpose: To compare the assessment of the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in a traditional graded exercise test (GXT) with a 1-km self-paced running test on a nonmotorized treadmill in men and women. Methods: A total of 24 sport-science students (12 women: age 23.7 [7.7] y, body height 1.68 [0.02] m, body mass 66.6 [4.3] kg; 12 men: 22.1 [3.1] y, body height 1.82 [0.06] m, body mass 75.6 [11.0] kg) performed a traditional GXT on a motorized treadmill and a 1-km self-paced running test on a nonmotorized treadmill. VO2max, blood lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion, together with running velocity and duration at each test, were measured. Results: The main findings of the study were that the 1-km test produced significantly higher VO2max values (53.2 [9.9] vs 51.8 [8.8] mL/kg/min ) and blood lactate concentrations (11.9 [1.8] vs 11.1 [2.2] mmol/L) than the GXT (F ≥ 4.8, P ≤ .04, η 2 ≥ .18). However, after controlling for sex, these differences were only present in men (60.6 [8.1] vs 58.1 [8.0] mL/kg/min , P = .027). Peak running velocity was higher in the GXT than in the 1-km test (15.7 [2.7] vs 13.0 [2.8] km/h). Men had higher VO2max values and running velocities than women in both tests. However, men and women used approximately similar pacing strategies during the 1-km test. Conclusions: Higher VO2max values were observed in a 1-km self-paced test than in the GXT. This indicates that a 1-km running test performed on a nonmotorized treadmill could serve as a simple and sport-specific alternative for the assessment of VO2max.
Rafael Gnat, Agata Dziewońska, Maciej Biały and Martyna Wieczorek
Low back pain constitutes a multidimensional problem of largely unknown origin. One of the recent theories explaining its frequent occurrence includes speculative statements on patterns of central nervous system activity associated with the control of so-called local and global muscles of the lower trunk. The objective of the study was to verify whether there is a difference in the activity of the brain during selective, voluntary contraction of the local and global abdominal muscles as assessed by functional MRI. Twenty healthy subjects participated. An experimental design was applied with repeated measurements of the blood-oxygen-level–dependent signal from the brain during voluntary contraction of the local and global abdominal muscles, performed in random order. Prior to registration, a 2-week training period was introduced, aiming to master the experimental motor tasks. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed using the FMRIB Software Library (Oxford, UK). Brain areas showing significant activations/deactivations were identified and averaged across all participants, and intercondition differential maps were computed. Areas of significant intercondition differences were linked to the corresponding anatomical structures and ascribed to the default mode functional brain network and to the sensorimotor network. Contraction of the local abdominal muscles elicited more pronounced activity of the brain cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. This suggests that motor control of the abdominal musculature consists of two modes of brain activity and that control of the local muscles may be a more challenging task for the brain. Moreover, contraction of the local muscles elicited more distinct deactivation of the default mode network, which may have implications for diagnostics and therapy of low back pain.
Adam E. Jagodinsky, Rebecca Angles, Christopher Wilburn and Wendi H. Weimar
Current theoretical models suggest that ankle sprain copers exhibit movement adaptations contributing to the avoidance of chronic ankle instability. However, few studies have examined adaptations at the level of biomechanical motor synergies. The purpose was to examine characteristics of the support moment synergy between individuals with chronic ankle instability, copers, and healthy individuals. A total of 48 individuals participated in the study. Lower-extremity kinetics and variability in the moment of force patterns were assessed during the stance phase of walking trials. The copers exhibited reductions in the support moment during the load response and preswing phase compared with the chronic ankle instability group, as well as during the terminal stance and preswing phase compared the healthy group. The copers also exhibited reductions in the hip extensor moment and ankle plantarflexion moment compared with healthy and chronic ankle instability groups during intervals of stance phase. Variability of the support moment and knee moment was greater in the copers compared with the chronic ankle instability group. Dampening of the support moment and select joint moments exhibited by the copers may indicate an adaptive mechanism to mitigate loading perturbations on the previously injured ankle. Heightened motor variability in copers may be indicative of a more adaptable motor synergy compared with individuals with chronic ankle instability.
David C. Nieman, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Andrew T. Hoyle, Andrew Simonson and Giuseppe Valacchi
Inflammasomes are multiprotein signaling platforms of the innate immune system that detect markers of physiological stress and promote the maturation of caspase-1 and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-18, and gasdermin D. This randomized, cross-over trial investigated the influence of 2-week mixed flavonoid (FLAV) versus placebo (PL) supplementation on inflammasome activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production after 75-km cycling in 22 cyclists (42 ± 1.7 years). Blood samples were collected before and after the 2-week supplementation, and then 0 hr, 1.5 hr, and 21 hr postexercise (176 ± 5.4 min, 73.4 ± 2.0 %VO2max). The supplement (678 mg FLAVs) included quercetin, green tea catechins, and bilberry anthocyanins. The pattern of change in the plasma levels of the inflammasome adaptor oligomer ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase recruitment domain) was different between the FLAV and PL trials, with the FLAV ASC levels 52% lower (Cohen’s d = 1.06) than PL immediately following 75-km cycling (interaction effect, p = .012). The plasma IL-1β levels in FLAV were significantly lower than PL (23–42%; Cohen’s d = 0.293–0.644) throughout 21 hr of recovery (interaction effect, p = .004). The change in plasma gasdermin D levels were lower immediately postexercise in FLAV versus PL (15% contrast, p = .023; Cohen’s d = 0.450). The patterns of change in plasma IL-18 and IL-37 did not differ between the FLAV and PL trials (interaction effects, p = .388, .716, respectively). These data indicate that 2-week FLAV ingestion mitigated inflammasome activation, with a corresponding decrease in IL-1β release in cyclists after a 75-km cycling time trial. The data from this study support the strategy of ingesting high amounts of FLAV to mitigate postexercise inflammation.
Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga
Purpose: The behavior of an opponent has been shown to alter pacing and performance. To advance our understanding of the impact of perceptual stimuli such as an opponent on pacing and performance, this study examined the effect of a preexercise cycling protocol on exercise regulation with and without an opponent. Methods: Twelve trained cyclists performed 4 experimental, self-paced 4-km time-trial conditions on an advanced cycle ergometer in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Participants started the time trial in rested state (RS) or performed a 10-min cycling protocol at 67% peak power output (CP) before the time trial. During the time trials, participants had to ride alone (NO) or against a virtual opponent (OP). The experimental conditions were (1) RS-NO, (2) RS-OP, (3) CP-NO, and (4) CP-OP. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (P < .05) were used to examine differences in pacing and performance in terms of power output. Results: A faster pace was adopted in the first kilometer during RS-OP (318  W) compared with RS-NO (291  W; P = .03), leading to an improved finishing time during RS-OP compared with RS-NO (P = .046). No differences in either pacing or performance were found between CP-NO and CP-OP. Conclusions: The evoked response by the opponent to adopt a faster initial pace in the 4-km time trial disappeared when cyclists had to perform a preceding cycling protocol. The outcomes of this study highlight that perceived exertion alters the responsiveness to perceptual stimuli of cyclists during competition.
Ben Langley, Nick Knight and Stewart C. Morrison
Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common running-related injury. Alterations in movement patterns and movement coordination patterns have been linked to the development of overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare transverse plane tibial and frontal plane rearfoot motion and the coordination of these movements between runners with MTSS and healthy controls. A total of 10 recreational runners with MTSS and 10 healthy controls ran at 11 km/h on a treadmill. A 3-camera motion analysis system operating at 200 Hz was used to calculate tibia and rearfoot motion. Stance phase motion patterns were compared between groups using multivariate analysis, specifically, Hotelling T 2 test with statistical parametric mapping. A modified vector coding technique was used to classify the coordination of transverse plane tibial and frontal plane rearfoot motion. The frequency of each coordination pattern displayed by each group was compared using independent samples t tests. Individuals with MTSS displayed significantly (P = .037, d = 1.00) more antiphase coordination (tibial internal rotation with rearfoot inversion) despite no significant (P > .05) differences in stance phase kinematics. The increased antiphase movement may increase the torsional stress placed upon the medial aspect of the tibia, contributing to the development of MTSS.
Ryan Zerega, Carolyn Killelea, Justin Losciale, Mallory Faherty and Timothy Sell
Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remains extremely common, with over 250,000 injuries annually. Currently, clinical tests have poor utility to accurately screen for ACL injury risk in athletes. In this study, the position of a knee marker was tracked in 2-dimensional planes to predict biomechanical variables associated with ACL injury risk. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected during bilateral, single-leg stop-jump tasks for 44 healthy male military personnel. Knee marker position data were extracted to construct 2-dimensional 95% prediction ellipses in each anatomical plane. Knee marker variables included: ellipse areas, major/minor axes lengths, orientation of ellipse axes, absolute ranges of knee position, and medial knee collapse. These variables were then used as predictor variables in stepwise multiple linear regression analyses for 7 biomechanical variables associated with ACL injury risk. Knee flexion excursion, normalized peak vertical ground reaction forces, and knee flexion angle at initial contact were the response variables that generated the highest adjusted R 2 values: .71, .37, and .31, respectively. The results of this study provide initial support for the hypothesis that tracking a single marker during 2-dimensional analysis can accurately reflect the information gathered from 3-dimensional motion analysis during a task assessing knee joint stability.